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Connecticut Quarterly 

^Vu Illustrated ^tuQuzinz 






Vol. II 


Hartford, Conn. 

Copyright, 1895, by The Connecticut Quarterly Company 
and 1896, by Geo. C. Atwell 

Contents of Volume II 

January — December, 1896. 


Ancient Lavas of Connecticut, The. Illustrated. W. H. C. Pynchon 309 

Axe and How it is Made, The. Illustrated by G. A. Reckard. Albert L. Thayer 141 

Bacon Academy. Illustrated. Israel Foote Loomis 121 

Canaan. Illustrated by Marie H. Kendall. Mary Geikie Adam 105 

Connecticut at the Atlanta Exposition. Illustrated. J. H. Vaill 343 

Early Lebanon. Illustrated. Mary Clark Huntington 247 

Edward Sheffield Bartholomew. Illustrated. Susan Underwood Crane 203 

Enfield. Illustrated. C. Terry Knight 359 

Frontispieces — At Reservoir Park, West Hartford 2 

Falls of the Tunxis, The 104 

Meriden Reservoir 308 

Sappho. From a statue by E. S. Bartholomew 202 

Glastonbury Sketches. Illustrated. Henry Storrs Goslee 259, 333 

Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, The. Illustrated. Ellen Strong Bartlett 272 

In the days of Old Father George and High Betty Martin. Estelle M. Hart 52 

In Satan's Kingdom. Illustrated. Mrs. Wm. Edgar Simonds 231, 320 

Jacob Hemingway: The First Student of Yale College. Edwin Stanley Wells 178 

Litchfield. Illustrated. Dwight C. Kilbourne 215 

Memories of Meriden. Illustrated. Frances A. Breckenridge : , 67 

Mystery Solved, A. (A tale of Bristol?) Milo Leon Norton 59 

New Britain in the Days of Revolution. Illustrated. Mrs. C. J. Parker 72 

New Connecticut or Western Reserve, I. Beginnings. Illustrated. Ellen D. Larned 386 

New Haven Harbor. Illustrated. Charles Hervey Townshend 161 

Notes by an Ohio Pioneer, 1788-89. Edited by Ellen D. Larned 244 

Old-Time Music and Musicians, V. Illustrated. N. H. Allen 54, 158 

Panthorn Romance, A. Illustrated. Jessica Wolcott Allen 171 

Picturesque Pomfret. Illustrated. John Addison Porter 3 

Reservoir Park, West Hartford. Illustrated. James Shepard 43 

Riverside Cemetery, Middletown, The. Illustrated. Alice Gray Southmayd Derby 375 

Some of New Haven's Colonial Houses. Illustrated. Harry H. Palmer 90 

Stuart in Exile, A. Ellen D. Larned, 167 

Teamster Boy in the Revolution, A. Edited by Ellen D. Larned 50 

Trio and Tripod, V. In Burlington and Bristol. Illustrated. George H. Carrington 85 

Typographical Galaxy, A. Illustrated. Marcus A. Casey 25 


Benighted. Delia B. Ward ; 332 

Bride Stealing. Emma Hart Willard 81 

Chrysalis. Julia Merrell 374 

Day Dreams. Elizabeth Alden Curtis 152 

Falls of the Tunxis. Illustrated by K. T. Sheldon. L. W. Case 159 

Forest Walk, A. Illustrated by D. F. Wentworth. Alfred B. Street 268 

From the Grass. Anna J. Granniss 229 

Love and Fame. Sophia B. Eaton 177 

October. Elizabeth Alden Curtis 359 

Old Brown Mill, The. Illustrated. Louis E. Thayer 119 

Old Red Schoolhouse, The. A. H. Simons 140 

Rock Bound. Anna J. Grannis 49 

Stonington. Illustrated. Ann Hurlburt 66 

Sunset Hour, The. Sophia B. Eaton 243 

Yearnings. Elizabeth Alden Curtis 214 


Historical Notes 98, 182, 284 

From the Societies 101, 184, 291 

Genealogical Department 102, 193, 288, 396 ■ 

Vol.. II. January, February, March, 1896. No. i 

50 cts. a Year. 


15 cts. a Copy. 

The 19th Century Marvel 


lies in providing something new and attractive to 
make it an everlasting pleasure. 

Zbe S^mpbon^ 

is a musical educator and entertainer for the whole 
family. A child four years old can operate it and 
produce an endless variety of music to suit all 
classes and ages. The latest popular airs of the 
day, the works of the great masters, all can be ren- 
dered without the slightest knowledge of music. 

New York Parlors, 
123 5th Ave. 
Philadelphia, Pa., 
1308 Chestnut St. 




Chicago, 111., 

W. W. Kimball. 
Boston, Mass., 
Oliver Ditson Co. 


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©ne ©pinion 

A prominent Boston publisher 
said recently : "Of all the ad- 
vertising journals printed (and 
I see them all), there is none 
which I enjoy reading so much 
as I do Profitable Advertising. 
It is, to my mind, the best one 
printed — the neatest, cleanest, 
most readable. I get valuable 
suggestions from it. It is. worth 
many times its cost to me." 


is the advertisers' trade journal. 
The only one published in New 


Every publisher, agent and ad-writer should 
have his announcement in its columns. 
Every man who spends a dollar in advertising 
should subscribe for it. 
Subscription price, $1.00 per year. 


Editor and Publisher. 


13 School St., BOSTON, MASS 

iN, MASS. J 

The Philadelphia, Reading and 
New England R. R 


»» Wester^ ^raV el. 

fHE TRAIN leaving Hartford at 12.30 P. M. 
makes direct connection at the west ter- 
mini of the line, at Campbell Hall, with 
fast expresses on the Ontario and Western and 
Erie roads. Tickets via this route are sold at 
from $1.00 to $3.00 less than via other routes, 
and passengers arrive at Chicago via this line the 
following day at 9 P. M., being only one night on 
the road. Pullman sleepers and reclining chair 
cars from Campbell Hall. 


The route, starting at Hartford, runs due west 
to the Hudson River at Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; at 
this point they cross the great Poughkeepsie 
Bridge, largest in the United States, thence 
through the celebrated fruit and farming section 
of Ulster and Orange counties for thirty miles to 
Campbell Hall, N. Y., where direct connection is made with fast through express trains for the west. 
The region traveled abounds in the picturesque mountains, lakes and valleys. From the time the train 
leaves Hartford until the travelers change cars at the western terminal, two superb panoramas of varied 
beauty are unrolled on either side of the embarrassed traveler, who is thus afflicted with the unusual 
annoyance of having just twice as much as he can profitably enjoy. To those who have never traveled 
through Western Connecticut, the railroad ride will prove very interesting. The Litchfield Hills and 
Southern Berkshire, through which the road passes, are noted for their picturesque beauty. 

For information, apply to W. J. MARTIN, General Passenger Agent, 


yjf- FRUIT 

P ^ 


Victor Bicycle 















During 1896 

■«* : W 


M Stuart in exile 









For Ok Quarterlp 

C3II33II — By Mrs. Mary Geikie Adam, than whom no one is 
===== better fitted for this work. Being thoroughly ac- 
quainted with her subject, and coming from a highly literary family, — 
one of them being the Rev. Cunningham Geikie, author of " The Life 
of Christ," — she writes in a charming style. 

This article will be illustrated by numerous exquisite photographs 
made by Mrs. Marie H. Kendall, whose beautiful illustrations for the 
Norfolk article won the praise they so well deserved. This lady is 
well known as one of the best view photographers in Connecticut. 

CIk Axe and bom it 1$ l»a<k 

By Albert Lewis Thayer of CoIIinsville 




£itCl)fiCl(L~ ^ SerieS °* artic ^ es on tkk beautiful and important 
===== historic town by Mr. D. C. Kilbourne, who is 
thoroughly versed with all of interest pertaining to the place. 

Jacob fiemingiDap, tbe First yak Student 

By The Rev. E. Stanley Welles 


fl Pantborn Romance. - A taIe of Sou t hin ?°n * Revoiu- 

= tionary times, when that town 
belonged to Farmington. By Jessica Wolcott Allen. 

ifc ifc \h 

Besides the above we are arranging for a number of articles 


tbe new Raven Parte System, sS&^sk 1 Cbe Bacon Academy, Colchester, £» m ™* 

orate illustrated series on one of the most school in the state, and one of the most famous 

wonderful Park Systems in the Country. in this country, one hundred years ago. 

mining, »* 1 3f so be f?bS rr S5a < S i S.^ n Iffi emcM, Glastonbury, uictbmmid, *•£» 

which are intensely interesting and will be ous other important places will be represented, 

tnoroughly illustrated. and many other subjects will claim our atten'- 

Connecticut at tnc Atlanta exposition, , "v**-*"*™ 

we expect to have ready for an early issue. *««««*««««* 


CDe Connecticut Quarterlp. 

An Illustrated Magazine. 

Devoted to the Literature, History, and Picturesque 
Features of Connecticut. 



66 State Street, Courant Building, 

Hartford, Conn. 

Geo. C. Atwell, Managing Editor. 


Vol. II. 

January, February, March, 1896. 


Pomfret. Illustrated. ..... 

A Typographical Galaxy. Illustrated. . 
The Reservoir Park, West Hartford, . 

Illustrated with photographs by the author. 

Rock Bound. Poem. ..... 

A Teamster Boy in the Revolution, . 

Edited by Ellen D. Larned. 

In the Days of old Father George and High Betty Martin, 

Old Time Music and Musicians. 

A Mystery Solved. (A tale of Bristol.) . 

Stonington. Poem. Illustrated. .... 

Memories of Meriden. Illustrated. 

New Britain in the Days of the Revolution. Illustrated. 

Bride=Stealing. Poem. ..... 

Trio and Tripod. Y. In Burlington and Bristol. Illustrated. 
Some of New Haven's Colonial Houses. Illustrated. 


Editor's Table, 
Historical Notes, 
From the Societies, . 
Genealogical Department, 

John Addison Porter. 


Marcus A. Casey. 


James Shepard. 


Anna J. Grannis. 



Estelle M. Hart 


N. H. Allen. 


Milo Leon Norton. 


Ann Hurlburt. 


Frances A . Breckenridge 


Mrs. C.J. Parker. 


Emma Hart Willard. 


George H. Carrington. 


Harry H. Palmer. 






Copyright 1895 by The Connecticut Quarterly Co. {All rights reserved.^ 
Entered at the Post Office at Hartford. Conn., as mail matter of the second class. 







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The Connecticut Quarterly. 

Leave not your native land behind." — Thoreau. 


Vol. II. 

January, February, March, 1896. 




Sweet vale of Pomfret, 'tis to thee I offer now my poesy. 

" You must to Pomfret." 

King Richard II. 


(HATEVER may have been the decision of 
Richard's followers in regard to the historic 
Pontefract* of old England, certain it is that 
many a visitor has made his or her journey to 
the New England village of Pomfret, pleased 
for the time being and glad to return. The 
place is outside the circle of fully-fledged, fashionable water- 
ing-places represented by Newport, Bar Harbor, Lenox, and 
Tuxedo. Nor does it strive especially to establish a claim to 
recognition in the list of minor pleasure-resorts. Yet Pom- 
fret has charms of its own which are espoused by those who 
have the choice of what is best in rural life, either for visiting 
or settlement. 
Historically, Pomfret is an interesting study. It lies in one of the most pic- 
turesque regions in Connecticut, and about its past cluster not a few noteworthy 
incidents. The settlement of the town dates back to the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, when the pioneers came to Windham County, and the Indians 
still held possession of the land. The pathfinders who, in 1684, started New 
Roxbury,f now Woodstock, from Roxbury in the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 


(Copied from those of the 
Earl of Pomfret). 

* The English Pomfret is in Yorkshire, West Riding, on the River Aire. Its famous castle, the 
scene of royal festivities and tragedies, is now in ruins. 

f According to Drake's history of Roxbury the original burying ground there is one of the oldest in 
New England, the first interment having been made in it in 1633. "Here," says Drake, " since the 


and a part of whom, a few years later, came over into the Mashamoquet* 
country, or modern Pomfret, were people of good descent, f worthy charac- 
ter, and strong individuality, who left a favorable impress on succeeding 

As hardy tillers of the soil and earnest church members in the earliest times, 

patriotically in the French and Indian war and 
the Revolution, industrially and socially since 
then, the men and women of Pomfret have borne 
their part always worthily and sometimes con- 
spicuously, in the development of the country 
and state. It will not be possible to treat of all, 
or even of the most important of these events 
within the limits of this sketch, but a few leading 
facts may serve as an introduction to the descrip- 
tions that are to follow. 

The tract of which the Pomfret of to-day 
forms a part was known to the English as long 
ago as their settlement of Connecticut in 1635-6, 
F old grosvenor tombstone at for it lay in the direct route between the colony 
roxbury, mass. f Massachusetts Bay and the Connecticut River, 

and was included in that " hideous and trackless wilderness " so disparagingly alluded 
to by one of these first colonial emigrants. Notwithstanding this aspersion, which 
was not unnatural considering the dangers and fatigues of the journey, the land 
was really a fertile 
and beautiful one, 
abounding in fish 
and game and very 
easily cultivated. 
The rough track for 
many years known 
as the Connecticut 
Path, crossed these 
Wabbaquasset Hills, 
and a branch of it 
ran through Pom- 
fret and Woodstock. 
The best part 
of the Wabbaquas- 
sets' holdings came, 
by letters-patent 
from the Crown, in- 
to the possession of 



earliest days of the settlement, the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep, and we cannot traverse it without 
seeing- names alike venerable and memorable in New England annals. Here, side by side with the Apos- 
tle Eliot and Robert Calef, were laid the Dudleys, the Warrens, and many others of lesser note." 

* Indian for " At the great fishing-place." 

f An address delivered at the 150th anniversary of the founding of the First Church of Christ in Pom- 
fret, held October 6, 1865, says, " The people of Roxbury were of the best that came over. They were 
not of the 'poorer sort.' " These Puritans came fresh from the teachings of John Eliot, their pastor, 
who had himself explored and preached in this section, the Nipmuck country. 


Captain James Fitch, Jr., of 
Norwich, through Owan- 
eco,* the second son of 
Uncas, the " chief sachem 
of these parts," who origi- 
nally laid claim to all this 
Nipmuck (or fresh-water In- 
dian) district. Fitch, on 
May 5, 1686, sold for ^30 
lawful money of New Eng- 
land 15,100 acres of this 
wilderness land to a dozen 
Roxbury purchasers, repre- 
sented by Samuel Ruggles, 
Sr., John Chandler, Sr., 
Benjamin Sabin, John Gros- 
venor, Samuel Ruggles, Jr., 
and Joseph Griffin. During 
the summer of this year the 
tract was located on the 
Mashamoquet River, and 
the patent issued for a 
township by the Governor 
and company of Connecti- 
cut. Drawings for the sites 
were subsequently made by 
the shareholders, but the Indian war and the assumption of the government of 
Connecticut by the unpopular Sir Edmund Andros, delayed a settlement upon the 

newly acquired Roxbury purchase, as it was then 
called, till after 1694. Meantime, however, one 
venturesome, hardy pioneer, Captain John Sabin, 
a brother of Benjamin Sabin of Woodstock, had 
courageously crossed the line by himself, purchased 
100 acres of Fitch for £9, in 1691, and set up a house, 
with very likely a stockade around it. The site of 
this has been located in the northeastern corner of 
the present limits of the township of Pomfret. Here 
Sabin treated with the Indians, over whom he ac- 
quired great influence, to such good effect, that the 
Earl of Bellemont, at that time Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, wrote a letter f urging Governor Winthrop 
to grant Sabin a present. The Connecticut authori- 
ties afterwards made recognition to the value of ^5 
of his valuable services in keeping the Indians peace- 
able, and Bellemont himself sent Sabin a souvenir to 
prove his esteem and good will. 
Caleb grosvenor's The T nc ii an war being now over, the first settlers 


\ . ._!. ' \ 




* The original deed was recorded in the records of the county court of Suffolk, Mass. This docu- 
ment and the memorandum of Owaneco and his oldest son Josiah, may still be seen in the town clerk's 
office at Pomfret. 

f This interesting letter, dated 1700, is still preserved at the Capitol in Hartford. Sabin remained 
for many years the leading citizen of North Eastern Connecticut. 


came straggling into their purchase, and among them were the Garys, Chandlers, 
Perrins, Grosvenors and others whose names are honorably perpetuated in Pom- 
fret. Forty families settled here and ancient statements show that there were four 
forts or places of refuge to protect the inhabitants from the savages. 

Town organization was somewhat slowly effected, for it was not till 17 13 that 


the citizens of Mashamoquet applied to the General Court of Connecticut, through 
Messrs. Sabin and Grosvenor, for an act of incorporation, which was promptly- 
granted, and the name Pomfret * given. 

Meanwhile, land in the same territory south of the Mashamoquet, was sold by 
Fitch to Sir John Blackwell of England, a noted Puritan and friend of the Common- 
wealth, a son-in- 
law of General 
Lambert, treas- 
urer of Cromwell's 
army, and member 
of Parliame nt. 
The settlement 
and the new pur- 
chase conflicted 
territorially in part, 
but the Mashamo- 
quet proprietors, 
with surprising ob- 
ligingness, agreed 
that this tract 
should forever 
constitute a sepa- 
rate township for 
Blackwell and his 

* This was probably chosen by Governor Saltonstall who, " with other English possessions received 
from distinguished ancestry, held the manor of Killingly near Pomfret, England." — History of 
Windham County. 

There are several interesting traditions in regard to naming of the English Pomfret. One is to the 
effect that when, in 11 54, on Sunday, the feast of Ascension, William, archbishop of York, was returning 
from Rome, where he had received the pall, he was met by such crowds of people who had assembled to 
crave his blessing, that abridge over the Aire broke down and great numbers of them fell into the water. 
The holy prelate was greatly moved by the sight and prayed for them so fervently and with such accep- 
tance, that not one perished. 


heirs. The Gen- 
eral Court of Con- 
necticut had, in 
fact, granted a pat- 
ent for a town, to 
be called Mort- 
lake,* in honor of 
Mortlake in Sur- 
rey, England, which 
was a favorite re- 
sort of Cromwell's 
followers. Sir John 
Blackwell undoubt- 
edly located his 
small American col- 
ony in this "wilder- 
ness " for the main 
purpose of estab- 
lishing a retreat for 
dissenters from the 
persecutions of 
King James. The 

accession of William and Mary, however, freed his followers from the dangers 
which threatened them. Blackwell himself returned to his native country, and 
Mortlake relapsed into its primitive condition during the succeeding quarter of a 

A subsequent distinguished purchaser, Jonathan Belcher, afterwards Governor 
of Massachusetts and New Jersey, and founder of Princeton College, divided part 
of the property into two large estates, named respectively Kingswood and Wiltshire, 
for his own occupancy. Overtures for union with Pomfret, made at different times 
and with various conditions, all failed completely. The inhabitants of Mortlake 
were really within the limits of Pomfret, but always remained wholly without 






* For these and other facts here mentioned in connection with the settlement of Pomfret and its sub- 
sequent development, the present writer is very largely indebted to the scholarly researches of Miss Ellen 
D. Larned of Thompson, a gifted writer and an accomplished antiquarian, whose two large and enter- 
taining volumes, the History of Windham County, form the standard work on the subject and are, in 
many respects, a model of what such a work should be. 


its jurisdiction. They could neither vote, 
pay taxes, record deeds, or perform mili- 
tary service in Pomfret. Mortlake 
manor, in short, was a feudal holding — 
what we would call now-a-days, a case of 
" one man power." Its aristocratic and 
autocratic rights and privileges, indiffer- 
ence to its neighbors' affairs, and sever- 
ance from the progress of the remainder 
of the community, made it at last " an in- 
tolerable grievance " to the good people of 
Pomfret. For over half a century the 
breach was never healed and the final 
amalgamation or absorption of the less by 
the greater, came as a blessed relief to all 
concerned. The case is a unique one in 
the annals of this state, and probably has 
few equals in the history of the country. 
As such, it is well worthy historically of fuller treatment than it can receive here. 
The early town life of Pomfret flowed on peaceably and intelligently, following 
the usual course of similar settlements in Connecticut. Selectmen and other town 
officers were chosen, a church built, and a school opened. By 1725 a bridge had 
been laid over the Quinebaug River, a road made to Providence in Rhode Island, 
and Pomfret was represented in the General Assembly of Connecticut. Its neighbor 
Woodstock remained for sixty years a part of Massachusetts. 

In 1739 Israel Putnam, a young man coming from Salem, Mass., bought a part 
of the Wiltshire estate and began the cultivation of his farm. His brilliant career 
in after years belongs not to Pomfret or Connecticut alone, but to the whole coun- 



try. Without boasting, it may be said that Pomfret at this time surpassed most 
Windham County towns in culture and refinement. Its " United English Library 
for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge," founded in 1739, and which was 
destined to live for sixty years, was the first association of its kind in the eastern 
part of the state, and one of the first in the colony of Connecticut.* 

* Yale had a good collection of books at this time, and Lyme and Guilford had made attempts in 
the same direction. The first town library in Connecticut was started at Durham in 1733. But the 
large places, such as Hartford, Norwich, and New London, were still unrepresented by libraries. 


In industry, the town, in due time, made 
good progress. Cargill's mills, the site of the 
future flourishing city of Putnam, early became 
noted for skill in grinding and malting. Bravely 
and well in the stormy days of 1774 and the re- 
maining years of the Revolution, till peace was 
established, Pomfret, under the inspiring leader- 
ship of Old Put,* bore its share of the war, both 
in men and contributions. It was the rendezvous 
for raising a regiment for the fight at Bunker Hill. 
Pomfret's post-office, the first between Hartford 
and Boston, was established January 1, 1795, 
and kept by Lemuel Grosvenor, who remained 
in service for forty years. The original desk in 
which the mail for this and other towns was dis- 
tributed, may still be seen in a perfect state of 
preservation at the Ben-Grosvenor. 

Now began the era of Pomfret's greatest 
prosperity and relative importance. The place was the center of busi- 
ness for the surrounding region, and next to Windham was the most im- 
portant town in the county. "It was in my childhood," wrote an old resi- 
dent but recently deceased, "the thoroughfare of travel between New York 
and Boston, and was enlivened by the daily line of stages from Hartford 
to Boston and Providence, and from Norwich to Worcester." The tavern was 
well patronized, there were three stores, with many customers, a lawyer's office 



* The Wolf-den incident, not without romantic exaggerations, but founded on solid facts, is too 
well-known to need repetition here. Putnam did gallant service in the war with the French at Lake 
George ; he had been raised from the ranks to a Lt. -Colonelcy, and at Bunker Hill was a General. 
At that time he was the most popular of all American soldiers, not excepting Washington. His later 
career, while not so prominent, is highly creditable. To the end he retained the confidence and regard 
of his army associates, and was respected and loved by all at home. It is well to bear in mind these 
facts at a time when, for some unaccountable reason, the object of some writers seems to be to defame the 
memory of this brave and true American. 



with students, and what might be called a medical school, conducted by a promi- 
nent doctor. No wagons were then used in this or other parts of Windham County. 
The people walked or rode to church on horseback. The Sabbath was very strictly 
observed and enforced by law, and transgressors were severely fined. 

Pomfret aspired to be 
the shire town. In this 
hope the agitators were dis- 
appointed, but the popula- 
tion steadily increased, the 
" Landing," in the south 
part of the town, did a 
brisk business, the future 
Putnam again expanded, 
and local society won a 
reputation for brilliancy and 
exclusiveness which, some- 
times called down upon its 
chief residence section, 
the epithet of " Pucker 
New families of distinction and means, some of them from other parts of 
Connecticut and others from Massachusetts * and Rhode Island, located them- 
selves on these beautiful hill-sides. Fashionable belles and beaux came from 
Newport and Providence and helped to make the Pomfret Assemblies noted far 
and near. 

But the days of the supremacy of the " hill towns " were numbered. The 
epoch of steam machinery and the introduction of railroads marked their hopeless 
downfall. Pomfret, with a mother's love and pluck worthy of a better cause, 
having seen Abington society shoot off from her sturdy parent stock, fought 
unsuccessfully against the inevitable wresting from her of her children, Brooklyn 



* Among them was John Hancock, governor of Massachusetts and president of the Congress 
which issued the Declaration of Independence. In 1786, during the Bowdoin interregnum, he occupied 
his purchase in Pomfret as a country-seat, lived there for nine months at one time and entertained many 
distinguished guests. 


i i 

and Putnam. The latter clay social development of Pomfret was then of course 
undreamed of, and at first its progress was slow. It was not until well into 
the '70's that the modern era began, which has gradually transformed a sleepy 

old country village into a wick- awake-resort.* The enjoyment of summer trips 
with friends led to an increasing reputation and an enlarged circle of visitors. 
Each influx of these people to the few simple boarding-houses caused a clearer 
understanding' of their needs, and 
gradual extensions for their accom- 
modation. But all was and is com- 
paratively simple still at Pomfret in 
the matter of fare and lodging. 

A dozen years ago came the 
edict of society, more sensible than 
most, that Americans should, in 
the English fashion, live in the 
country a good part of each year. 
Pomfret's future was assured socially, 
when people of means and position, 
having the entree of society in the 
large cities, began to see and utilize 
its possibilities. They quickly made 
places for themselves, bought old 
farms, changed over the houses, or 
built new ones. And so from year 
to year the evolution has kept on 
— never swift or startling, but on 
the other hand, always quite regular 
and noticeable from season to season. 
Less care might have failed to do 
justice to the place. More elabora- 
tion would certainly have spoiled it. 


The traveler who comes to Pom- 
fret expecting to find either the 
grand or the rare in nature will be 
sure to be disappointed. There are 
no mountains hereabouts nor hills rugged enough to pass properly for such. The 
lakes and ponds, while clear, are comparatively small, and the rivers and streams, 
still bearing for the most part the Indian names which characterized them two 
centuries ago, are objects of affection to the angler rather than the artist. The 
forests primeval have of course long since disappeared, victims of the busy axe and 
noisy saw-mill. The old stone walls, it is to be regretted, are fast being used for 
the building of ambitious villas and modern improvements. Even the highways 
are becoming prosaically bare and the lover of the picturesque sighs in vain for 
the thickness and fragrance of the old fashioned hedges. But something there 
still is about the landscape of the region as a whole — its openness, graceful 

* To Providence people mostly, to Dr. Alexander H. Yinton in particular, and especially to the 
members of the Hoppin family and its numerous connections, is credit due for this. Foremost among 
Pomfret's leaders of this class, who gave an impetus to every good work was the late Mrs. Wash- 
ington Hoppin, formerly of Providence, whose rine character, executive ability, and faith in Pomfret's 
future, here found full vent and lasting appreciation. 


contour, and evident richness of soil — that renders it positively and irresistibly 
charming even to critical eyes.* 

Countless ridges of the high whaleback or Drumlin hills — a rare and interest- 
ing formation, here seen at its best, the geologists tell us — meet the eye in every 
direction, and between them lie bright orchards and rich corn-fields and fertile, 
well-watered meadow lands, which for grazing perhaps have not their equal, and 
certainly not their superior, in all Connecticut. Dotted here and there on the 
hillsides and in the valleys, are comfortable, well-kept farm-houses and capacious 
barns showing a well-won prosperity. Glimpses of park-like woods and vistas and 
clumps of trees of infinite variety — for nearly all species flourish in this rich 
clay soil — seem in many instances laid out by the hand of man for aesthetic 
purposes rather than utility. 

In a word, it is one of the natural garden-spots of the state — the ideal peace- 


ful New England landscape. To match it one must go to Hampshire or Devon, 
the paradise of the mother country in June. Pomfret lies in the valley of the 
winding Quinebaug and its surrounding neighbors, Woodstock, Thompson, Brook- 
lyn, and Hampton, are scarcely inferior to it in natural advantages. Good roads 
between them render this an excellent riding and driving country, though, alas ! 
first-rate saddle-horses seem to have become an extinct species hereabouts. Fine, 
even fashionable, equipages, in considerable variety, now grace the thoroughfares 
during the season, or, more strictly speaking, the seasons, which are at their 
respective heights in June and September. The interim will most likely have 
been spent at the seaside by the gayer city folk, who on their return bring a fresh 
invoice of ideas and a new influx of guests, both of which add vim and charm 
to Pomfret's social side, that may have dozed somewhat in the lazy quietude of 

* Dr. Dwight in his travels in New England speaks of this region as one of the handsomest he had 
met with. The hills have been concisely described as "oblong, with their shortest axes from east to 
west, remarkably exact and singularly elegant." The stones upon the surface were brought by the 
drift formation. 



mid-sum me r. The 
month par-excellence 
in this latitude, how- 
ever, is October, when, 
for mellowness, tonic 
air, and richness of foli- 
age, Pomfret does not 
yield the palm even to 
the Berkshires. 

The inevitable 
"wh eel," now pro- 
pelled by female as 
well as by male riders, 
has found its way up 
these hillsides. Four- 
in-hands have made 
their appearance, and 
the merry t a 1 1 y - h o 
wakes the echoes. 
One prominent resi- 
dent drives three spir- 
ited steeds abreast 
w r hen he shows his 
guests the beauties of 
the surrounding coun- 
try. Pomfret makes 
no especial pretensions 
to being a sportsman's 

paradise ; but there are trout still in the brooks and bass in the rivers and lakes 
and during the fall, partridge, woodcock, and quail furnish an excuse for many an 
invigorating tramp over the hills and valleys by the men. "Hunters' luncheons," 
in which the ladies join, are an ideal- here not infrequently realized. 

Of recent years the trotter has been much in evidence, a product of the 
Pomfret Stock-Farm, of which Brignoli-Wilkes, with a record of 2.14*4 is the 
acknowledged king. Here also one can see the Arabian tent-mare "Aziza,' 
imported by the present owner with special permission of the Khedive of Egypt. 

Graceful as gazelles, fleet as the wind, intelligent, 
docile, and with pedigrees running back to the mists, 
no wonder that the children of the desert make house- 
hold pets of these beautiful creatures, and a law of 
the state prohibits their sale to foreigners. This 
stock-farm, with its thirty-five brood mares, numerous 
barns and stables, and costly private race-track for 
training purposes, has been one of the completest 
and best known establishments of its kind in Con- 

Bowditch's nursery for trees and shrubs supplies 
not only the immediate neighborhood, but sends many 
choice specimens to the larger watering-places of New 
England. Of manufactories, or other vocations than 

CHRIST CHURCH PORCH. that ° f ^'"S- P ° mfl " et ' S ellti '' el >' ^ blissfllll V 




innocent and the running of any 
manner of shop, it would actu- 
ally despise. For its daily sup- 
ply of market-wares the town 
draws entirely on its enter- 
prising neighbor, Putnam, con- 
descending, however, to allow 
the telegraph and the telephone 
to connect it with the outer 
world, and in this era of prog- 
ress and express trains, boast- 
ing of two or three mails a day. 
Viewed from the railway 
station Pomfret does not do it- 
self justice. The long, high 
hill-side with its avenue of close- 
growing, sturdy maples, bears a 
close resemblance to Harrow-on- 
the-hill of English school fame. 
Well-kept lawns and bright fra- 
grant flowers ; comfortable, 
home-like inns and typical 
churches ; dignified, old-fash- 
ioned mansions, presenting va- 
rious approved styles of country architecture and facing each other for a mile 
or more on either side of "the street" — all form a part of the attractions of 
modern Pomfret. Seen separately, no one feature is particularly impressive. The 
charm lies rather in the harmony and completeness of the, ensemble. Each place 
here has the ample grounds so necessary to give an air of naturalness to rural life. 
Pomfret bears on its face the unmistakable signs of being the abode of people of 
culture. No town of its size in Connecticut represents more wealth, but this is 
used unostentatiously and in perfectly good taste. 




The main and 
only thoroughfare 
of Pomfret street is 
already filled. Fu- 
ture residents must 
literally, therefore, 
take to the hills. 
So numerous, how- 
ever, are the fine 
sites and so moder- 
ate has the price of 
land remained, that 
there could be no 
cornering of the 
market even by the 
shrewdest speculat- 
ors. W here so 
much is worthy of 

detailed mention, it is hard to specify in brief. Rathlin, the large estate of Mr. 
George Lothrop Bradley — formerly of Providence and now of Washington, 
IX C. — has a magnificent site, overlooking the Brooklyn and Abington valleys. 
The house itself, of the Queen Anne type, is spacious and elegantly furnished, 
and during the season is always a brilliant center of much and delightful hos- 
pitality. Mr. Bradley is fortunate in having on his estate a mineral spring 
of remarkable purity and valuable medicinal properties, which years ago brought 
it into high favor with the local inhabitants. Recent analyses by experts'show 



that the properties of this spring closely resemble those of the celebrated 
Poland water. 

On the " lower road," or drive toward Abington, is Glen Elsinore, Mrs. 
Randolph Marshall Clark's fine residence and extensive grounds, whose superior 
natural advantages have been greatly enhanced by the most skillful landscape- 
gardening. From the east piazza, stone-buttressed terraces, many graveled 
walks and superb rose-garden, a beautiful view is obtained of the houses on the 
hill and a glimpse of the fair valley beyond. A small but picturesque rubble-stone 




tower with thatched roof and overhanging vines, adds quaintness and charm to 
the leafy glen and quiet pond which form the southern boundary of the estate. 

On the opposite side of the highway is Hamlet Lodge, another beautiful 
r homestead, belong- 

ing to Miss Eleanor 
Vinton. The site 
has been occupied 
for more than a 
century and the 
place handed down 
in the same family 
for three genera- 
tions. It was here 
that Dr. Vinton 
passed his latter 
years — an influen- 
tial broad - church- 
man, a close and 
sympathetic stu- 
dent of nature, be- 
loved by a large 
circle of friends. 
Rarely now-a-days, excepting in England, are such grand old trees found any- 
where as those at Hamlet Lodge — giant oaks, spreading beeches, and tall, 
stately cedars — standing singly or grouped together with artless grace on the 
lawns and in the rougher fields of the home park. Winding paths, a flower garden, 
a rustic bridge, and arbors complete a place which is perfect of its kind. 

At the center of Pomfret street, opposite the trim Congregational church and 
the Ben-Grosvenor, one may see at Dunworth the establishment of Loomis 
L. White, the New York banker, a lawn as velvety as that of Magdalen College 
quadrangle and an avenue of trees as beautiful in their way as Addison's walk on 
Christ Church meadows. Everything about the place, with its greenhouses, 
broad verandas and terrace, is bright, cheerful, home-like — characteristics of their 
genial and public-spirited owner, who is always happy in welcoming his friends. 
Dunworth Lodge, the new and attractive adjoining property of William Viall 
Chapin of Providence and New York, is also a headquarters for much delightful 
entertainment. The view of the valley to the west of Pomfret is particularly fine 

from the windows 
and piazza of Dun- 
. . - , worth Lodge. 

Thomas S. Har- 
rison's, The Mead- 
ows, which stands 
near the Pomfret 
Stock-Far m, o f 
which he is the 
owner, is a large and 
dignified.old colonial 
mansion, so success- 
fully re-arranged 
hoelfeld — edward a. swain, provtdence, r. i. an d enlarged as to 




command metropolitan luxury. Mr. Harrison is a resident of Philadelphia, but of 
recent years has spent a considerable portion of his time each year at his coun- 
try home, in superintending- the cultivation of his extensive property and adding 
to the local improvements of Pomfret. 


Across the road is the Episcopal Christ Memorial* church which, with its 
vine-covered stone sides and stained glass windows by Tiffany, is admired by 

* Built in 1882 by Miss Eleanor Vinton and Mrs. R. M. Clark, as a memorial to their father and 
mother, Dr. Alexander Hamilton Vinton and his wife, Eleanor Stockbridge Vinton. 





all who have seen it. A choral service by the boys of Pomfret school adds to 
the enjoyment of attendants on Sundays. The Rectory near by is another fine 
specimen of the work of a talented Providence architect, Mr. Howard Hoppin. 
On the other side of the church one may notice a very artistic oaken, ivy-clad, 
portal — in every detail a bit of the mother country — which forms the entrance to 
the burial lot of one of the prominent families of Pomfret's summer colony. 

Exquisite flowers, tenderly cared-for and attractively displayed, are found 


at La Plaisance, Mrs. Josephine W. Clark's costly colonial residence, which crowns 
a part of the southern slope of Pomfret hill. Broad acres carefully planted with 




young trees stretch away toward Paradise brook and the stone bridge over it on 
Clark road. The Corner, the Hoppin family homestead, standing at the junction 
of the roads which lead to Woodstock and Putnam — an unpretentious structure 
externally, but one which always offers good cheer within — is a favorite rendez- 
vous for the sociable element of Pomfret in summer. 'It is the present home of 
Augustus Hoppin, author and artist, and his niece, Miss Louise C. Hoppin. 

But the list of places worthy of description for their general attractiveness, 
and offering noteworthv individual features, might be extended far bevond the 







limits of this article. 
The vine-clad exe- 
dra of Ingleside ; 
the valley view and 
interior attractive- 
ness of Wyndlawn ; 
the shrubbery and 
landscape effects of 
breezy Hoe If eld 
and its unique neigh- 
bor, Oberthal ; the 
wealth of piazzas at 
Orchard House and 
The Acorns ; Hall 
Farm, with its back- 
ground of scattered oaks and the denser woods beyond ; Elmwood Farm, the old 
home of Louise Chandler Moulton ; the noble elm at Pen-y-bryn ; the attractive 
quaintness and ambient foliage of the old colonial house,* now the residence 
of Robert Harris, Esq., of Providence, where George Washington stayed on his 
visit to Pomfret. The Knoll at Gladwyn and the gentle slope of Hillside ; or 
further on the outskirts, sentinels for Abington and Putnam, West-wood and Bark 
Meadow Farm, the latter recalling by its name the scenes and incidents of a cen- 
tury and three quarters ago. These are some of the gems of picturesque Pom- 
fret. Not the least element of their attractiveness is the fact that each place 
possesses such a strong individuality. Some are large and costly, other small 
and simple. In their entirety they are all the more winning because they present 
such a contrast to one another. 

It must not be supposed, however, because there is much intimacy between the 
householders of Pomfret, that transient visitors are unwelcome or that there is no 
means of providing for their entertainment. On the contrary, comfortable 

cottages are for rent. 
£M Several boarding- 
"H houses offer home- 
like accommod a- 
Wx tions. The Ben- 
, --- Grosvenor — acces- 
sible, commodious, 
and popular — fur- 
nishes a large and 
select coterie with 
what th.ey want. 
The Pomfret Inn — 
well-built, well-kept, 
and new — promises 
to become a model 
of its kind and tes- 
tifies to the growing 


*The date of this visit was Saturday, Nov. 7th, 17S9. Washington came from Uxbride via 
Thompson and was accompanied by Major Jackson and Secretary Lear. These gentlemen rode with 
the president in the state carriage and a retinue of four servants followed on horseback. The tavern was 
at this time kept by Mr. Grosvenor. 



popularity of the 
place. For big, 
showy, and noisy 
hotels, conservative 
Pomfret has no 
desire, and they 
woul d have n o 
chance of success 
in Pomfret. The 
story is extensively 
circulated, not with- 
out some founda- 
tion, that promi- 
nent and fashion- 
able strangers on 
seeking admittance 

to one of these quiet little Pomfret establishments, have sometimes stood aghast 
on calmly being asked for their credentials. Such tendencies may be carried to 
an extreme, and if so, are of course to be deprecated ; but hitherto Pomfret's 
leaders have erred on the safe side. To such as have any claim for recognition, 
they are hospitality itself. 

Liberal provision is made for the entertainment of visitors at the Pomfret 
Club, which was incorporated in 1893 under a special act of the Legislature. It is 
.governed by a board of gentlemen and ladies and kept open from the first of June 
till the end of October. The premises include a fine club-house, designed by 
George Keller of Hartford, and six acres of valuable land well situated in the 
center of the town, a part of which will eventually be laid out in walks and 
gardens. Tennis and croquet are already well-provided for; bowling and archery 

are in contemplation, and golf and polo are talked 
of as possibilities in the future. In the tem- 
porary home, in one wing of the club-house 
building, is the well-selected and efficiently 
managed Pomfret Library Association, which is 
kept particularly well-supplied with current lit- 
erature, is fitted out with not a few complete sets 
of the standard and classic authors, and which, 
under the efficient management of the board of 
lady managers, makes itself generally useful 
and agreeable both to strangers and residents. 
Library days in Pomfret have come latterly 
to possess some of the functions of afternoon 
teas, though the latter are frequent in the sea- 
" wait-a-while." son and are intermingled with a round of din- 

ners, receptions, and even an occasional ball. 
Pomfret Hall, joined to the club-house by a broad and shady veranda, is the 
scene of the numerous dances, musicales, lectures, fairs, plays, and operettas which 
have done so much to stimulate the public spirit of the place and win a reputa- 
tion for their authors. 

An improvement society cares for the village walks when they need repairing, 
and the obliging actors and actresses look after the welfare of this time-honored 
organization when its funds run low. The generosity of a land-owner has built 


a tower for viewing- 
the fine landscape 
from Tyrone hill, and 
the thoughtfulness of 
a visitor provided a 
rustic seat under an 
old sweeping elm on 
the road to Putnam, 
where the pedestrian 
may " wait-a-while " 
to enjoy the beauties 
of nature nearer at 

The Pontefract 
Club, or boat-house 
on the Quinebaug- 
river, conducted 
under the auspices of 
the Pomfret Club, is at a restful, picturesque spot, where the gentle stream winds 
through the meadows and the shade of tall trees and a balcony over-hanging^ 
the placid water tempts the visitor to sweet contentment of mind and lazy 
recreation. Being within easy coaching distance of the town, jolly luncheons,. 




occasional regattas, and drives home by moonlight are well-observed customs of 
the place. 

Pomfret is doubly fortunate in having near the other end of its borders,. 
Roseland Park — the generous gift of Mr. Henry C. Bowen, — with its oak 
and pine groves, and limpid, blue lake. Putnam's Wolf-Den — than which there 



are few spots more famous and eagerly visited the country over — furnishes an 
equally engaging opportunity for a patriotic pilgrimage or an attractive picnic ; 
and Alexander's Pond for a delightful drive with the chance of fishing and boating. 
From the top of Prospect hill one may get a splendid bird's-eye view into Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island. There are over one hundred miles of well-kept 
highways in the township of Pomfret, plenty of wood-roads, and bridle-paths 
innumerable, so enticing to the equestrian. 

To be quite sure of getting all of the 
very best there is in such a life and such a 
country, one should come early and stay 
late ; some indeed of the summer colony are 
apt, occasionally at least, to remain a good 
part of the winter. You must, at all events 
have seen the feathery freshness and in- 
haled the delicate aroma of the apple- 
blossoms in May and felt your pulses 
thrill, your eyes glisten and lungs deepen 
at the tonic of the air and the flaming 
glory of the trees on the hillsides in Octo- 
ber. The visitor ought, in short, from the 
start and to the end, to be completely in 
touch with both the place and the people, 
or their subtlest charm will elude him. 
But it is peculiarly easy to give yourself 
to this quiet happiness in Pomfret. Na- 
ture here is smiling, but not overawing. 
She does not exact or expect too much. 
Society there is and of the best, but it is 
not so gay as to be burdensome. Your 
friends — real friends — are about you. 
The climate soothes while it does not fail 
to invigorate. You love the place and its 
ways and are the better for it. 

In ye olden time Pomfret was renowned 
for the conservatism of its church, the 
brilliancy of its assemblies, and the excel- 
lence of its schools. Surely, history loves 

to repeat itself. Pomfret people still take a pride in their churches, the 
Casino hops are both lively and somewhat exclusive, and while an excellent girls' 
school, which until recently thrived here, is now located elsewhere, a still larger 
boys' school has within the past two years taken its place. A more ideal site for a 
collegiate academy, located as this is, midway between the great universities of 
Harvard and Yale, it would be impossible to find. The air is pure, the water good, 
the country just such as boys love to wander over or use for playing-fields. 
Pomfret School * is located in one of the finest old Colonial mansions on the street 
and has annexes and a large dormitory built and fully equipped for its needs. 
Seventy boys are now in attendance under the head-mastership of William E. Peck, 
for many years in successful charge of the popular St. Mark's at Southboro, Mass. 
Prominent city families are sending their boys to be prepared for college at 

* Pomfret School has chosen for its coat of arms, those of the Earl of Pomfret. The colors are black 
and red. Athletic contests on the home grounds are held with rival preparatory schools. A school 
paper, " The Pontefract," has just been started. 





Pomfret and as the boys themselves are enthusiastic over the management and 
location of the school, its future seems assured. 

The longevity of some of Pomfret residents is noteworthy, as for instance 
Mrs. Betsey Bowers, who will complete her centennial year if she lives till the 
third of next March. She has occupied the same house for 58 years, is perfectly 
well and eats three good meals a day, with the kindly aid of a digestion which, a 
friend of hers writes, " does not weaken before lobster a la Newburg and triumphs 
over the richest of cake and plum puddings." Mrs. Bowers not infrequently goes 
out to church, still enjoys sleighing, reads biographies covering four volumes, and 
wishes her sleeves made as large as any young lady's ! 

Much more might be written without perhaps giving the reader any clearer 
idea of the beauties and attractions of picturesque Pomfret. Not every one is 
certain to like the place, but those who do soon become devotedly attached to it. 
Climate, the natural advantages of the landscape and cultivation are all praise- 
worthy ; but the people themselves are, after all, the chief inducement for going- 
there. The yeomanry is thrifty, frank, approachable — no better can be found in 
the commonwealth. The imported element is remarkably cosmopolitan, for so 
small a place. In a word, the society is bright, active, and bent on amusement. 
The two streams do not blend completely, but they flow on, side by side, in 
utmost good nature and mutual esteem. 

" Still when the woes of life assail, 
I sigh for thee, sweet Pomfret vale." 


DRINK deep, the spirit of the quiet hills; 
Teaching they have for our too restless lives. 
Could we but fix so fast our restless wills, 

That softest sun nor storm that maddest drives 
Could move us from the unalterable right, 

We too might breathe, some holy eventide, 
With hearts wide open, that divine delight, 
To our own inconsistent longings now denied. 



True fame and dignity are born of toil." 

Thom vs MacKellar. 

The most eminent authorities assert that the first printing' in the Colony 
of Connecticut was done at New London by the Englishman Thomas Short, in 
1709, the result of his laudable effort being Governor Gurdon Saltonstall's \ Past- 
day proclamation, issued June 15th, in the eighth year of Queen Anne's reign. It 
was fifty-five years thereafter that Thomas Green set up a printing-press in 
Hartford, and began the publication of the Connecticut Courant. Despite the half- 
century lead held by the sister town of New London, the prestige and power 
of her press did not much longer retain the supremacy. The printers of Hartford 
were persevering and diligent, and they quickly became the recognized peers of 
any fellow-craftsmen in the colony. 

In the olden time the newspaper office was likewise the book, pamphlet, 
and " job "office. There, beside the weekly paper, were printed the sermons, 
tracts, almanacs, handbills, and whatever else was required by the local population. 
The printer in those days was regarded as a person of considerable consequence. 
He was frequently editor, business manager, foreman, compositor, and pressman, 
all in one — or, as described by Philip Freneau in 1796 — 

" Author, pressman, devil — and what not." 

When the triumphs of modern inventors and the wealth of materiel now 
obtainable are contrasted with the meager facilities of the pioneer printers, the 
creditable work which they accomplished seems truly wonderful. 

Notwithstanding the primitive condition of things typographical, the old-time 
printer was in some respects a happier man than his successor of to-day. He had 
but few competitors, was never annoyed by strikes, nor exposed to the blandish- 
ments of the ''drummer," and, under a merciful Providence, the ''estimate" fiend 
had not then materialized. 

The necessary limitations of this paper preclude any extended allusion to the 
early "typos." It is probable that a general history of the "Press" of Connecti- 
cut will at some time be published. Such a volume could not fail to be of 
exceeding interest, and it is to be hoped that some able historical writer will ere 
long become interested in the subject. 

In the brief sketches hereinafter presented of a few printers whose lives have 
been somewhat closely identified with the history and progress of Hartford, 
reference will be made only to those who commenced to do mechanical labor in 

* Printer, type-founder, and poet. 

f With that instinct peculiar to the journeyman printer, Short improved upon the orthography of the 
Governor's baptismal name by making it read " Gordon." 

Note. — Many thanks are due to all who have kindly furnished portraits, data, and information, 
without which this retrospect must altogether have failed. 




the printing-office, and worked their way up to positions of more or less import- 
ance ; hence, the names of some prominent owners and business partners either 
do not appear at all, or are only mentioned incidentally. 

The fact that the 
subjects for biographical 
mention should have been 
in every instance selected 
from a single city of the 
state, is entirely due to 
the writer's inability to 
cover a broader field, and 
in nowise prompted by 
motives of local prefer- 

GBy the Honourable 
ordon SaltffflMiEfq. 

Govemour of Her Majefties? Colony of Connedicut m 

A Proclamation 

For a FAST-' 

Perhaps no man ever 
lived in Hartford who was 

A more instrumental in the 

among banous fumbling Conections, *»&f* f » l «$«**£ j p r a c t i c a 1 education of 
to oar ffltltrarv enterprises latb on us : xbe Coils Ijaiamg; r 

young men — who served 

in their generation as 
printers, editors, minis- 
ters, public officers, and 
business men — than 
Philemon Canfield. In 
the. sue ce e di ng sketches 
his name frequently ap- 
pears in connection with 
those of others, who either 
began business life in the 
printing-office under his 
fatherly care and instruc- 
tion, or were in his employ 
at some time. 

Philemon Canfield was 
born in Roxbury, Conn., 
July 3 1,1786. His grand- 
father, Rev. Thomas Can- 
field, and his father, 
Thomas also, were worthy 
ancestors. Young Can- 
field was possessed with 
a desire to become a 
printer, and ultimately learned the business at Sing Sing, N. Y. About the time 
he " graduated " as journeyman, the differences existing between this country 
and Great Britain, which culminated in the war of 181 2, were beginning to dis- 
turb business seriously. In search of a better position, he rode on horseback from 

jFter many anb pet grotbwg $rof>otatioit4 on our part, att^ 

among banous Dutnbimg Conections, ano aibfnl rebnitt$ 

to our jtBtittarv enterprises lato on «s : %ftf 2-oxo ftabing: 

feirteb up tilt Spent of our £>obcratgn Hasp rlic Oa«€ j&> to fit; 

ittt an crpebttiQn for tbe &upprtflton, of out J-rracD, anb pagatt; 

fltti'tineus ji5cignbours,;n3hct'cm in -Dbcbicnrtto Bee £t3aiefltcsr : 

fCesnmanbs, flits Oobernment m eoitfcrt Xoit\) t!)e 2lb»atent pt&* 

Meets, arc fcuomgfoitli tbctr Xrsops. _^ . i 

I xrewtDieattDertlwetrtJfiDr^fnfral mffanbtp* anb tbtttrtfte* 

->obitc of tfic Cotmrrt, 31 bo liettbp Orbcr anb appoint tile laS; 

Wcdenfd-iv' of tfcfs JnRmt June, to Ik ftcUgtonflv-Gbftrbto tit 

tljt Dutps of a Publick Fait Throughout this Colony, crliomtir 

Mm requm'ng all perrons to tnbeafconr a mo2c ttiorcugl) iwmt= 

mitotan, befote 0oD fo:>anb Bcfozmafton of tneit prolong €b?j^. 

1*feitE>rt>mc3lH-eccFmavbc awrtco. 3is alfo . fcrtotntlrto Jim*- 

Vlmt tftat Bttnfffton, Conbort, 2Kb atio £mceffs iblncii ibe mt% 

inb mttfr look unto our Oobfou %W 15c Jboutfcpleafctoptt* 

ferbe ana blcfs us tit out Ifntrefts, Civil, Sacred, Secular : outoe;, 

mt Councils, Cibil anb $8H«atp, ^uppoit, 3lnnt*ma€e, ^559? c 

.tour Voters, pteab his ottm taufe»/3tbeng£.mtt mm% Beieue <wp> 

■flies, Secure ¥»t*oUm heritage, anb enlarge iiis swmimons m 

tljefe American' Regions.' $0 on to Ctottm mv Majefties Com*- 

•fcls anb Arms, M)ttn tijoft of ^c? Allies, ibttlj fuel) £ttfcci g as- 

pwtt foon tetrarf&rrftntTinrf^^^ > 

f «gs, anb nmit SUjfttcottfnttt, anb ptace to Europe, otojw . 

,%Ul be ttmm bolbtt on tfte Bljolt ©Sort*. %t® lAl-ft S 
itrictly proijibtt anb forbib all *>ttttle Labour upon t\)t latb sap. 

% Given Under my Ifend in Ne» /fe**» the Fifteenth D*y of J«?** "» * c B§!l * Yo * *•' 
fes Reiga. Amc$kt Demm. ijojj, 


God Save the Queen. 


* Copied by permission from "The Fast and Thanksgiving Days of New England," by Rev. 
W. DeLoss Love, Jr. 



New York to Buffalo. After a brief stay in the latter city, he went to Philadelphia, 
where he obtained remunerative employment ; and, amidst the historic surround- 
ings so long the scene of Benjamin Franklin's life and labors, he received impres- 
sions which contributed not a little toward establishing his character and giving 
bent to his active and useful life. 

About the year 1814 Mr. Canfield came to Hartford. He established himself 
in business as printer and publisher, and was so successful that in a few years he 
stood among the foremost in the business, 
being one of the first to introduce steam 
power presses in New England, and to print 
from stereotype plates. 

Among the w r orks issued from the presses 
of Mr. Canfield were many of the writings 
of Samuel G. Goodrich ("Peter Parley") 
and Mrs. Sigourney, Olney's Geography, 
schoolbooks published by D. F. Robinson, 
F. J. Huntington, and others, subscription 
books, such as " The Family Tourist," 
" The Universal Traveller," and " The World's 
Book of Natural History," all of which had 
an extensive sale. 

In 1839 Mr. Canfield disposed of his 
entire plant — the largest establishment in 
Connecticut — to Case, Tiffany & Burnham. 

Mr. Canfield began the publication of 
The Christian Secretary in 1822, and con- 
tinued it until 1837, when it was transferred 
to other hands. Having been early identified 
with the antislavery movement, when to be 
opposed to the "peculiar institution" was to 
be unpopular, he in 1852 succeeded John D. 
Baldwin in the publication of The Republican (a free-soil paper established by 
William H. Burleigh ), which was afterward sold to * M. H. Bartlett & Co., the 
paper being absorbed in the Evening Press in 1856. In the temperance cause 
Mr. Canfield was also a pioneer, and a successful worker with tongue and pen. 

For several years Mr. Canfield was associated with Rev. Gurdon Robins in 
the bookselling and publishing business in Hartford. In 1842 he removed to 
Rochester, N. Y., where he had established a bookstore and publishing house. 

Mr. Canfield w T as an enthusiast in his original business. He delighted in attend- 
ing to every detail with the patience and exactness of one who had thoroughly 
mastered all the various branches, and was satisfied with only the best results. 
The "register" of the pages, the even distribution of "color," the clearness of 
impression, the quality of paper, the proper spacing and display of type, were 
of as much consequence to him in the days of Ramage presses, inkballs, and 
stuffed buckskin rollers, as in later times, after he had introduced power presses, 
composition rollers, and many other improvements, into his establishment. 

Mr. Canfield attained the age of seventy-eight years, dying in 1864. He was 
a truly religious man, unwavering in his convictions of right, and characteristic 
for his honorable methods in all the affairs of life. 


*He of tower fame. 



About the year 1800 a Litchfield family named Russell removed to Bradford 
county, Pennsylvania, at that time regarded as in the "far-off West." One mem- 
ber of the family was a boy of ten years, named 
John. From the place where the family settled 
it was only a little way up the Susquehanna 
river to Owego, N. Y., and, after a time, John 
went there to learn the printer's trade. In 
1 8 10 he returned to his native state, and a few 
years later engaged in the printing and pub- 
lishing business at Hartford. The people of 
that city have long had abundant reason to 
congratulate themselves upon his coming, for 
he was the father of their own Dr. Gurdon W. 
9 Mr. Russell was quite successful as a pub- 

lisher. Probably the two best-known books 
which bore his imprint were a history of the 
war of 1 81 2 and a life of Andrew Jackson, 

In 1826 he and Benjamin H. Norton formed 
John russell. a copartnership, and the firm became the pub- 

lishers of the Hartford Times, then in the ninth 
year of its existence. Mr. Norton retired from the firm in 1828, and in the 
announcement it was stated that " the former editor will continue to superintend 
the paper, which will pursue in politics the course it has maintained, adhering to 
true Republican principles by supporting General Jackson for President." The 
statement may be regarded as a trifle anomalous to-day, but it was entirely proper 
in that epoch of American politics. 

Mr. Russell continued the publication of that paper until some time in 1836. 
It was in 1833 that a semi-weekly edition was first issued, the paper being enlarged 
in the following year. From 1828 to 1836 Grideon Welles was connected with the 
Times as a leading editorial writer. 

Some years after his retirement from the limes Mr. Russell removed to 
Wisconsin, where he resided until his death, in 1856. 

Although William Boardman was a prominent Hartford merchant for nearly 
forty years, it is not probable that very many are aware that he was in early life a 
printer. Mr. Boardman was a native of Lenox, Mass., and at the age of sixteen 
went to learn the printer's trade in the office of the Hartford Times, then owned 
and published by Samuel Bowles (grandfather of the present Samuel) and John 
Francis, the agreement being that he should receive twenty dollars a year, "with 
board, washing, and mending." In the summer of 1824, when Mr. Bowles founded 
the Springfield Republican, Mr. Boardman went with him to Springfield, the 
removal being accomplished by placing the press with all materials necessary 
for use in the business, and the household furniture, on a flat-boat, in which 
they were " poled " up the Connecticut river. Journeyman Boardman helped 
to put in type and print a part of the first issue of the Springfield Republican. In 
one of his letters to his father in those days, he said: " Mr. Bowles leaves home to- 
morrow, and I am to take the whole charge of the paper in his absence." 


In 1828, in company with William Faulkner of Norwich, he began the publica- 
tion of the Norwi£h Republican, of which he was also the editor. Ill health 
compelled him to retire from his position after the first year. 

In 1S30 he published the Tolland Advocate for an association in Tolland, Conn. 
In 1832, in company with Alfred Francis, he published the life, writings, and 
opinions of Thomas Jefferson, written by B. L, Rayner, the printing and binding 
being done in Wethersfield. A large edition was published, and the book, sold 
by subscription, was received with much favor by the public. 

In 1834 he was employed by 
John Russell as foreman in the 
office of the Hartford Times. 

In 1 841, in company with John 
Fox, he established in Wethersfield 
one of the first manufactories in 
Xew England, for roasting, grind- 
ing, and packing coffee and spices 
for the wholesale trade. This part- 
nership was dissolved in 1S44, an ^ 
in 1S45 Mr. Boardman undertook 
the same business on his own ac- 
count. His business increasing, he 
removed in 1S50 to Hartford, and 
associated with himself his two sons. 
under the firm name of Wm. Board- 
man »N: Sons. 

Mr. Boardman was interested 
in many enterprises aside from his 
regular business. He was. with the 
firm, the builder of several fine 
private structures in the city. He 
also, in company with others, con- 
structed several vessels of large 
size. He was a director in a num- 
ber of insurance companies, manu- 
facturing corporations, and banks. In 1S58 he assisted J. 
lishing the Jfor/ii//g Post in Hartford. 

He held several offices in earlier life, such as state prison director -in 1834. 
representative from Wethersfield in the legislature of 1852. and was again 
appointed state prison director, and also commissioner for Hartford county 
by Governor Thomas H. Seymour. 

In 1S85, after the death of his wife. Mr. Boardman built the Boardman 
memorial chapel, in remembrance of her. He survived his wife for about three 
years, dying Nov. 3, 18S7, in his eighty-third year. Mr. Boardman was distin- 
guished through life for his benevolent works, and by his will made bequests to 
many charitable and religious institutions. 


M. Scofield in cstab- 

The publication of the Xezo England Weekly Review was begun at Hartford in 
182S by Hanmer & Phelps. George D. Prentice was its first editor. In 1S30 
Edwin D. Tiffany, a young man of twenty, from Sturbridge, Mass., obtained 
employment in the composing-room. He began work as a " half-journeyman," 
in the printers' parlance of the time. In the same year Mr. Prentice left the 





Review, going to Kentucky to write the life of Henry Clay, and, subsequently, 
to become editor of the Louisville Journal, which supported Clay for the presidency. 
Mr. Prentice had been among the first to recognize the ability of John G. Whittier 
(then about twenty-three), and to prophesy his renown. It was through Prentice's 
influence that his successor on the Review was none other than the young Quaker 
poet. Whittier — who while in Hartford was extremely homesick — was of a 
retiring disposition, and spent nearly all his evenings in the "sanctum." He 
frequently invited young Tiffany to come in and chat with him, and the poet- 
editor and printer became warm friends. In after years those conversations in 
Whittier's sanctum were often referred to by Mr. Tiffany as among the happiest 
incidents of his life. 

An experience of two years in 
the office of one of the most popular 
newspapers in New England naturally 
stimulated a taste for journalism, and 
in 1832 Mr. Tiffany returned to Mass- 
achusetts and conducted a weekly 
paper in Southbridge for twelve 
months, a period quite long enough to 
satisfy him that the field was an un- 
suitable one for his more matured 
ideas and growing ambition. Return- 
ing to Hartford, he worked for a time 
as journeyman on the Anti-Masonic 
Intelligencer, and later for Philemon 

A few years before his death, Mr. 
Tiffany, in a private conversation, told 
some of his experiences as a press- 
man, and gave the history of his first 
business venture in Hartford. Any 
reader who knew him intimately can 
imagine with what dry drollery and 
quaint humor he related the story: 

" J. Hubbard Wells was a Hartford 

printer. His father, John I. Wells, 

the Quaker, was the inventor of the 

Wells press. When the father died, Hubbard continued the business, and added 

book printing to it by desire of many local book publishers. 

"Speaking of presses — the first I worked on was a Ramage, the kind Ben 
Franklin used to struggle with. I had some experience with a Wells press next in 
the office where I began my trade. Philemon Canfield used the Brattleboro' 
presses; they made more noise than forty steamboats. 

"David F. Robinson, the father of Hon. Henry C. Robinson, was a book 
publisher who gave Hubbard Wells a great deal of work. F. J. Huntington was 
another good customer. I was a pressman at the Wells establishment. Every 
inch of room in the building was utilized. Some of the presses were close up 
under the roof. It was so hot there in summer that the rollers melted. That was 
where I worked at first. Afterward Mr. Wells took a room down by the bridge, 
and I worked there. Then the whole establishment was brought together in 
Catlin's building on the corner of Main and Asylum streets. It was there that 




I was made foreman of the press-room. Very soon that office became too small, 
and we moved into the Mitchell building, where the Courant building now stands. 

" Not long afterward Mr. Wells had an opportunity to purchase a large printing 
establishment in Cincinnati, and he urged me to go in with somebody and buy him 
out. Well, to make a long story short, Newton Case and I went into partnership 
— that was in 1S36 — the firm name being Case, Tiffany & Co., and bought the 
Wells establishment, paying all the cash we could raise, Mr. Wells trusting us 
for the balance of the amount due. Alanson T). Waters was soon taken into 
the firm, retiring two years later, when Leander C. Burnham was admitted, and his 
name tacked on after Tiffany's. Burnham died in 1848, when the original firm 
name was resumed. In 1839, we were able to purchase the largest establishment 
in the state, Philemon Canfield's. We consolidated the two establishments in 
the old jail building on the corner of Pearl and Trumbull streets, and thus, 
without knowing it, founded the present Case, Lockwood & Brainard company. I 
expect there will always be a printing-office on that corner." 

The first " Hartford City Directory" (1838) was printed by Case, Tiffany & 
Co., for Melzar Gardner. Curiously enough, Mr. Tiffany's name only appears in 
the imprint upon the title-page. Mr. Tiffany retired from the firm in 1857. 
Afterward he was for three years president of the Merchants and Manufacturers 
bank, of Hartford. Upon the organization of the First National bank, in 1864, he 
was made its president, and continued to fill that office until 1876. From that date 
Mr. Tiffany was occupied wholly with private business matters until his death. 
He died suddenly, April 12, 1890, aged 80 years. Throughout his fourscore years 
of life Edwin D. Tiffany was an industrious worker, unostentatious in his ways, 
possessed of a rare fund of humor, and a true New-Englander. 

The youngest apprentice in the office of the New England Weekly Review 
in 1830, was an orphan boy, lately from Wethersfield, who had walked up to 
Hartford with a cash capital of twenty-five cents in his pocket. He was a sturdy, 
black-eyed boy, called "Jimmy." One of his many duties was the delivery of the 
Review at the houses of subscribers, and like other boys who held a similar 
position, was termed the "carrier." It was the custom in those times, and for a 
good many years after, to issue from the weekly newspaper office on New-Year's 
day a " Carrier's Address " to patrons, in poetic form. Toward the close of the 
year, Mr. Whittier wrote an address, which was quite unlike the majority of its 
kind, for it was a real poem. An extract from it will be read with interest, as 
a specimen of his early work, it never having been published in any collection : 

A Year hath gone — but not alone — 

A thousand joys have passed away ; 
A thousand rainbow-dreams which shone 

On beings beautiful as they ; 
Young eyes that welcomed with their smiles 

The coming of the gone-by year, 
Have closed like flowers of summer-isles 

Beneath a wintry atmosphere ! 
And forms that mingled in the dance, 

That floated down the lighted hall, 
Of raven tress and sunny glance, 

And voices like a zephyr's call, 
Have gone, departed year, with thee — 

Gone with the haughty and the brave — 
Manhood and helpless infancy, 

Down — down to one eternal grave ! 
So let it be. Why should we shed 

A tear above the beautiful ? — 

The wakeless slumber of the dead 

Is rapture when the heart grows dull ; 
And life is but a weariness — 

A yearning for that better sky. 
Which, as the shadows close on this, 

Grows brighter to the longing eye. 
Eventful year ! — thy charts reveal 

Its records to the wondering eye, 
The scepter falls — the high throne reels, 

A moral earthquake moveth by ! — 
The whirlwind of excited mind 

Has hurried o'er the ancient land ; 
And chain and fetter forged to bind. 

Have fallen off from neck and hand ; 
And man is rousing in his might 

And trampling on the oppressor's rod. 
And bowing only in the sight 

And worship of the eternal God." 

3 2 


On the first day of January, 1831 — when Hartford had a population of 
perhaps eight thousand — " Jimmy" was wading through the deep snow delivering 
the Review and the " Address " together. The boy might not that day have 
realized the fact, but, with that address under his arm, he was unquestionably the 
most highly honored carrier in the land. Forty-five years afterward, the author, 
whose fame then extended throughout the reading world, replied to a letter of 
inquiry regarding the address in the following words : 

Danvers, 12th mo., 29, 1876. 

Dear Friend : 

I have received the beautifully illustrated sketch of thy company's 

establishment, with a letter referring to my residence in Hartford, and thy own 

reminiscences of the Hanmer & Phelps printing-office and the N. E. Review. I 

remember writing the Address for thee, and regret that I have not a copy of it, 

though I have an incomplete file of the Review at Amesbury. 

I am very glad to hear of the prosperity of the " Carrier," and with all 

good wishes of the season, 

I am very truly thy old friend of the N. E. Review, 

rp T T John G. Whittier. 

lo James Lockwood. J 

Two years later a veritable copy of the address was found, which was 
handsomely framed, and presented on Christmas day to Mr. Lockwood, who 

regarded it as the most valuable 
gift received in his lifetime. 

James Lockwood, born at 
Wethersfield in 1813, was the son 
of Samuel Lockwood, a sea-cap- 
tain. Losing both father and 
mother in boyhood, James's early 
experiences were severely trying 
up to the time he obtained em- 
ployment in the printing-office, 
and he had been obliged to under- 
go many privations. 

The publication of the New 
England Daily Review was begun 
in May, 1833. It fell to the lot of 
James Lockwood to strike off the 
first copy of a daily newspaper 
printed in Connecticut, and for 
several months he "worked" the 
entire daily issue on a hand-press. 
Like most other young print- 
ers of the period, Mr. Lockwood 
worked for a time in the office of 
Philemon Canfield. In 1836 he 
entered the employ of Case, 
Tiffany & Co. His name and occu- 
pation were given in the first Hart- 
ford directory. For seventeen years he was employed as compositor, pressman, and 
foreman in the same office, and in 1853 was admitted a partner in the firm. The 
firm name was changed in 1857 to Case, Lockwood & Co. When the Case, 

:: mm. 




Lockwood &: Brainard company was organized, in 1874, Mr. Lockwood was made 
its vice-president, which office he held until his death, which oc< urred [anuary [3, 
1888, having been connected with practically the same establishment for fifty-two 
years. A complete record of his life and work would be virtually a history of 
the advancement of his chosen art during that period. 

The following extract is from a discourse by his pastor, which was an eloquent 
tribute to the memory of a just man, an association with whom for more than 
twenty years the writer of these sketches will ever regard as an honor : 

"Our friend was happy in the society of good men. He honored the church 
as an organization for propagating truth. He was in cordial and practical sym- 
pathy with the smaller churches of our denomination in this state, because he 
realized the value of association among Christian believers. . . . His valuable 
services for twelve years as treasurer of the Baptist State Convention of Connecti- 
cut, are sufficient proof of his willingness to share in service with others for objects 
in the Kingdom of our Lord, which he cherished in common with theirs. 
For more than half a century he has been identified with the business interests 
of this city. From 1836 to 1888, he has traversed a period of absorbing interest in 
the nation and in the world. To-day we notice chiefly that which belongs to his 
personal history. The ' carrier boy ' rose step by step during these years to the 
influential and responsible position he held at his death. He is a good example of 
the possibilities of our American life, whose prizes may be won by an humble boy, 
if righteousness be his polar star." 

At the Winchester Centennial celebration, held at Winsted in 187 t, one of the 
speakers in his preliminary remarks said : " Forty years ago I was a printer's 
devil — a harmless imp, I trust, but still a 
devil." The ex-" devil " quoted from was 
C. A. Alvord. Although he was a " New- 
Yorker " for many years, he began his 
business career in Hartford, and after his 
retirement resided there until his death, 
in 1874. It is a coincidence that both he 
and James Lockwood should have been 
born in the same year, and that their 
names appear in the first Hartford direc- 
tory. Winchester was his birthplace, and 
through life he was especially interested 
in all matters connected with his native 
town. Not long before his death, in two 
communications to the Winsted Herald, he 
urged the construction of a driveway 
around the border of the beautiful lake in 
the borough, to make still more inviting 
a place naturally beautiful and attractive. 
It is probable that the people of Win- 
sted are much indebted to him for their 
cherished "boulevard" of to-day. 

Corydon A. Alvord came to Hart- 
ford in the fifteenth year of his age, and 

served an apprenticeship with Philemon Canfield, remaining in that gentleman's 
employ until he retired from the business. Mr. Alvord afterwards occupied the 
position of foreman in the printing-office of Case, Tiffany & Co. In 1845 he went 

i l >1<\ DON A. ALVORD. 


to New York and began business for himself at the corner of John and Dutch 
streets. It is said that New York publishers, recognizing his extraordinary genius 
for fine presswork, assisted him materially at the outset in procuring a plant and 
establishing a business. Later he was located for a short time in Gold street, 
after that removing to Vandewater street, where he ultimately conducted one of 
the largest and best-equipped book printing establishments in this country. To 
enumerate all the fine works issued from the Alvord press during a period of some 
twenty-five years, would involve the compilation of a catalogue. One of the finest 
books ever printed by Mr. Alvord was " Armsmear " (familiar to Hartford readers), 
prepared by Dr. Henry Barnard for Mrs. Samuel 'Colt. A wealthy gentleman in 
New York at one time was about to order a book printed by the celebrated Whit- 
tingham of London, to ensure the degree of perfection which he desired. Some 
friend advised him to confer with Mr. Alvord before giving the order to the 
British printer. It is hardly necessary to add that the book was printed in America. 
A History of Vassar College, by Lossing, was a very beautiful illustrated work 
brought out by Mr. Alvord. Another, James Wynne's " Private Libraries of New 
York," was as fine a specimen of printing as ever came from an American press. 
Mr. Alvord was an active member of the New York Typographical society, and 
sometime president of the Typothetse. 

Mr. Alvord returned to Hartford in 1867, but carried on his business in New 
York until 1871, when he disposed of the establishment to the New York Printing 

A series of sketches, entitled " Reminiscences 'of Hartford," written by Mr. 
Alvord, were published in the Courant a year or so before his death. Historical 
and genealogical matters were much to his taste, and his wide range of informa- 
tion, combined with his rare conversational powers, rendered him one of the most 
entertaining of men. 

The oldest journalist in New England, and probably in the United States, is 
Alfred E. Burr, of Hartford. Mr. Burr is descended from good old colonial stock, 
and the names of three of his ancestors, Benjamin Burr, Thomas Olcott, and 
John Marsh, are placed among those of the first settlers of the town upon the 
monument in the old Centre Church burying-ground. The name Burr was origi- 
nally spelled Beurre (an evidence of its French origin). Both the Burr and Olcott 
•families' coats-of-arms are still preserved, as relics only. ''- "'' 

Alfred E. Burr was born in Hartford, March 27, 1815. He attended the pub- 
lic schools in early boyhood, and later received more thorough instruction at a 
, private school. His father, James Burr, was engaged in the East India trade near 
the close of the last century, when two of his brigs were captured by French priva- 
teers, and another was lost in a gale off Barbados. To meet his obligations, he sold 
ia large and valuable tract of land upon which the central portion of .the city of 
Cleveland is now situated. These losses rendered him financially unable to sup- 
port his large family in the manner he desired. At the age of thirteen Alfred 
entered the employ of George Goodwin & Sons, then the publishers of the Connec- 
ticut Courant. Young Burr's capability was quickly recognized by the Goodwins, 
and before he was twenty-one years of age he filled the responsible position of 
foreman in the office. In 1836 the proprietors of the Courant, who had become 
much attached to him, and fully appreciated his ability and integrity, proposed to 
sell him the paper on very unusual and favorable terms, an offer that few young 
men without means would have had the moral courage to decline. The offer was 
coupled, however, with the conditions that he should attend a certain denomina- 



tional church, and adopt the political faith upheld by the paper. Both of the stip- 
ulations were distasteful to Mr. Burr, and he was obliged to reject what was 
intended as the kindliest of proposals. 

The Hartford Tunes was then published as a weekly and semi-weekly paper 
Early in the year 183(8, Jones & Watts, the publishers, failed in business and sud- 
denly left the city. Soon after, John M. Niles, Gideon Welles, and one or two 
others, came into possession of the Times establishment. They induced Henry A. 
Mitchell, then state's attorney for Hartford county, to resign his office and take- 
charge of the Times. He became sole proprietor of the paper in May of thai year. 

In November, 1838, Mr. Burr called at the Times office and inquired of Mr. 
Mitchell if he would dispose of a half-interest in the paper. He suggested to the 
proprietor that the paper could be greatly 
improved, mechanically at least, and 
referred to several existing features in 
its publication which might be advanta- 
geously changed. Gideon Welles was 
present on that occasion, and it was then 
that he and Mr. Burr formed an acquaint- 
ance which ripened into a lifelong per- 
sonal friendship. Mr. Welles subsequently 
admitted to Mr. Burr that he had urged 
Mitchell to sell him the half-interest. 
During a later interview with Mr. Mitch- 
ell an agreement was entered into, to 
take effect January 1, 1839, at which time 
Mr. Burr took charge, ostensibly, of the 
mechanical department of the Times, al- 
though, during the following two. years, 
he did considerable editorial work, par- 
ticularly in connection with the news ser- 
vice. Near the close of the, year 1840, 
Mr. Burr purchased the other half-inter- 
est of Mr. Mitchell, and took full posses- 
sion of the establishment on the first day 
of January, 1841. On March 2d of that 
year he began the publication of the Daily Times, as a morning paper. No pro- 
spectus had been circulated, but after a brief canvass three hundred subscribers 
were obtained, and the new daily was issued. But there was a demand for an eve- 
ning paper, especially from the workingmen, and about two weeks later Mr. Burr 
changed the morning to an evening journal. In the course of a year the daily 
circulation reached a thousand copies, and in two years about two thousand. 

Mr. Burr had no working capital at that time, and no one to "back " him. 
He had given six per cent, notes on purchasing the small plant, which had grown 
steadily under his management, and it required hard work and the strictest econ- 
omy to meet the current expenses and pay interest as it became due. But his 
industry and indomitable will prevailed, and he succeeded in making improvements 
in the paper and reducing his indebtedness each year until he was clear of debt. 
His ambition was to make the Times the foremost paper in the state. He spared 
neither labor nor expense in pushing the paper ahead, often refusing nominations 
for the highest offices within the gift of the people of the state, preferring to make 
his paper successful rather than to accept political honors. In later years his past 




labors upon the Times have been justly rewarded. He has never failed to accord 
due praise to his brother, F. L. Burr, for his invaluable services in the editorial 
department, and to claim that much of the success of the paper, during the past 
forty years, is due to his vigorous and facile pen. Doubtless a great majority of 
the Times' readers most heartily concur with Mr. Burr's opinion. Several years 
ago Mr. Burr placed the business management of the paper in the hands of his son, 
W. O. Burr, who has proved himself entirely competent to successfully fill the posi- 
tion so long held by his father. 

Mr. Burr has been president of the Dime savings bank since it was chartered. 
He is a director in the Connecticut fire insurance company and in the Case, Lock- 
wood & Brainard company. He has served two terms in the Connecticut legislature, 
was president of the State board of health from the date of its organization until 
1894, president of the State Capitol building commission, and was a member of the 
State board of pardons. 

Throughout all the years of his busy life he has generously sacrificed much of his 
valuable time, and labored zealously for the benefit of others, and, aside from his jour- 
nalistic and business career, he has taken a genuine interest in the progress of pub- 
lic affairs, where his hand and brain and position have been faithful and potential 
influences in all that concerned the welfare of his- native city, the state, and nation. 



There was one man in Connecticut, certainly, who foresaw the inevitableness 
of civil war in this land when most people at the north regarded a southern rebel- 
lion as highly improbable. As early as 
January, 1861, just after South Carolina 
had passed the ordinance of secession, 
he addressed a letter to Governor 
Buckingham, emphasizing the demor- 
alized condition of the state militia, 
and the meager and useless condition 
of our army materiel in the event of 
war. In June of the same year, being 
a member of the committee on military 
affairs in the house of representatives, 
he presented a minority report, which, 
though having no immediate effect, 
embodied the principles upon which 
our present efficient militia system, as 
well as that of some other states, was 

That man was Elihu Geer. For a 
quarter of a century before the war — 
during ten years of that period hold- 
ing the rank of brigadier-general — 
he had labored faithfully to render the 
troops of the first brigade more thor- 
oughly equipped and better prepared 
for war than they had theretofore been. 
The story of General Geer's life 
is not without interest. His grand- 
father, Elihu Geer, was a soldier throughout the seven eventful years of the Revolu- 
tionary war. His father, Howard Geer, a Hartford builder, was temporarily en- 
gaged in the year 181 7 at Lyme, Conn., where Elihu was born. 




In boyhood Elihu Geer worked for a short time in a Mr. Benton'sjprinting- 
office, located on Ferry street, in Hartford. He there learned to set type, was 
roller-boy, and juvenile factotum. His employer permitted him to print a small 
paper, entitled "The Whole Hog," of which Elihu was editor and publisher. The 
paper was sold quite extensively among the boys for one cent per copy. Discon- 
tinuing the " Hog," he was regularly apprenticed to learn the printing business 
with J. Hubbard Wells 

In 1838 Mr. Geer became proprietor of a printing-office in Hartford, and in 
1841 purchased the right to publish the city directory, of which three numbers had 
been issued — i838-'3q-'4o. He compiled, printed, and published the Hartford 
city directory from that time continuously until his death in 1887. The first thin 
i8mo, a mere pamphlet, with one thousand six hundred and twenty-five names, 
was published when the "twin" capital city had a population of about ten thou- 
sand, and hardly more than two streets, running parallel with the river, with a few 
lanes connecting them, and others leading to the water. The octavo volume last 
published before his death contained nearly six hundred pages and more than 
twenty thousand names, about one-third of the volume being devoted to local, 
state, and national statistics. 

In 1850 Mr. Geer removed his printing establishment to the business premises 
which he occupied during the remainder of his life. It was there that four of six 
sons grew up his disciples, as it were, in the "art preservative." As an illustration 
of the advancement in our great manufacturing interests during the last half-cen- 
tury, it may be mentioned that he printed the catalogue first issued by Messrs. 
P. & F. Corbin, of New Britain, a paper-covered pamphlet about three by five 
inches in size, a facsimile of which is shown in their late sumptuous quarto pub- 
lication of seven hundred pages. 

Mr. Geer had considerable experience as a publisher. In 1839 he founded the 
Congregationalism conducting it for two years, and then selling the paper to a Boston 
house. He also began the publication of the Literary Harvester in 1840, the Hart- 
ford Weekly Journal and the Hartford Evening Journal 'in 1843 (sold to the Courant 
two years later), and the Connecticut Bank Note List in 1849, the first publication of 
that class, which was discontinued in 1875. 

It was during the pastorate of the Rev. Dr. Horace Bushnell that Mr. Geer 
became connected with the North Congregational church in Hartford. In i860 
Mr. Geer removed his family residence to Hadlyme, and represented the town of 
Lyme in the Connecticut legislature in 1861, and again in 1870. He was a most 
active and valuable citizen of that town, as well as of Hartford, interesting himself 
deeply in the welfare of each, and securing by his influence and energy several val- 
uable public improvements. 

It is not likely that a very great number of the people who transact business 
at the State savings bank, in Hartford, have hitherto known that the present 
urbane treasurer of that institution passed a goodly portion of his life amid types, 
and presses, and paper, and in an atmosphere redolent of the doubtful perfume of 
printers' ink. Such an experience, however, is a matter of history ; and, from 
memoranda largely furnished by Dr. Henry Barnard, the leading incidents of Mr. 
Stedman's life are here presented. 

John W. Stedman, born at Enfield, Conn., April 14, 1820, was removed in 
infancy to Hartford by his parents. He attended the old Centre (or Stone) school 
until the age of eleven, leaving it, quite inopportunely, to work in a country tav- 
ern, store, and post-office in South Wilbraham, Mass. After a year's service there, 



he returned home just at the time his father was upon his deathbed. The neces- 
sity of securing remunerative employment soon became apparent to the fatherless 
boy. Having read Franklin's autobiography with a deep interest, he resolved to 
become a printer. Applying at several offices in Hartford, he was invariably told 
that he was " too young," and for another year was temporarily engaged at 
different places in various capacities. In the fall of 1833 he secured a place as 
roller-boy in the office of Philemon Canfield. The following year Mr. Canfield 
employed him for general work about the office, and ere long appointed him assist- 
ant to the foreman * of the power press-room. He remained in the press depart- 
ment until the spring of 1836, when he began work in the composing-room. 

In 1838 he entered the em- 
ploy of Case, Tiffany & Burn- 
ham, f remaining with that firm 
i until August, 1844, when he re- 
moved to Norwich, having pur- 
chased, wholly on credit, the 
Norwich Aurora printing estab- 
lishment. That transaction in- 
volved ten years of uninterrupted 
care and arduous labor on the 
part of Mr. Stedman, before the 
debt was paid. The three pre- 
decessors in the business had 
wholly broken down and aban- 
doned it. A gentleman who had 
long been his intimate friend, 
thus wrote of his resurrection of 
the Aurora : " Coming equipped 
with an experience of eleven 
years with the best masters of the 
printers' art in the state, with 
habits of continuous and untir- 
ing diligence, and a mind already 
well-stored with the knowledge 
and culture to be derived from 
books — having been an assiduous 
reader, and to-day the owner of 
one of the finest private libraries 
in the state — it is not surprising that the old organ of the democracy of eastern 
Connecticut should at once have given signs of rejuvenescence, that its business 
interests should have revived, its credit been restored, and the young editor, with 
a character for personal rectitude and business integrity established, should have 
acceptably placed himself at the head of the party in this section, prepared for the 
earnest and sometimes heated political campaigns that were to ensue. Here, then, 
was seen i a man diligent in his business,' trustworthy, of courteous manners, fit 
to stand before the highest, repeating in himself the lesson ever present to the 
self-respecting man of every walk in life." 


From a pastel by Fenety, in possession of the Conn. Historical Society 

* C. A. Alvord. 

f Of all the adult force then connected with their establishment, Mr. Stedman is the only one now- 



In 1850, a bank commissioner of the state, elected that year, was found to be 
indebted to a bank, and therefore disqualified to hold the office. Governor Sey- 
mour appointed Mr. Stedman his successor. After a careful study of the banking 
system, he entered upon the duties of his new position, and served throughout the 
term. The legislature of 1852 renewed his appointment for another term. lie has 
since recalled the interesting fact that at the time of his first appointment there 
were but nine savings banks in the state, with a total deposit of $3,100,000, while 
there are now (1895) ninety, with a deposit of about $150,000,000. 

In the spring of 1852 Mr. Stedman was chosen to represent the third congres- 
sional district in the Baltimore democratic national convention for the nomination 
of a President and Vice-president. In 1853 Judge Waite of the Supreme Court 
appointed Mr. Stedman one of the receivers of the insolvent Eastern Bank, of Kil- 
lingly, the duties of the appointment requiring considerable of his attention for more 
than four years. In July of that year he was appointed postmaster at Norwich, 
holding the office until July, 1861. 

During his residence in Norwich Mr. Stedman ever took a deep interest in the 
cause of common school education. His vivid recollection of the inadequate edu- 
cational advantages experienced in his youth had deeply impressed him with the 
importance of a thorough schooling for the young. He was early placed upon the 
board of education of the city, and for many years, and until he removed to Hart- 
ford, was annually elected its president and executive officer without opposition. 

When the civil war broke out in 1861, the people of Norwich, in a mass meet- 
ing, appointed a committee of seven to promote enlistments, and to provide for the 
families of enlisted men. As one of this committee Mr. Stedman served until the 
close of the war, and rendered faithful and efficient service. 

In 1868, having then a thoroughly equipped printing-office for newspaper and 
general work, Mr. Stedman disposed of the establishment to a joint-stdck corpora- 
tion, retiring then finally from the printing and publishing business on his personal 
account. The sale included the ownership of the city directory, established by 
him in i860, and which is still annually published as " Stedman's Norwich Directory."! 

The Connecticut legislature, in 1873, elected Mr. Stedman one' of a special' 
committee of three to investigate the condition of the savings banks of the state/ 
and to report at the next session. The report was duly made, and while it was 
under discussion, Governor Ingersoll appointed Mr. Stedman to the office of insur- ; 
ance commissioner of the state. At the expiration of his term, Governor Hubbard 
reappointed him to the same office. Before the close of his second term, in May, 
1880, treasurer Sperry of the State savings bank died, and the office was tendered 
to Mr. Stedman and accepted. His previous connection with the banking interests 
of the state, and his experience as a trustee of the Chelsea savings bank of Nor- 
wich from its commencement, were strong arguments in favor of his selection for 
the position. This appointment rendered necessary his removal from Norwich 
with his family, and he again took up his residence in the city where he began his 
business life nearly fifty years before. 

Upon his return to Hartford, Mr. Stedman joined actively with the friends of 
the Connecticut Historical Society, and for the year ending June, 1890, was its 
acting president in place of Hon. Robbins Battell, who had been elected but did 
not serve. In 1890, Mr. Stedman was elected president of the society, and was 
thereafter annually reelected until 1894, when he declined a reelection. 

The friend, before referred to, thus wrote of Mr. Stedman after his removal 
from Norwich : " There are things eulogistic that had better be said after a man's 
death, but we must proceed to the close. The proverb has it that ' a man that hath 



friends must show himself friendly,' or what seems to the writer an equally proper 
rendering, one to have friends must show himself friendly. In either sense the 
truth here suggested is eminently applicable to the subject of this sketch. He is 
peculiarly a friendly man in heart and manner. His advice and aid were con- 
stantly being sought and freely given to the anxious and necessitous while a resi- 
dent of Norwich, and their blessings go with him now he has left them. He 
secretly delivered the poor in their distress, was a shield to the weak, and a liberal 
contributor to every call of benevolence." 


When Gideon Welles was summoned to Washington to enter Lincoln's cabinet, 
he found himself confronted with problems which no secretary of the navy had 
ever before been called upon to solve. He was expected to put down rebellion 

upon the waters, to blockade the 
coast, the bays and rivers, and to 
provide war-craft which should be 
equal to the great emergency. No 
wonder, then, that he should imme- 
diately realize the necessity of having 
near him a man whom he could im- 
plicitly trust, and one who should 
possess business qualifications of the 
highest order. Back to Hartford the 
Secretary's overtaxed mind reverted. 
There, in the office of the Evening 
Press (of which he was one of the 
founders), he believed was the very 
man — William Faxon. After a little 
time Mr. Faxon was persuaded to 
accept the position of chief clerk in 
the navy department. How well he 
filled that important station, and sub- 
sequently that of assistant-secretary, 
has been graphically told by his 
longtime friend and associate, Charles 
Dudley Warner : "It was the knowl- 
edge of his perfect integrity, clear 
mind, his fidelity, his ability to see 
through any sort of crookedness, his 
readiness and quickness, and his un- 
common facility in the dispatch of business, that caused Secretary Welles to select 
him for his assistant. It is only just to say that the success of Mr. Welles's adminis- 
tration was largely due to William Faxon. Neither man sought notoriety ; and it ,s 
one of the most creditable parts of our national history that the navy department, 
during the civil war, was highly efficient without the least ostentation of efficiency. 
If the inner history of the war were truly written, and credit were given where 
credit was never claimed, Faxon's name would stand very high in the list of those 
who deserve most honor. To say that he was incorruptible, is to say what all men 
know ; but how much was due to his vigilance, his industry, his unflagging execu- 
tive force and even judgment, is not perhaps so well known. He carried into his 
official business the same good sense and unpretentious integrity that governed his 
private life." 



William Faxon was born at West Hartford in 1822, and at the age of fifteen 
years began work as apprentice in the office of the Courant. John L. Boswell was 
editor and proprietor at that time. After young Faxon had been in the office about 
a year, another apprentice was taken — since somewhat widely known as publisher 
and horseman — one Robert Bonner. In 1853, after an absence of about three 
years, Mr. Faxon returned to the Courant, soon becoming a member of the firm of 
Boswell & Faxon, which existed until Mr. Boswell's death in the following year. 
Not long afterwards Mr. Faxon purchased the Weekly Express, at Amherst, Mass., 
which he edited and published for about one year. Returning to Hartford, he and 
E. M. Pierce became the managers of a new paper, the Evening Press. For this 
paper Gideon Welles wrote the political articles chiefly. Mr. Pierce soon retired, 
and it was then that Joseph R. Hawley began his career as journalist, the name of 
the new firm being Hawley & Faxon. The members of that firm then little thought 
that one was so soon to become a general in the army and the other to be second 
in command of the navy of the United States. In 1861 Mr. Faxon became chief 
clerk of the navy department, holding that position until the retirement of Assist- 
ant-Secretary Fox. Secretary Welles promptly promoted Mr. Faxon to the office, 
which he held until the close of Andrew Johnson's administration. 

After the close of the war Mr. Faxon made an extended tour through Europe 
and to the Nile. His letters descriptive of his journeyings were full of interest. 
He made a second foreign trip a few years later. 

In 1878 Governor Richard D. Hubbard appointed him bank commissioner. 
His work in the state bureau was characterized by the same business ability and 
methodical system which had rendered his services so valuable in the navy 

Mr. Faxon was appointed postmaster of Hartford in 1881, but declined the 
office, having already consented to take the presidency of the Hartford Trust 
company, which position he successfully filled until his sudden death by heart dis- 
ease in September, 1883. 

Mr. Faxon was a man of exceptionally fine taste, and had a high appreciation 
of art, architecture, and natural scenery. He possessed a very extensive collection 
of paintings and pictures of various kinds, embracing modern Rome, the ruins of 
ancient Athens, the Parthenon, Pantheon, Coliseum, Leaning Tower of Pisa, and 
very many of those ancient edifices, still standing or in ruins, which show how 
great was the genius and how rich the architectural skill of the ancients. He had 
also a rare collection of autograph letters of great men, including a letter written 
by each of the presidents of the United States. He was ever genial, an interesting 
companion, a steadfast friend, and typical American gentleman. 

Let no one suppose, after reading the foregoing, that it is only necessary to 
learn the printer's trade in early life to become wealthy or famous later on. In 
fact, the impecuniosity of printers, in general, has long been proverbial. Many, 
who were quite the peers of their early associates in the printing-office, have seen 
themselves outstripped in the race of life by others, who, at one time, were not 
reckoned candidates for future success or glory. One of the luckless number, 
long known as " Dr. Syntax "* — endowed with much natural ability, gifted with a 
fine literary taste, and always an agreeable and honorable man — was, alas! through 
the best years of his life handicapped by the same dire misfortune that has 
quenched so many bright lights in all ages. He was both compositor and press- 

So called because of the strict grammatical propriety of his language. 



man, and among others, his office associates during one period were John W. Sted- 
man, James Lockwood, and C. A. Alvord. The "Doctor's" final working days 
were passed " at the case." During the last twenty years of his life, notwithstand- 

his infirmities, he was an indefatigable 
worker in the cause of temperance. He 
was never married (albeit a lifelong admirer 
and friend of woman), and at the last was 
cared for by the kind friends with whom he 
had found a home for many years. He died 
in 1893 at the age of eighty-two. Peace to 
his ashes. 

Another quite different character was 
David Phippeney, invariably called " Dave," 
and during the latter years of his life gener- 
ally referred to as " Old Phip." His is one of 
the names in the first directory. In the 
prime of manhood, he was considered one 
of the handsomest men in all Hartford. Pos- 
sessed of a magnificent physique, with his 
black hair falling in natural ringlets down 
upon his gilt-buttoned blue coat, his was a 
striking figure, and he is said to have been 
quite irresistible. He worked the old-fash- 
ioned hand-press with great skill and phenom- 
enal rapidity. When Dave worked for John 
Russell, in the Times office, his employer's 
son, Gurdon (Dr. G. W.), was occasionally his roller-boy. In early life Dave fol- 
lowed the sea for a time, and his experiences, especially among the Pacific islands 
and their inhabitants, were a never-failing source of conversation when he was 
with friends. Nautically speaking, it may be said that all through life Dave was 
accustomed to "splice the main brace." He died in 1881. Whether the ancient 
practice referred to prolonged Dave's life to the age of eighty-four, is a question 
for teetotalers to answer. 




HE memory of a kindly word 

In days gone by, 
The fragrance of a faded flower 

Sent lovingly, 
The gleaming of a sudden smile 

Or sudden tear, 
The warmer pressure of the hand, 

The tone of cheer, 
The hush that means " I cannot speak 

But I have heard ! " 
The message of a single verse 

From God's own Word ; 
Such tiny things we hardly count 

As ministry ; 
The givers deeming they have shown 

Scant sympathy ; 
But when the heart is overwrought, 

Oh, who can tell 
The power of all such tiny things 

To make it well. 



It matters not how highly the parks in or near the city may be appreciated and 
enjoyed, there is always a desire for a journey by trolley, earriage, wheel, or on 
foot, and there is an added charm in a journey which has some attractive object in 
view. Reservoir Park, whose main entrance is on Farmington avenue, five miles 
from the city hall at Hartford, is one of the most desirable places for an outing 
that there is in the state. The pumps at Hartford that took river water from a 
well one hundred and forty feet from the Connecticut and had labored heavily for 
twelve successive years, were put to sleep, when, on January 2, 1867, at 2 p. m., 
water was first taken from Reservoir No. 1 at West Hartford. This was the begin- 
ning of Reservoir Park, which now has over nineteen miles of public drives, over 
three miles of private road, and five of the most beautiful mountain lakes that were 
ever clustered together in one system. The city also has Reservoir No. 4 in New 
Britain and Farmington, the Brandy Brook canal and surrounding drives, but so 
completely isolated from the rest as not to be considered a part of Reservoir Park. 

There were scoffers and doubters when it was proposed to build Reservoir No. 
1 on what was known as "Trout Brook," as will be seen by the following, clipped 
from a Hartford paper about that time : 


" I am Trout Brook ! But when you look, 
You look for a river in vain, 
For there is no water within a mile and a quarter, 
Unless it happens to rain ! 

I am only fed by a water-shed, 

And my very name is a sham, 
So that, to my scandal, both sides make a handle 

Of the devil's device and cry — dam ! " 

The writer, perhaps, did not realize that a water-shed is the first terrestrial 
source of all water supplies and in spite of his alleged lack of water, the sleeping 
pumps have but seldom been aroused from their slumbers since that time. 

The location of the lakes, drives, and canals are shown by the accompanying 
map, which, although not wholly made from actual surveys, is accurate enough for 
the purposes of this article. The lakes are numbered in the order of their con- 
struction. No. 1 is on Farmington avenue, at an altitude of two hundred and 
sixty feet above the Connecticut river, is thirty-four feet deep, and covers thirty- 
two acres. No. 2 is in the forest on the mountain, one and a quarter miles north- 
westerly from No. 1, covers forty-nine acres, is forty-one feet deep, and the city 
own forty acres of the adjacent water-shed. A canal connects it with mountain 
streams near Albany avenue. No. 3 is nestled closely by the precipitous side of 
the mountain, almost directly under Cathedral rock, about one mile northwest of 
No. 1. It was completed October 30, 1875, covers twenty-five acres, and is thirty- 
six feet deep. No. 4, lying southerly of No. 1 and separated from it by three and 
one-half miles of public highway, and therefore not shown on the map, is eight and 




one-quarter miles from the city, 
covers one hundred and sixty acres, 
and is twenty feet deep. No. 5 lies 
on Mine brook, between Nos. 1 and 
2, and was constructed in 1884. No. 
6, the new reservoir at Tumbledown 
brook, is two miles north of the 
water-shed for the other lakes, covers 
when full, one hundred and nine 
acres, and is thirty feet deep. A 
canal connects it with No. 5. 

From the building of the first 
reservoir the place was frequently 
visited by the public, and as the lakes 
multiplied the visitors became more 
numerous, so that the place naturally 
became a park. Large bodies of 
water are generally places of resort. 
Most men like water — to look at. 
The numerous lakes and beautiful 
drives here have brought this place 
into great public favor. 

The principal and most fre- 
quented driveways are indicated on 
the map by full lines, while the 
rougher, wilder, and more enchanting 
mountain drives to the west of the 
clustering lakes are indicated by 
broken lines, and a portion of the 
drive not yet completed at the upper 
end of No. 6, is indicated in the same 
way. The private driveway is not 
shown. Most of the drives grace- 
fully wind their way through the for- 
est where some of the trees stand 
guard by the wheel track to see that 
the driver follows the proper curves. 
The roadways are in excellent condi- 
tion, the best for light driving of any 
roads in the state, free from stone 
and smooth as a floor. No work has 
been done in the park other than 
building the reservoirs and roads, 
except cutting a little underbrush, 
providing a few seats and tables, and 
a fountain for horses, and hence the 
great charm of the park is its natural 
beauty made easily accessible. It is 
not a city park in such a sense as to 
be under the care of the Park Com- 
missioners. Its park features fare 



only incidental to the water supply, and it is solely in the care of the Hoard of 
Water Commissioners. 

The water flows from Nos. 2 and 6 into No. 5, and from that into No. 1. As 
it flows over the dam of No. 5 it falls upon a pile of small pieces of trap rock and 


immediately vanishes from sight, as shown by one of the accompanying plates. 
The water is thus purified by being partially filtered and thoroughly aerated. 
One fellow said it was irrigated. 

All of the mountain drives are grand. The one leading west of Reservoir No. 
2 is especially fine. Some of the way its tortuous track is barely wide enough to 
let a wagon pass between the projecting rocks on each side. If one does not care 
to drive over it, they will be well repaid to enter it a few rods and see a beautiful 
little forest alcove with superbly decorated walls. If one follows on up the hill 
they may see at the right the stone pointer elevated above the roadway and point- 
ing towards Hartford. It is a good example of the columnar structure of trap 
rock. It has fallen over on one side so that its columnar divisions are no longer 
vertical as they originally were. The elements have caused many pieces to break 
and cleave off on the natural seams, leaving a single unbroken columnar piece 


4 6 




standing out like the index finger of a stout, strong hand. Turning northward 
from this middle mountain road one can drive on the summit of the mountain 
through the forest, interspersed with evergreens, and turn eastward to the drive 
leading to Albany Avenue, or westward to the town road near Mr. Booth's and 
from there may drive on the town road northward to Deer Park on Albany Avenue, 
or southward to the old Avon road, or he may linger in the grove to enjoy the 
magnificent view from the precipice, a little south and west of Mr. Booth's, or go 

across the lots a little to the northwest 
of Mr. Booth's and see on the apex of 
the mountain a boulder as large as a 
house. There is no rock nearer than 
two or three miles that it could have 
been detached from. Turning south- 
ward from the middle mountain road 
we pass through a laurel drive with 
rocks in the wildest confusion. Partly 
down the hill on the right is what was 
once an enormous rock whose founda- 
tion was firmer under the middle por- 
tion than at each end and hence its 
own weight caused it to split apart and 
form the two rocks wmich now stand 
side by side with a narrow passage be- 
tween them. Still farther south and 
directly opposite a cavernous ledge is 
a well-beaten foot-path that by a short 
walk leads to the top of Cathedral rock. 
The great broad floor surface is cleanly 
swept and tastefully decorated with a 





network of projecting seams that divide the solid rock into the still firmly united 

vertical columns. On the top of this rock, which is only about one quarter of a 

mile from No. 3, about four hundred feet above it and nearly eight hundred feet 

above the sea, is an ancient 

traveler in the shape of a 

huge boulder, taking a rest 

for a few thousand years, yet 

standing ready to jump into 

the lake on the slightest prov- 
ocation. It is two and a half 

miles from any higher rock. 

It overlooks Hartford, far east 

of the Connecticut river, far 

southward of New Britain and 

all the country surrounding 

these two cities. The road 

leads from Cathedral rock to 

the foot of Reservoir No. 3, 

where one may take the red 

road (made of red shale) to 

the old Avon road, or, crossing 

the dam, go around the east 

side of this reservoir to any 

desired part of the park. Within the circle described by the drives near Reservoirs 

Nos. 2, 3, and 5, are some fine clear springs of cool water and a swamp that has 

all the peculiar charms and terrors of many other swamps. Poison sumac is plenty, 

here. We are always on the lookout for 
poison, so, when searching for floral treas- 
ures here, we kept our eyes on the sumac as 
the Boston police are said to have kept their 
eyes on John L. Sullivan, taking care that we 
did not touch the sumac or even come very 
near it ; but when the air is still, those who are 
susceptible to its influences may get poisoned 
in spite of all such precautions. There is, 
however, no danger unless one leaves the 
paths and ventures into the heart of the 
swamp. Drive or walk where one will and 
nature's cheerful greetings are ever ready to 
give pleasure to all who are ready to receive 
it. If one takes the park drive to Albany 
Avenue and to Reservoir No. 6, they will find 
a woodsy road for the whole distance. It 
may be approached from the Bloomfield road, 
leaving the town highway several rods north 
of the corner, where a white stone post is set 
to mark what is now the town line between 
Bloomfield and West Hartford. One man 
living here has never lived in any house other 
than the one he now occupies and yet, during 

entrance to middle mountain his life in this house, the town lines have so 
drive. changed that he has lived successively in 

4 8 



way with a great army of cedars on the right, and dimly 
is the great dam that bounds the east side 
of the reservoir. Barberry bushes abound 
here on all sides, ladened in springtime 
with golden floral wreaths and in the fall 
with coral-like chains of bright red 
berries. Even west of the lake on the 
mountain side they are abundant, and one 
might well imagine that he was near the 
seashore, for such quantities of barberries, 
remote from old house-places and so far 
from the sea, is a very unusual circum- 
stance. The road east of the lake is on 
the top of the dam, and here an unob- 
structed view of Hartford and its sur- 
roundings may be had. 

Many other interesting features of 
the park might be mentioned, but after 
giving a directory of its principal features 
the others will be best enjoyed by those 
who find them out for themselves. Every 
one who loves outdoor life should see the 
park. Those who see it once will desire 
to see it again and again, and all will 
agree that the city of Hartford has just 
cause to be proud of its 
Reservoir Park. 

three different towns, 
viz., Farmington, Wind- 
sor, and Bloomfield. 
This change of town 
lines explains the re- 
mark in a certain gene- 
alogy concerning a 
family from this sec- 
tion, that they "appear 
to have removed from 
Farmington to Wind- 
sor." The park drive 
runs westerly from this 
floating locality through 
open fields of diversi- 
fied character. One of 
the accompanying 
plates shows the road- 
in the distance at the left 

; -'i1fe~ 





Brave little flower — I wonder at it so ! 

I've seen its favored sisters as they grow 

In cultured beauty ; there, kind, watchful eyes 

Shield from rough winds, and shade from burning skies. 

Here, from a crevice in a lonely rock. 

These tiny petals graciously unlock; 

Content to bloom, unnoticed and unknown, 

Their strange environment unyielding stone. 

A two-fold text does this wee exile teach. 

It makes the most of all that comes in reach, 

And making so, the cleft it nestles in 

Lovely and fair, just for its having been. 

A few small grains of sand, and lo — it grew, 

And finds enough, its daily share of dew. 

Each gift God sends it takes and treasures up, 
And offers back to him in its small cup. 

I am rebuked of this wise little flower ; 

I will take heed ; repentant from this hour, 

I'll take the gifts God sends me, more or less, 

And if I may, so take them as to bless 

All such as come, by sorrow, pain, or strife, 

Within the narrow boundaries of my life. 

I will not pluck the flower — it were a grief, 

A sacrilege to mar its lightest leaf ; 

After to-day, may be its hidden seed 

Will bless another soul, like mine — in need. 

It came not here by chance or accident ; 

It was a thought, a beautiful intent, 

Bounded on either side by flinty stone, 

God set it here, and bid it bloom alone ; 

Then gently led me, drew me, here to see 

The sweet life lesson he had set for me. 

I bow my head upon the rock, and pray, 

Not that my hindering walls dissolve away, 

But that I find a crevice, howe'er dim, 

Through which the light may draw me up to him ; 

And that these very walls which close me in, 

Be less unlovely for my having been. 

This little flower has taught me how to live ; 

How sweet it is to take, and taking, give. 

Here do I hold my life, an empty cup, 

That at each dew-fall, God may fill it up. 


Extracts from a Private Journal. 


Very unlike the chronicle of our Yale student are the jottings of his contem- 
porary — a farmer's son from the northeast corner of Connecticut. In place 
of the neat, prim, leather-covered little volume we have only yellow and crumpled 
leaflets, and the contents are even more dissimilar. Our Joe starts out for service^ 
March 4, 1777. Two older brothers have already served their country in 
regular fashion. Joe, with a little more snap and spring in him, elects a different 
calling. Apparently he knows and cares very little about the causes and progress 
of the war, but he likes to be about horses and enjoys the fun of hunting Tories,, 
and so he has enlisted as a Continental teamster. The initial page of the diary 
is missing. Our record finds him trudging over the hills on his way back from 
furlough — a stout lad eighteen years of age. 

"Dec. 3, 1777. I sat out from Killingly and went through Pomfret, Ashford, 
Mansfield, Coventry, and [put up at a very good tavern ; then through Bolton, 
East Hartford, and Farmington to old Capt. Coles'. 5. A stormy day; through 
Southington and Errintown and Litchfield to one John Clemmons. 6. Through 
New Milford and Newbury and got to Danbury about dark. 6-10. Busy going 
round to various places for supplies and taking care of cattle — oxen and horses; 
living very poor ; have no cook and no time for cooking. 15. Go to Bethel. 16. 
Go to Stamford through Norwalk, stay at a bad place — the man clever but a 
Divil for a wife. 18. Thanksgiving Day but no rest for me. Bad dreams 
trouble me. 21. Went over a dreadful bad mountain into Duchess County to 
Col. Vandeborough's and loaded seven barrels of flour : passed through Oblong — " 
Very much discontented for several days ; dreams fifteen nights a-going about 
one place — Home — occasionally sleeps in a bed. Gets a cook and feels better.. 
"Jan. 1, 1778— 

' And now to let you know 

How we live, says Joe, 

We live like a king to what we did, 

For Mrs. Peck cooks for us. 

And so, my lad, it is not so bad, 

But yet it is not the thing, you know.' 

" One thing more, New Year's day Mother Peck baked rye and injun bread 
for us Continentals, but the brandy is almost gone, and what shall we do ? 
Good New Year's supper — rice pudding and baked beef. 20. Mad to see so 
many Tories about. 22. Went for hay to Hanford's barn — a Tory that has 
gone to the Regulars. Bought twelve sheets of paper and an almanac for a dollar. 
Saw a lady with a roll upon her head at least seven inches high. It looked big 
enough for a horse : wool enough in it to make a pair of stockings. Feb. 2. Saw 
two of my countrymen and heard from home. 8. Went to Fairfield and saw 
brother John ; got a good dinner of scallops, pork-sides, and bread — have the 
chicken-pox. Like boarding at Capt. Hoyt's, but Peck's folks were diabolical 
Tories. March 4. Just such a day as when I entered service one year ago ; ate 
a little Continental pork to give it a farewell ; delivered over my oxen and am 
a free man. Went to dressing flax with Herrick ; live well, have good cider 
and a bed to lie on ; feel like a free person. Nobody shall say when I shall drive 
team. 8. First Sabbath day I have had my liberty for above a year. Snipes. 


whistle, frogs peep, and Joe whistles, too. 10. Went to Danbury to sell my flax ; 
ordered by constable to take a prisoner and keep him, who had helped him- 
self to some rum ; was ordered to make restitution or take ten or twelve lashes ; 
chose the whipping; stript down to his shirt and then stood down to his knees to 
take it, and then Colman did freely forgive him, and would not strike him a blow. 
Herrick and I were paid 14s. for expense and trouble." 

The sweets of liberty were soon exhausted. Joe is now in great trouble, could 
not get his pay for service, or sell his flax. His breeches are giving out ; living on 
cost and earning nothing; bargains away his old horse for ^8.00, and he but eight 
years old ; lies on the floor again; wishes he was at home, poor boy. Sees blue- 
birds, robins, and black-birds, and tries to fly home after them, gets light-headed, 
almost crazy, and after a hard struggle agrees to drive team again for Capt. Morgan. 
Still the times are not much better; has bad pork and beef, and pities Continental 

"April 5. Heard of a Tory and seven of us went and took him in his own 
house. He had been to the Regulars. 18. Went after some cloth to make 
some trousers and could not get any and mine are just good-for-nothing ; borrow a 

petticoat of Mother Ointed for the itch and stood ninety minutes, felt very 

poorly. 20. Another misfortune, Capt. Hoyt's house burnt and I have lost my 
knapsack ; contents, one inkhorn, a snuff-box of wafers, a gimlet, a pair of shoes, a 
case bottle of West India rum, forty-seven pounds flax, one frock. 22. Fast 
throughout Continental army ; did no work and drew butter for the whole 
month. Went to the meeting-house and heard a band of music." (Probably the 
trousers had been patched up in honor of the occasion. " My Breeches, O my 
Breeches," is still his mournful wail.) 

" April 24. Eat victuals now at schoolhouse and lie at Major Taylor's on a 
feather bed. 25. Bought cloth for breeches, gay ; straddled two horses at once 
and run them till I fell through and hurt myself. 29. O, I have got no breeches, 
and to-day boiled or washed cloth to make some to-morrow. 30. Got my 
breeches; take care of sixteen horses. May 1. Went with Herrick and others 
to ketch Isaac Read, a Tory, that had broke from guard at Fishkill, and I stood 
sentry and as Hannah Frost was to make a sign I was to muster Hoyt and send 
him for men, and so I did, and just after the moon did rise they came, and we 
searched the house but could not find him, and then we came to Joseph Dibbel's 
and took him and Daniel and searched two more houses and found nobody and 
then we came back to Ezra Dibbel's and had some West India, and then I with 
five others did search Glover's house and Dibbel's Mill. This Tory had been 
taken for forgery. June 1. Took $66.00 of Capt. Morgan for three months' wages. 
3. Set out for Killingly. Herrick on horseback carrying the packs, I came a-foot, 
through Woodbury and Waterbury, over the mountain ; through Southington 
and Farmington to Hartford, Bolton, and Coventry to old Father Simeon's, where I 
staid all night ; then through Ashford and Pomfret to Cargill's Bridge and Esq. 
Dresser's, and got home sun two hours high. Next day went to training at the 

Though this boyish record may seem very puerile, it has its value in depicting 
one phase of Revolutionary service and in showing us something of the make-up 
of the American forces. This boyish, flighty Joe was but a type of hundreds 
of farmers' boys, engaging in service in the same careless spirit. "Thirty days' 
soldiering" in Sullivan's Rhode Island campaign (August, 1778), closed our friend's 
military career, but he lived to appreciate the wonderful results of the war, and 
rejoice that he had taken even so small a part in it. The record begun by him in 
1777 was continued nearly seventy years. 




Though the pages of history fail to throw any light upon the personality of 
the individuals whose names head this article, nevertheless, a happy vision of 
jovial old age and radiant youth rises up before us, when, as we listen to a grand- 
mother's tale of old time merry-makings, the dear soul smilingly says: "And we 
danced Old Father George and High Betty Martin." And she further tells us, 
perhaps, of the times of her mother's mother, and of how these two merry saints 
presided over the festivities of even those distant days. 

There are other names of old contra dances handed down to us, the very sound 
of which is suggestive of the abandon of mirth and good spirits — the Rolling 
Hornpipe, Miss Foster's Delight, Petty-coatee, The Ladies' Choice, and Leather 
the Strap. 

Hearts were young and feet were light, even in those stern old times of our 
New England ancestors, and though King George was on the throne of England, 
it was Old Father George who held a mystical rule over the hearts of youthful 

We are told that, though dancing schools were forbidden by the authorities at 
various times and places, dancing could never be repressed, but was indulged in 
by our worthy great-grandfathers on all suitable occasions — huskings, quiltings, 
spinning-bees, weddings, the launching of a ship, the raising of a house, and the 
ordination of a minister (!) being accounted such. 

The fiddle was the only musical instrument ordinarily in use at these times, 
and fiddlers were always sure of occupation ; when one could not be obtained, 
however, the music was furnished by a whistler ; or, sometimes, the company 
hummed the familiar airs to which their feet kept time. 

Just before the Revolution, we find references, in old diaries, to the use, in 
the houses of the wealthy, of an instrument quaintly designated as a " forte- 
pianer ; " but this was very rare and costly, and the fiddle held a place of honor in 
the hearts of the dancers, for many a year. 

Not much less merry than the dances were the games, which also served to 
pass the hours of an evening's frolic. Here, too, the very names suggest the 
rollicking abandon of spirits which was indulged in on such occasions — Rimming 
the-thimble, Grinding-the-boQle, Cut-and-tailor, Brother-I-am-bobbed, Wooing-a 
widow, being some of them. " Forfeits " were held in high regard, a favorite 
being, " Kneel to the wittiest, bow to the prettiest, and kiss the one you love best." 
Refreshments were served without much formality ; apples and cider were 
staple articles, and, on a cold night, a red-hot iron was plunged into the great glass 
or pewter mug of cider, and the flip went round. 

Weddings, naturally, were times of the greatest jollity. The record of the 
number of dances, sometimes performed at such festivities, is almost past belief. 
In Weeden's Social History of New England, he states that, " At a wedding dance 
in Norwich,* more elaborate than usual, with ninety-two guests, there were recorded 
ninety-two jigs, fifty-two contra dances, forty-five minuets, seventeen hornpipes." 

* Connecticut. 


One looks back, with envy, to the days of dances and gallants whose muscles and 
spirits were equal to such a strain. There was a quaint old custom sometimes 
observed at weddings — that of having a sister of the bride dance a jig in the great 
iron kettle, to signify her good wishes for her sister, and her own willingness to be 
the next in the family to leave the parental roof. 

Besides these rollicking merry-makings, in which people of all social conditions 
were fond of taking frequent part, the capitals and cities were the scenes of much 
more formal balls and " assemblies." These seem to have found special favor in 
the colonies south of New England, and we read of assemblies of fortnightly 
occurrence, in Philadelphia, during the winter. These were very select, the price 
of a season ticket being three pounds, fifteen shillings. No young woman under 
eighteen was considered of suitable age to attend. Partners were chosen by lot, 
and were usually partners for the evening. 

There was a record from the ancient diary of one Major Samuel F. Formon, 
printed in a number of the Historical Magazine, some years ago, which is so quaint 
that it will bear quoting again. It refers to an assembly once held at Louisville, 
and also contains valuable suggestions in regard to suitable conduct at the refresh- 
ment table, on all such occasions : "The Manager who distributed the numbers, 
call'd Gent. No. 1. He takes his stand. Lady No. 1, she rises from her seat, the 
Manager leads her to the floor & introduces Gent 11 No. 1 — & so on 'till the floor is 
full. ... At the refreshments, the Gent n will, by instinct, without Chester- 
fieldian monition, see that his better half (for the time being) has a quantum 
sufficit, of all the nice delicacies, & that without cramming his jaws full until he 
has reconducted her to the ball room — then he is at liberty to absent himself a 

Another writer tells us that the refreshments were usually rusks and tea, but 
the evident restraint under which the Louisville gallants were expected to hold 
themselves, while with their ladies, would indicate the presence of more tempting 
delicacies at their festivities. 

It was the custom, we are told, to have the gentleman invited to tea on the 
following day, with the parents of the young lady who was his partner of the previ- 
ous evening, and that these were most elegant and formal events. 

It is to be hoped that the young man was well versed in table manners, for it 
would have been thought as rude for him to refuse to partake of any delicacy 
passed him for the third or fourth time, as it would have been for his hostess to 
fail to urge him to accept it, unless he was able to indicate that his wants were ful- 
filled. It would seem that this would naturally lead to disastrous results, but, 
among people of caste, a set system of signals — the arrangement of the knife and 
fork and the position of the plate — afforded an indication that the guest had been 
adequately supplied, and serious complications were thus avoided. An anecdote is 
told of the occasion upon which the Prince de Broglie, visiting this country in 1789, 
dined with the lady of Robert Morris. The point of table etiquette of which the 
prince was certain, was that he must never refuse what was passed him ; but of the 
system of signs he was ignorant. It was only after he had swallowed the twelfth 
cup of tea, that the lady at his side, seeing that the situation was becoming serious, 
whispered to him to place his spoon across his cup. 

Among the stern records of struggle and self-denial and privation of those 
early days, these little glimpses of the lighter side of life come to us with some- 
thing of relief. We love to think that there was room for merriment in the hearts 
of those old ancestors of ours, whether they w r ere among the number to tread the 
stately measures of the minuet at a fashionable assembly, or of those to trip the 
merrier steps of Old Father George and High Betty Martin at a country frolic. 



In the foregoing chapter an allusion was made to the extraordinary growth of 
music in this country during the century about to close. It was there shown that 
the programs of music offered the public a hundred years ago were not such as to 
excite our admiration now, or be recognized as an important factor in the evolu- 
tion of American musical art. No higher aim was evident than to furnish even- 
ings of pleasure spiced with some innocent fun; and the advertisements were gen- 
erally to the effect that every effort would be made to satisfy the Ladies and Gentle- 
men who patronized the concert givers, and that they would be sure to get the 
worth of their money. Most of these old advertisements are quaintly worded, and 
all are very deferential. Something better than this, to be sure, occurred in Boston 
as early as 1786. The Musical Society, under the leadership of Mr. Wm. Selby, the 
organist of the Chapel Church, now known as King's Chapel, gave a concert of 
" Sacred Musick " for the benefit and relief of the prisoners confined in the jail. 
The overture to the Occasional Oratorio, " composed by the late celebrated Mr. 
Handel," together with selections from the Messiah were performed, when the reg- 
ular morning service of the church was proceeded with. Anthems were interspersed, 
and much of the service music was written by Mr. Selby. Later in the service he 
performed on the organ one of Handel's Organ Concertos, and the announcement 
in the Massachusetts Gazette had it that, " Lastly, the musical band will perform a 
favorite overture by Mr. Bach." This performance was given in the forenoon, and 
tickets were sold at three shillings each. This is a very early mention of the per- 
formance of classical music in this country. 

With the strong revulsion from the established religion in England, music, and 
especially church music, received almost a death blow, so that, as Dr. Burney puts 
it, " The organ builders, organ players, and choirmen, were obliged to seek new 
means of subsistence ; the former becoming common carpenters and joiners, and 
the latter, who did not enter into the King's army, privately teaching the lute, 
virginal or such miserable psalmody as was publickly allowed." And there were 
those in high places who used their tongues and pens relentlessly against such per- 
sons, and without discrimination classed them with the buffoons and common mirth- 
makers. One of the most conspicuous of these persecutors was Stephen Gosson, 
rector of St. Botolph's, who, in 1579, published a little book entitled "The School 
of Abuse, Containing a pleasaunt invective against poets, pipers, plaiers, jesters, 
and such like catterpillers of a commonwelth." An imitator of Gosson, but with 
none of his wit, was Wm. Prynne, who wrote in the bitterest vein. There was 
nothing in his invective that could, in any sense, be called " pleasaunt." When it 
came to music his sense of hearing was always defective; in political matters he 
was so unpleasantly obtrusive as to get very roughly handled, and finally had his 
ears cut off. 

* Copyright 1896 By N. H. Allen. 


A tree denuded of its branches still has life at its roots, and sup enough to 
put forth shoots, and in time, perhaps, become a better tree than before; the lopped 
branches will die. So musical art recovered in England long before anything of 
importance had been done in this country. It has been sufficiently shown that the 
slender achievements before the beginning of this century do not count for much 
in the present summing-up of the important factors in the growth of music in 
America. It took a much longer time for the prejudice towards refined church 
music, as expressed by Sir Edward Deering in the House of Commons in 1644, to 
die out in this country than in England. " Sir Edward, who had the merit of bring- 
ing into the House of Commons the bill for the abolition of Episcopacy, asserted 
in print that one single groan in the Spirit is worth the Diapason of all the church 
music in the world."* 

It has probably not occurred to many who know the fact, how the old custom 
of " lining out" the hymn, which was in vogue so long in this country, was first 
brought into use. It was resorted to simply as a necessity. The Directory, drawn 
up by the assembly of divines at Westminster, and adopted in 1644, has this rule : 
*' It is the duty of Christians to praise God publickly by singing of psalms to- 
gether in the congregation and also privately in the family. That the whole con- 
gregation may join herein, every one that can read is to have a psalm-book, and all 
others, not disabled by age or otherwise, are to be exhorted to learn to read. 
But for the present, where many in the congregation cannot read, it is convenient 
that the minister, or some fit person appointed by him and the other ruling offi- 
cers, do read the psalms line by line before the singing thereof." Again, as has 
been shown, the tune was scarcely ever sung in the same way by any two per- 
sons. Handed down by tradition, and Learned by ear, it is not surprising that the 
early singing in New England of even the few tunes in use, was simply chaotic ; and 
with their sturdy manner of maintaining opinions, it is not surprising that all at- 
tempts to improve this state of things, and apply the simplest rules for correct 
singing, were resented by New Englanders not so very many years ago. 

" The preacher gives out the tenth psalm, and then everybody sings a differ- 
ent tune, as it happens to turn up in their throats. It's a domineering thing to set 
a tune and expect everybody else to follow it. It's a denial of private judgment." 
Geo. Eliot (Felix Holt). 

It is probable that the custom of lining out was maintained for many years 
when persons who could not read were looked on askance. A custom so old, 
established as a necessity, could not be easily abandoned after the necessity ceased 
to exist. It did not get its death blow until near the end of last century. When 
tune books were first used, four-part harmony was too much of a mystery to the 
compilers, and the tunes were about as often written in two as in three parts. 
The tune itself was sung by the men, and the part which we now give the tenor 
was sung by the women, which gave it a curious overhead effect which they called 
counter. This custom of singing counter stretched well into this century in many 
parts of New England ; but it will be remembered that Mr. Amos Bull, in 1795, 
gave warning that his book, The Responsary, would be " set with second trebles 
instead of counters." During the controversy over singing by rule and singing by 
rote, the objectors to the new way could not find enough against it to carry their 
point, and must needs cast reproach on the characters of those who favored it and 
those who were willing and eager to learn it, for they were, of course, chiefly the 
young people. Of ten objections set forth by Rev. Thos. Symmes, in an essay 
printed in 1723, to which he gave able answers, I select four as follows: 

* Hawkins. 


"That the practice of it gives disturbance, rails and exasperates men's spirits, 
grieves sundry people, and causes them to behave themselves indecently and dis- 

"That the names given to the notes are bawdy, yea, blasphemous." 

" They spend too much time about learning ; they tarry out a night disorderly, 
and family religion is neglected by the means." 

" They are a company of young upstarts that fall in this way and set it forward, 
and some of them are lewd and loose persons." 

The " new way " won, but there was left over that damaging prejudice towards 
music itself, which was general rather than exceptional up to the end of last cen- 
tury, had not died out during the first half of this century, and, indeed, occasion- 
ally shakes its rattles at the present day. One stumbles upon it in unexpected 
places, as for example, in the diary of John Adams. In 1758, he writes of a "prom- 
ising youth " who had just entered the profession of law: " This fellow's thoughts 
are not employed on songs and girls, nor his time on flutes, fiddles, concerts, and 
card tables; he will make something." But the old fellow had to come down into 
Connecticut to get his greatest delight from music. Writing from Middletown, 
June 9, 1771, he says : 

"Went to meeting with Dr. Eliot Rawson, and heard the finest singing that I ever heard in my life. 
The front and side galleries were crowded with rows of lads and lassies, who performed their parts in the 
utmost perfection. I thought I was wrapped up. A row of women, all standing up and playing their 
parts with perfect skill and judgment, added a sweetness and sprightliness to the whole which absolutely 
charmed me." 

Mr. Adams must have spent a Sunday in Hartford on this trip, for, writing from 
New York under date of August 21, he says: 

' ' Went to meeting at the old Presbyterian Society ; the Psalmody is an exact contrast to that of 
Hartford. It is in the old way, as we call it — all the drawling, quavering discord in the world." 

Organs were in use in Episcopal churches in New England over fifty years 
before one was heard in a Congregational or Puritan church. Stiles's Diary of 
1770 makes mention of one played for the first time in July of that year, in the 
Congregational church at Providence, R. I., and adds : " That was the first instance 
of such music in any 'Dissenting' church in all British America." 

King's Chapel in Boston was the first church in New England to have an organ. 
It was a small affair, of English make, and was presented by Mr. Thomas Brattle 
about 1 7 14. This was used until a new instrument, said to have been selected by 
Handel, was imported in 1756, when the old one was sold to St. Paul's Church, 
Newburyport. There it did service eighty years, and was then sold to St. John's 
Church, Portsmouth, where a part of it is still in use. With the advent of the new 
organ at King's Chapel, the situation of organist was offered to a Mr. Euston of 
London, with a salary of thirty pounds colonial currency, and it was thought that 
with " dancing, music, etc., it would be doubtless sufficient encouragement." Mr. 
Euston, who was recommended as " a person of sober life and conversation," 
entered on his duties about Christmas, 17 14. The second organ set up in New 
England was that presented to Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., in 1733, by Bishop 
Berkeley; there it did service one hundred and eleven years, and for one hundred 
years there was no other organ in Newport. The third organ in New England 
was placed in Trinity Church, Boston, and the fourth in Christ Church, Boston. 
When this organ was procured for Christ Church in 1736, Dr. Cutler's assistant, 
who was sent to England for orders,, was requested to bring back an organist who 
had some trade, a barber if possible, " whom the congregation might improve in 
his occupation." 


The fifth organ in New England was that purchased for St. Peter's Church in 
Salem in 1743, which was used until 1770, when Mr. Thomas Johnston of Boston 
sold the society a new one, taking the old instrument as part-payment. It is gen- 
erally supposed that the first attempt by any American to build an organ was 
made by Mr. Edward Bromfield, Jr., in 1745; but this is denied by Spillane, who 
shows that not only was the Salem organ above alluded to built by John Clark, so 
far as known an American, but that one Matthias Zimmermann built an organ in 
Philadelphia, at least as early as 1737. It is said that Mr. Bromfield did not live 
to complete his instrument, and that Mr. Thos. Johnston was the first to build and 
set up organs in churches. From the ' k American Historical Record " we learn 
that besides being an organ builder, he was a music engraver and a painter of 
escutcheons. He was also a member of the Brattle Street Church choir in Boston. 
The date of his death is given as 1768. His successor in organ building was Mr. 
Josiah Leavitt. The only information I have thus far been able to glean of an 
organ in this vicinity built before 1800, is of one which he built for YVorthington 
parish, a part of the town of Berlin. The Courant had this advertisement: 


The public are hereby notified that Mr. Josiah Leavitt of Boston, organ builder, hath lately been 
employed to construct an organ for YVorthington parish, which is completed and set up in the Meeting- 
house. The Organ will be opened by said Leavitt on Thursday the Sth of November instant, at which 
time a sermon will be preached on the occasion, and Music will be performed. After the exercises there 
will be a collection for the benefit of said builder. 

The exercise will begin at I o'clock P. M. YVorthington, Nov. i, 1792. 

The purpose of these papers is to give an outline sketch of the progress of 
music in and around Hartford from the earliest times, but it seems necessary to 
make many excursions to far-away points in order to make clear, if possible, the 
general condition in the colonies, as there seems to have been an interdependence 
that does not now so much exist. 

To give sufficient local coloring to this installment, a few characteristic and 
peculiar advertisements may suffice. Solomon Porter advertised in the Courant.. 
under date of Jan. 3. 1799, that ne 

Has for Sale, at His Store on State Street, Hartford, 

An extensive assortment of dry-goods, hardware, etc., on the most reduced terms, for cash or short 
and approved credit. Also, at Y'ork prices, a large variety of Musical Instruments, suitable for church, 
military bands, or private amusement, with Books of Instruction, Reeds, Strings. Mouth-Pieces, Bows,. 
Bridges, etc. 

This is offset in quaintness by an advertisement in the Newport Mercury, more 
than twenty years earlier : 

James Rivington of New Y'ork advertises Keyser*s pills, Jesuit drops ; also, a certain cure for the 
bite of a mad dog, together with guittars, fiddles, violincellos, German flutes, tabors, and pipes, haut- 
boys, most kinds of music. Orders supplied by the first vessels to Newport or any other place. 

Newport took an early interest in music, and the Bishop Berkeley organ in 
Trinity Church had a good deal to do with it. They had good English organists, 
who came over to play it, and Mr. Wm. Selby, whose concert in King's Chapel,. 
Boston, in 1786, was mentioned near the beginning of this paper, was organist in 
Newport, in 1774. It was not uncommon for organists in those days to teach danc- 
ing, and Mr. Selby advertises a dancing school in the Newport Mercury. 

The Courant of June 18, 1792, has a dancing school advertisement, which is 
peculiar because of the extraordinary hours at which the young ladies were 
expected to be present. 



Respectfully informs his friends and the public that he intends opening a dancing school at Mr. Flagg's, 
■opposite the North Meeting- House, on Wednesday the 20th of June. The days of tuition are Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, from 6 o'clock in the morning until 8, for the young ladies, and from 8 o'clock 
until 10 in the evening for the gentlemen. 
Hartford, June 18, 1792. 

It may be that Mr. Hulett had a day's work to do for hire between the two 
•sessions of his school and chose such time as he could control. 

Another dancing master's advertisement in the Courant is interesting because 
•of the conditions set, which, for the times, were probably thought nowise remarkable. 

Respectfully informs the Ladies and Gentlemen of this City, that a Public Ball will be held at Mr. Good- 
win's long room, on Wednesday the 27th inst., when his pupils will perform the newest and most fashion- 
able dances. Tickets for the admittance of each gentleman to be had of Mr. Goodwin or Mr. Lancon 
at one dollar each, for which, Coffee, Lemonade, Wine, etc., will be provided during the Pupils' Ball, 
which will open at 7 o'clock and continue till 10, after which the room and music will be at the service of 
those Ladies and Gentlemen who honor him with their company. Any gentleman then calling for 
refreshments will please discharge the expense himself. 

[Here follows a long and wordy announcement of another term.] 

Hartford, Feb. 22, 1799. 

A collection of church music advertised in 1799, has also local interest : 

Sold By Solomon Porter, 
Harmonica Ccelestis, 
In two, three, and four parts, words adapted to each, comprehending not only the metres in common use, 
but the particular metres in the Hartford Collection of Hymns, the tunes correctly figured for the organ 
and harpsichord, with an introduction to music, chiefly collected from the greatest masters in Europe, 
and never before published in America. 

By Jonathan Benjamin. 
Published according to Act of Congress, Hartford, Oct. 14, 1799. 

This advertisement indicates that many instruments for the house were owned 
here, and there must have been organs too. At this date there were twenty organs 
in Boston, which is put down as a remarkable number. I hope before future num- 
bers appear to get more information about the introduction of church organs in 
Connecticut. At present I have not succeeded in proportion to the effort made. 

It will be observed that Mr. Benjamin provides the tunes in his book with fig- 
ures under the basses. This was a system of figures comprehending what is now 
known as Thorough Bass, by which the player, with only the air and the bass given, 
could play full chords. It is a system long since fallen into disuse, except that 
in the teaching of Harmony it is still necessary. In olden times the terms were 
confounded, and what should probably be known as Harmony was then always 
termed Thorough Bass. 

Harpsichords and the newer instruments, piano-fortes, must have been owned 
here in considerable numbers at the end of last century. The former differed from 
the latter chiefly in that the strings were twanged by little crow-quill " jacks," 
while in the piano-forte mechanism the strings are struck by hammers of felt. 
The teachers who advertised at this time mentioned only the piano-forte. 

Mr. Fala, 
Teacher of music from New York, respectfully informs the Ladies and Gentlemen of Hartford, that he 
intends teaching the Piano-Forte, Violin, etc. Those Ladies and Gentlemen who will favor him as 
pupils may depend on the utmost attention. His terms may be known by applying at the Theatre, or at 
Mr. Lee's Boarding- House. 

Hartford, Aug. 12, 1799. 

As this advertisement is dated in the theatre season, it is probable that Mr. 
Fala was a member of the theatre orchestra. 

Another advertisement of teaching the " Piano-Forte, Violin, Violoncello, Flute, 
etc., etc," is that of Mr. Ives, Music-Master, and dated in January, 1799. 


(*A Tale of Bristol.) 



Many years ago there stood on the outskirts of Bristol an old, dilapidated, 
and tenantless farm-house. The huge chimney of stone protruded from the 
low roof which sloped to the rear, forming the "lean-to" so common to 
•colonial architecture. The weather-beaten clapboards in many places were 
warped by the summer suns, blown away by the winter winds, or were hanging 
by a single hand-wrought nail to the oaken studding. The windows had long be- 
fore fallen victims to the remorseless elements, and the still more remorseless small 
boy, whose instincts then as now inevitably led him to shy stones at a vacant 
building until every pane of glass was shattered. 

Having served its day as a general storehouse for farm implements and rub- 
bish, its owner finally disposed of it for a song, and it was torn down, the decayed 
timbers and lumber being converted into kindling wood, or used for other pur- 
poses. Some of the paneled wainscoting is still preserved, evidencing the patient 
and skillful handiwork of the carpenters of the last century, comparing very favor- 
ably with the rapid machine work of the present time. 

In removing some of the timbers in the attic, one portion of which had been 
used as a sleeping room, a small tin box was found in a niche in the wall, where for 
•seventy- five years it had remained undisturbed. The box contained a diary, or 
journal, written in a lady's hand, and bearing the name of the lady with dates of 
-entries. From the hands of the finder it came into possession of the writer, who 
has many times pondered over the strange story recorded on the time-stained and 
evidently tear-stained pages. The names given in the following narrative will not 
give any clue to the identity of the persons mentioned, as the descendants of some 
•of these persons still dwell among us. 

The story revealed by the diary, which evidently was not intended for any 
•other eye but that of the owner, is incomplete, but tallies with certain traditions 
and data known to the writer, so that by means of information from these various 
sources a complete and connected narrative can now be written. The discovery 
of the skeletons of the Indian and horse in the same shallow grave near the big 
boulder on Hull street supplies the last link in the chain and locates to a cer- 
tainty the "big rock" and the "spring near to," mentioned frequently in the diary. 

The young lady, whose diary reveals the strange story that follows, was the 
•daughter of one of the early settlers of the town. Her name, which, in accordance 
with the custom of the times, was taken from the Scriptures, we will call Rachel, 
though that was not the real one. Some of the real names of others involved may 
be found upon the ancient tombstones of the north and east cemeteries, or at East 

* Originally printed in Bristol Herald. 



One summer day, several years prior to the Revolutionary war, a young man? 
whom we will call Richard, because that was not his name, and who resided upon, 
the hill called Chippens, took down a long-barreled flintlock queen's arm from its- 
hooks, carefully loaded and primed it, and set out for the heavily timbered lands 
bordering the Pequabuck river north of the park grounds to look for deer. He 
was descending a steep hill to the east of the prominent sandbank near "Cuss- 
Gutter," when the noise occasioned by a violent struggle reached his ears. Has- 
tening to the spot he found a huge panther and an Indian engaged in deadly con- 
flict, each struggling for the mastery, the Indian getting the worst of the fight, as- 
the teeth of the ugly beast were imbedded in his shoulder and its sharp claws were 
making fearful gashes in his bare breast and body. To shoot the beast was impos- 
sible without endangering the life of the Indian. So quick as thought Richard 
drew his keen hunting knife and plunged it into the panther's heart. Gradually 
the jaws of the fierce beast relaxed and were with difficulty removed from the 
bleeding shoulder of the Indian. Richard threw off his coat and waistcoat and 
tore his linen shirt, made and woven by his mother's own hands, from his back. 
Cutting it into strips he bound up the wounded shoulder and succeeded in staunch- 
ing the flow of blood. Strong and brave as he was, the Indian was faint from ex- 
haustion and loss of blood, and but for the timely arrival of Richard would have 
soon been overpowered by the animal which he had wounded and which had turned 
and sprang upon him. 

The hill near where this occurred was long after, and until recently, called 
" Painter hill," painter being the name by which the panther was known in colonial 
times. Richard assisted the Indian to his own home, where he was cared for until 
able to return to his tribe — upon the banks of the Tunxis at Farmington. Before 
leaving, however, the Indian displayed his gratitude by presenting Richard with a~ 
bear's tooth, stained by the juices of plants and notched in a peculiar manner by a 

"If ever you want help," he said in his broken English, "send me that tooth. 
Me come." 

At that time the Tunxis Indians were a harmless and quiet people, seldom mo- 
lesting the property or persons of the white settlers. In their journeyings between 
Farmington and Waterbury or Litchfield, they would often call at farm-houses for~ 
food and cider, the latter of which they were especially fond. Although the cause 
of much terror to the children and timid women, they were really inoffensive. 
They bartered their baskets and bead-work for powder and balls, and for blankets-, 
and cloth, as well as for "fire-water," which has long been the bane alike to civil- 
ized and to uncivilized humanity. 

The first entry in Rachel's diary bears the date of "Aug'st ye 3d, 1777." The 
war spirit was then at its height, and many of the young men of New Cambridge, as 
Bristol was then called, had enlisted in the colonial army. Rachel states that on 
that day she had met unexpectedly the man she loved. She had been picking 
blackberries in a pasture lot near her home. A footstep near caused her to look 
up into a pair of eyes set in a manly face. It was Richard. They had met at 
husking bees, and at apple-paring bees. He had seen her home from " singing 
skule," and had taken her out sleighing in winter. He had proposed and been 
accepted. But there was a cloud over their young lives. Richard was the son of" 
a churchman and a tory. His own sympathies were with the English church and 
the English king. With all his heart he believed in the apostolic succession, ther 
thirty-nine articles, and the divine right of kings. To rebel against the king was to 
rebel against God. "Honor the king," said the Scriptures. 

A M I r S TER Y SOL VED. 6 1 

On the other hand, Rachel was the daughter of a patriot and Puritan. Her 
"brother had shouldered a musket, and under the gallant Putnam was fighting 
.against the hated British oppressors. Hers was a loyal heart — loyal to her coun- 
try, to her Puritan faith, and, strangely perverse, to her lover. He had been for- 
bidden the house. She had been forbidden to speak or even think of him by her 
stern father. "You shall never marry a tory," he had said with clenched fist and 
set teeth. "I would sooner bury you than see you the wife of a traitor, and of a 
popish churchman." 

Well she knew that from this decision there was no appeal. 

So she pours out her heart's grief to her diary. A great struggle was going 
on in her young breast. Her lover had urged her to fly with him to the provinces, 
where they could dwell in peace until the cessation of hostilities. 

" I cannot fight against my king," he said, " nor can I fight against my coun- 
try." Already officers were seeking him, and he had eluded them for weeks by 
hiding among the ledges and caves of Harwinton. He was suspected of convey- 
ing information to the enemy, something of which he was entirely innocent. 
But suspicion was aroused, and he must fly or be in constant danger of arrest, and 
even death. 

But he must have one more interview with Rachel; so by a circuitous route 
through the woods he had reached the vicinity of her home, and had watched and 
waited for an opportunity to speak to her. 

What should she do ? Love called her to forsake home, country, everything, 
to fly with the one man dearer than life to her. Duty, loyalty, patriotism, called her 
to stay. She could not answer him then. So with tears and burning kisses they 
parted. On the morrow she would give him answer. 

Though in constant danger of discovery he hovered near, spending the night 
in a barn, and breakfasting on a few scraps of food that he had brought in his 

Long that night, after her candle had burned itself low in its socket, had she 
lain awake and thought and prayed. She slept at last and dreamed troubled 
dreams. Then she awoke again. There was one place she had not yet gone to for 
counsel — her Bible. 

Stealthily she arose, and wrapping a shawl around her took her candle and de- 
scended to the kitchen. There were no matches in those days, so she carefully un- 
covered the embers smouldering in the fireplace and blowing them into a blaze 
lighted her candle and returned to her room. Then she knelt by her bed, with 
her closed Bible upon the coverlet, and with a fervent prayer opened it at random. 
Her eyes fell upon these words — Ruth to Naomi: "Whither thou goest I will go, 
and where thou lodgest I will lodge; thy people shall be my people and thy God 
my God." She felt that was in reponse to her prayer. That should be her answer. 

At the appointed time they met. She took her pail to go for more blackber- 
ries, but in the pail she had concealed rye bread and cheese, and some crisp dough- 
nuts made by her own fair hands, for well she knew that her lover would be hungry. 
Hungry as he was, he was still hungrier for her answer. She repeated Ruth's 
words. He gathered her to his heart and held her there a long, long time. 
Then he partook of the lunch she had provided for him and detailed his plan of 
escape. She was to meet him the next night at midnight at a certain rock near a 
spring of clear, cold water. It was some distance from her home, but she knew the 
way well. There he would be in waiting with horses upon which they would 
make their way to the coast, where he knew a British vessel was waiting to take 
on board some tories from neighboring towns and to convey them to a place of 


" The best laid plans of men and mice 
Gang aft aglee," 

sang the Scotch bard. It was so in this case. 

On returning home cautiously, he found that a guard had been placed at his 
father's house. Scattered tools lay in the field where the men had been at work 
when warned by the sound of a horn that danger was near. His mother had blown 
a loud blast on the dinner horn when she saw soldiers approaching. Her husband 
and his hired men and neighbors were safely hidden in the tones' den, secure from 
the search of their would-be captors. Richard quickly retraced his steps until he 
reached the forest, then turned and followed a wood-path which led in the direc- 
tion of the den. He had gone but a few rods when a soldier sprang up in front of 
him calling loudly, " Halt! " as he leveled a musket at his breast. At the same in- 
stant two more soldiers arose, and while still covered by the musket of the first ap- 
proached him and demanded his surrender. Richard saw that resistance was use- 
less. His heart sank. All his hopes of escape were dissipated. His delay in see- 
ing Rachel had been his ruin. But he did not reproach himself. He might still 
escape. Any such escape was, however, far from the intent of his captors. They 
were impressed with the importance of securing him, believing him to be a spy, 
and they took good care of him. 

The nearest jail was at Hartford. Here he was to be confined until his trial. 
In the excited state of the colonies a rope was almost sure to end his career. 
Securely bound, he was mounted upon his own horse and strictly guarded was 
started upon the road through Farmington to jail. 

As they left the yard of his home, his mother and sisters weeping and wring- 
ing their hands, his wrist touched what seemed a small lump in his waistcoat 
pocket. Quick as a flash he remembered what it was. It was the bear's ' tooth 
given him by the Indian whose life he had saved. 

" One more word with my mother," he pleaded to the officer, who readily con- 
sented. Calling her to him he bent over her tear-wet face, whispering as he did so : 
" Send this bear's tooth in my pocket to Ponset, the Indian, and tell him to rescue 
me when I go through Farmington." 

His mother deftly removed the bear's tooth from her son's pocket, undiscov- 
ered by the watchful guard. She knew the fidelity of the Indians to their promises, 
and that Ponset would risk his life in any attempt to save her son. Still it was a 
desperate chance. 

As soon as the soldiers were out of sight she ran to the den where her husband 
and two sons were concealed. John, the next younger than Richard, was a stalwart 
youth, like his brother a mighty hunter, and well acquainted with the country for 
miles around. Without delay John was despatched with the tooth and the message 
to Ponset. He did not follow the public roads, but took a short cut across North 
Chippen's hill, passing the green water spring where the copper mine is now, then 
directly to the Farmington meadows, which he crossed, concealed from sight of 
the houses on Farmington street by the bluff to the east of the river, where long 
afterward the canal was dug. He soon reached Round Hill, the headquarters of 
the Tunxis tribe. Visits of white people to the camp were not frequent. It was 
now dark. He did not know what kind of a reception he would get, but it was a 
case of life and death and he did not hesitate. A burly brave lay stretched upon 
the ground near a fire brightly burning. He raised himself upon his elbow as John 
hurried up. 

" I want Ponset," said John. 

The Indian pointed to a hut not far away. A squaw stood by the door. 

" Ponset ? " he enquired. 


She threw aside the dirty blanket that served as a door and called the name oi 
the Indian wanted. 

With a grunt of surprise and indignation at being disturbed Ponset protruded 
his head and grunted again sullenly. 

Without a word John handed him the tooth. 

Instantly his whole manner changed. 

"What ? Where ? " he exclaimed. 

In a few words John made him understand what was wanted. Hastily slipping 
a hunting knife into his leathern belt, and in the half-savage, half-civilized costume 
he wore, he led the way to the river, where a canoe was in waiting, into which they 
jumped and poled their way across the shallow stream. Up the bank, across the 
fields they ran until the "street " was reached. Would they be too late ? 

There had been delays on the road as the soldiers had marched with their 
captive. There were in those days numerous wayside inns and the tap room of 
these inns were places of great attraction to the soldiers. Several times they had 
paused to quench their thirst with New England rum, and when they had reached 
the tavern on Farmington street elated by their success in capturing a dangerous 
tory, and still more elated by the potations generously provided by the patriotic 
landlords and frequenters of the taverns they had visited, they were in a very hila- 
rious condition indeed, a state of mind not shared by their captive. Two men 
guarded Richard while the others repaired to the bar-room. The two were watch- 
ful, but unsuspicious. Richard suddenly discovered two shadowy forms in the 
shade of an elm only a few yards away. A signal was given by one of the men. 
Richard expressed a desire to dismount a moment, and the guard readily con- 
sented, one of them holding the horse, while the other accompanied him. Richard 
walked directly toward the tree behind which his friends were concealed. As they 
passed it John suddenly struck the guard a violent blow on the head, which sent 
him sprawling upon the ground. Meanwhile the wily Indian had cut the cords 
that bound Richard and before a word could be said, or an alarm be given, they 
were rods away, running for dear life and liberty. With this start pursuit was una- 
vailing. Guns were fired and the whole population turned out, but conducted by 
the fleet-footed aboriginal, who was followed by the none the less fleet-footed pale 
faces, it would have been as easy to overtake an affrighted deer as the fugitives. 

Westward they flew, keeping in the shadow of the trees skirting the river until 
a place of security was reached. Here they paused a moment for breath and con- 
sultation. They were near the road in Scott's swamp and as they talked the sound 
of a horse's hoofs clattering along the road at a leisurely pace attracted their atten- 
tion. As it drew nearer it proved to be riderless. It was Richard's own horse, 
escaped during the confusion and on his way homeward. He was easily stopped 
by his master's voice. New hopes animated the breast of Richard. He might still 
meet Rachel and his plans be carried out. But it would not do for him to be seen, 
and parties would soon be scouring the country in pursuit. It was decided to send 
Ponset to meet Rachel, bearing a message from Richard with the horse, while the 
two brothers proceeded on foot to the home of a tory whom they well knew, where 
another steed could be procured for Richard. The Indian would then accompany 
Rachel to a place agreed upon near the present schoolhouse in East Bristol, and 
John would return to his home to relieve the anxiety of friends there. It still 
lacked more than two hours of the time agreed upon for the meeting at the bio- 
rock. The Indian was well acquainted with the locality, having frequently 
quenched his thirst at the copious spring near it while on his hunting expeditions. 
That same spring has been used for years to furnish water for a house on South 


At midnight Rachel rose quickly from the bed on which she lay, all dressed 
ready for her journey. A small satchel all packed in readiness she took with her. 
Her stout, home-made shoes she carried in her hand as she noiselessly descended 
the stairs, took down the bar that secured the front door, and stepped out into the 

Noiseless as she had been, a quick ear heard her footstep. It was that of her 

Into the road she passed down the gravel path between the box borders and 
the cinnamon rose bushes and the purple phlox and fragrant pinks. Then she 
stopped and put on her shoes. A father's keen eye watched her from the window. 
With one look at her home she brushed aside the tears and hurried down the road. 
It took but a moment for her vigilant father to put on his clothes, seize the 
trusty rifle that hung with powder horn and bullet pouch over the mantel, and to 
follow his daughter out into the night. Her purpose divined itself to his mind in a 
moment. She was going to elope with the tory ! He would put a bullet through 
his heart, was his fierce and determined purpose. 

Rachel never looked back, dared not look to the right nor the left. A vague 
fear took possession of her. Yet she hurried on. A foot-path through the fields 
led to the big rock. She walked swiftly. 

Her father followed swiftly, but noiselessly. 

She had not quite reached the rock when the shrill neigh of a horse greeted 
her. Her heart gave a wild bound. With Richard she would not fear. She could 
face death with him and never flinch. 

The outlines of a man and horse could be seen a short distance away. She 
walked up to them. Then she sprang back with a start. It was not Richard ! 
Her father was fast approaching unperceived. 

Ponset spoke a low word of assurance. He told her of the capture and escape 
of her lover. That he awaited her at the foot of the mountains toward the sunrise. 
Without a word she mounted the horse, and had just gathered up the reins, 
when the report of a rifle rang out on the still night air. The Indian dropped 
dead in his tracks. Instinctively she looked back. Her father sprang forward and 
looked upon the prostrate form. 

" I thought it was that traitor !" he exclaimed. "What does this mean? " 
" I am going to him," she said. ■ 
" You shall not !" 
"I will." 

"Rachel, listen to reason," said her father, surprised and a little awed by the 
bravery and determination of his hitherto obedient child. Meanwhile he was rap- 
idly reloading his rifle. 

" I love him," she said. " You would have murdered him as you have his mes- 
senger. I will go." She turned the horse's head and striking him a quick blow 
with her hand started down the path. 

Enraged beyond endurance her father placed the rifle to his shoulder, aimed at 
the horse's neck and fired. The noble beast plunged a few steps and fell, throw- 
ing his rider violently to the ground. Stunned by the fall she lay unconscious. 
"My God ! I have killed my child!" cried the father. 

He ran to the spring, filled his hat with water and returned. Bathing her 
pallid face he soon restored her to consciousness. Silently he led her back the 
path she had come to the house. Calling to his wife who was now up and alarmed 
at the unaccountable absence of father and daughter, he placed the pliant girl in a 
chair. Then he lighted a lantern, took a shovel and repaired to the scene of the 




tragedy. Digging a shallow grave he dragged horse and man into it, and before 
the first gray streaks of dawn, he had removed all traces of the affair. The place 
was unfrequented, and well has the grave kept its secret. 

Richard waited and watched. He paced uneasily up and down the road, but 
no Rachel came. His brother had returned home. All night he waited and won- 
dered. At last as the gray tints of the coming day began to appear, he dared delay 
no longer, but with a heavy heart, put spurs to his horse and did not pause until 
he had covered many miles. He at last reached the coast, found the vessel as he 
expected, and made his way to Nova Scotia. 

Shipping upon a merchantman he was captured by an American privateer ; 
escaped, reaching the West Indies ; again shipped to England, where he arrived 
safely. Restless and careful only to forget the past, he sailed for China ; then em- 
barked in a whaler, and so finally, after ten years of wandering, returned to his own 
country, landing at Boston. He then resolved to return to his home. Traveling 
on horseback he at last reached Bristol, but no one knew the bearded and bronzed 
adventurer. Stopping at an inn his first inquiry was for the girl who had failed him 
on that memorable night. She was living, a quiet, sorrowful, industrious, " old 
maid." The father was dead. He was struck with palsy one day at church and was 
taken home a corpse. His next inquiry was for his family. All were living and 
well. The hatred of tories was still fresh in the minds of the people, but all vio- 
lence had ceased. Putting out his horse he wended his way up the well-remem- 
bered road to the house where dwelt Rachel, his Rachel ! What thoughts, what 
emotions crowded through his mind. The door was open. In a low arm chair sat 
a woman, still fair, but with a sad, far-a-way look in her face. She was paring ap- 
ples. Richard stood upon the threshold and looked at her. Finally he spoke her 
name, with the old tenderness, " Rachel." The pan of apples fell upon the floor 
with a crash, and the apples rolled in all directions. The voice she knew, but the 
speaker ! 

" Rachel, don't you know me ? " 

His hat had fallen off. It was the same brow, the same eyes, the same curly 
locks. Yes, she knew him. He held out his arms to her, and with a wild cry of 
joy she fell weeping upon his breast. 


From Watch Hill. 


Across the bay, when sharp against the sunset 
The purple-shadowed hills in silence sleep, 

Rise masts and spires from dusky waves of leafage, 
Like some fantastic city of the deep. 

Between the purple of the open water 
And fiery gold and crimson of the bay 

It floats, as if the restless breezes blew it 

In with the mist wreaths from the Far-away. 

And hark ! Across the sea of molten jewels, 
Full throbbing to the glory overhead, 

Roll the slow notes of distant church bells, calling, 
Low, sweet, and clear, as voices of the dead. 

Who knows but if the far-off dead are gathered 
In the soft twilight from their scattered graves, 

From weed-hid caves, and beaches, man-forgotten, 
Or shell-strewn wonderland 'neath foreign waves ; 

Back to the harbor sought so oft at even, 
Dreamed of at midnight beneath alien skies, 

As oft in boyhood, slowly homeward drifting, 
They saw it, soft against the sunset, rise ; 

And half unconscious to their childish vision, 

Jerusalem the Golden hovered there, 
With gates of pearl, wide streets of golden splendor, 

And jewel walls self-poised in misty air. 

Into the shadow fades the fairy city ; 

Far in the drifting mists the sea birds cry ; 
As the lone ocean fires the dim horizon 

And pallid stars peep out along the sky. 

The dawn will find a village quaint and quiet, 
A whaling port whose life has ebbed aw T ay. 

With traces here and there of old time glory, 
But not the city of my dreams, across the bay. 




All the important details of the early settlement of the town of Meriden, while 
it formed a part of the town of Wallingford, are hopelessly lost. There only remain 
certain traditions, gleaned from the memories of aged persons long since entered 
into their rest. Patriotic as were the people in 
those early years when they were fairly roused, 
they seem to have had very little faith in the 
future of their own particular province. To be 
sure, the tillage of the land, the garnering of 
fruits and cereals for food, wool growing, and 
the raising of flax, the home spinning and home 
weaving which converted the raw substances 
into material for clothing, for the making of 
which the thread, at least the coarser thread, 
must also be spun, and the home making of the 
homespun cloth into garments, left little time 
for the record of events other than births and 
deaths. However, it is certain that the section 
now included in the town and city of Meriden 
bore from the very first its present name. As 
to the origin many guesses have been made ; 
but, as many New England towns were named 
in loving and perhaps homesick memory of 
English localities, it is at least not unlikely 
that some such reason dictated the choice in 
this instance. As the years went on it was 
seen to be a "good land with wood and water" 
and a desirable farming country ; possessing 
also a blacksmithery, and a tiny repository of 
tea and coffee, rum and molasses, which consti- 
tuted the luxuries of the period. A rude dis- 
tillery transmuted the comparatively harmless 
cider, of which every thrifty > farmer's cellar 
contained rows upon rows of barrels, into the 
more potent and evil-smelling liquid, cider 
brandy. With all these signs of prosperity, the settlers found themselves entitled 
by their numbers to town privileges, and applied successfully for such. Naturally, 
Wallingford did not much relish the loss of so much territory with its tax-paying 
population. Much local jealousy and ill feeling was the outcome, and lasted for 
years. This feeling was obvious in the intercourse between the two places even 


Inscribed on north side — Erected by t h e town 
of Meriden, 1857. On east side — In memory of 
the first settlers of the town of Meriden, who 
were buried within and near this ench sure and 
whose names so far as known are inscribed on 
this monument. The meeting-house in which 
they worshiped, the first erected in the town, 
stood about 50 rods west of this memorial. On 
the other two sides are inscribed the names. 




unates were numerous in proportion to the rest of the citizens. 

would conclude by saying : " Somehow, they did not live long 
as though they had been poisoned off; 
in two years they were nearly all of 
them gone," which led to an insinua- 
tion that the fact was not exactly to 
the credit of the new incorporate. The 
nucleus of the city of Meriden was then 
at the present junction of Ann and 
Curtis streets. A little way east of 
Curtis street rises an eminence whose 
gradual slope reaches an altitude of 
about five hundred feet above the sea 
level. This hill is known to the hordes 
of boys who frequent it as "Buckwheat 
Hill;" but in the early years it was 
known as "Meeting-house Hill;" and 
sixty years ago as " Burying-ground 
Hill." Upon its slope is a living spring 
which supplies an ever-flowing stream, 
known to this day as " Meeting-house 
Brook." Here, just upon the slope of 
the hill stood the first meeting-house. 
The old lady referred to had seen 
the remains of the old house, "but it 
was gone before my time," said she. 
At the spring the early settlers slaked 
their thirst, after their long walks or 
horseback rides to the Sunday service; 
for at that early time, there was no 
vehicle other than a most primitive ox 
cart to be found within the town lines. 

The old burying ground which gave ■■* : «^P 

the hill one of its names, lies near the curtis street 

as late as 1840. All 
the difficulties possi- 
ble were raised to 
hinder a division. An 
ancient lady, whose 
age, if living, would 
reach sixteen years 
beyond a century, told 
the writer that one 
condition made and 
accepted was, that the 
new corporate body 
should take an undue 
proportion of the town 
poor, and it seems an 
odd thing, that in 
those "good old 
times," these unfort- 
The old lady 
They died off 




summit. The neglect and vandalism of half a century ago were fast destroying all 
vestiges of the graves. The ancient brown headstones were carelessly broken, and 
portions of them even built into the surrounding wall, when the suggestion of pre- 
servation for the few remaining records met with approval. A monument, with as 
many names as could be recovered, now crowns the slope. But many who were 
laid, no doubt with bitter grief 
and tears, to their last rest 
upon the then lonely hillside, 
sleep there still, forgotten and 
,l nameless here forevermore." 
Few as were the people, death 
must have visited them not 
seldom, for the God's acre on 
the hillside held more inhabit- 
ants than did the dwellings 
on the level below. When 
the aged one or the infant of 
days had been laid in the 
unlined elmwood coffin, with 
its hard suggestive outlines, 
with hands and feet tied, as 
was the custom then, it was borne on the shoulders of men, for the office of bearer 
was then a literal one, up the face of the steep hill, and, undefended by outside 
shield or dainty blossoms, the hard earth was thrown upon it, and the mourners 
went home, to a life almost as hard and cold as the clods above the buried one. It 
must have been "a survival of the fittest." Only a superhuman sort of baby 

could have outlived the bare 
cold floors, and the lack of 
softness and " cuddling." 

At the foot of this hill 
there stands one of the best 
types of the New England 
farm-house of a century ago. 
In this house General Henry 
Benham of the United States 
Army, well known in our civil 
war, and sometime comman- 
dant of the Charlestown navy 
yard, spent a part of his forlorn 
boyhood. Compelled by his 
miserly stepfather to take ref- 
uge in the garret, the not at 
all prepossessing but studious 


and ambitious lad was otten 
dependent on the kindness and charity of rather unsympathizing neighbors for the 
actual necessities of life. He was a disagreeable youth, but his indomitable will 
and a certain personal magnetism compelled respect. In spite of all sorts of 
counter influences and drawbacks, his individual pride not the least among them, 
he at length won the patronage of the late Ralph I. Ingersoll, and was by his 
influence sent to West Point. 

His early history is a romantic one, but has been written elsewhere. Curtis 
street is now a straieht-sidewalked, elm-arched thoroughfare, with electric lights 




select a name for the new Curtis baby. Of his large 
Benjamin, and Amos built houses, and settled within a 
dwelling, thus giving the street the name which it has ev 
road was at that time the only 
direct highway to Wallingford 
center. Here, his descendants 
have lived ever since, and two of 
the old houses are still standing, 
with the great chimneys, brick 
ovens, and stone hearths, worn 
by the big iron bean-porridge 
pots, and the long-legged skillets, 
of the days of big backlogs, and 
hard-wood coals, of great brown 
loaves baked in the brick ovens, 
and buttermilk shortcakes baked 
before the fire. A third dwelling 
as old as the others has been 
modernized, and is now a pictur- 
esque villa-like residence. Upon 
Curtis street stands the modern 
brick house built by Lemuel J. 
Curtis, the founder of the "Curtis 
Home," for the maintenance of 
which he gave a fund of half a 
million. The buildings belonging 
to this Home are large, sub- 
stantial, and handsome ; the man- 
agement is liberal, and the funds 
are, as far as human foresight and 
forethought can make them, se- 
cure from loss. The East cem- 
etery contains the plain granite 
obelisk, on which is engraved his entrance to 

and cars to match ; 
but when the barn-like, 
almost hovel-like meet- 
ing-house stood on the 
hillside above it, there 
were only two dwell- 
ings upon it ; one of 
them was the home of 
Daniel Curtis and his 
wife, Mindwell Hough. 
The house stood some 
distance east of the 
present street line. It 
has been told of him 
that when each of his 
numerous sons were 
born, he would take 
his Bible, and from it 
family, Samuel, Elisha, 
few rods of the parent 
er since retained. The 



name and those of his two daughters. The gateway at the entrance of this 
cemetery is worthy of notice. Seen from the main street through the vista made 
by the short avenue of elms, it is picturesque. Hitherto it has been strangely 
overlooked by devotees of the camera. It is a replica of a gateway in an old 
English castle. Its adoption was suggested by the late Dr. Wheaton of Trinity 
College, a man of excellent taste and judgment, enriched by much learning, and 
broadened by extensive foreign travel. 

The nearest way from the old center of the town to the settlement at "Fall 
Plains" (South Meriden), was partly by a road which led over "Holt-Hill," and 
partly by a footpath which traversed a rye field and a hillside famous for black- 
berries, and thence through a grove of hickory trees. At Holt Hill the first cutting 
and, .indeed, the only one of importance, by the Hartford and New Haven railroad 
was made. Very wonderful it was thought, only rivaled by the " viaduct " across 
the turnpike some miles below. The passage cut through the red rock which 
underlies nearly, if not quite, all Meriden, was narrow but wide enough for the small 
engine and the diminutive passenger coaches with their two transverse seats and 
the doors at the side. Exceedingly progressive they were considered to be. The 
footpath led close by the " copper-mine pits." These excavations are now nearly 
filled up. They were once, nobody knows with any certainty by whom, worked for 
ore. Some very good specimens were taken out, and were in the possession of a 
family in the vicinity. They were, it is thought, given to the Wesleyan University. 
In comparatively recent years, bits containing visible traces of copper ore have 
been picked up from the surface of the ground, thrown out by the long-ago exca- 
vations. No one now living has any knowledge of what led at first to the rude 
mining or of the reasons for its relinquishment. Years ago, adventurous boys 
would descend into the then rather deep shafts, but the discovery that black snakes 
had pre-empted a claim there made the diversion unpopular. A Yale professor 
once said that Connecticut was rich in ores, but they lay so deep that mining for 
them would never pay. These old copper mines seem to have promised well near 
the surface. Whether the ore gave out or faith and patience were lacking, cannot 
be known. Their situation is within the beautiful grove of hickory trees which 
gives the cemetery its name. For the old rye field and blackberry patch is now 
"Walnut Grove Cemetery," beautifully laid out, and containing many fine monu- 
ments, and some substantially built mausoleums. 

A road with dwellings thereupon now crosses the once lonely hill where the 
first settlers of Meriden built their first place of public worship, and from which 
they carried their dead to the burial place on the hill above. How in that comfort- 
less structure, they must have shivered through the hour of the " long prayer," 
and the hour and more of the doctrinal sermon. But how lovely it must have been 
in the long Sunday hours of summer. 

The next descendants of the pioneers of Meriden lie in the next oldest burial 
ground on Broad street. This ground will hardly receive another occupant. 
Two maiden ladies of great age were the last to be buried there within the last ten or 
fifteen years. In one corner of this old burial ground once stood the first Episcopal 
and the second Baptist place of worship in Meriden. Farther to the north, on 
Broad street, is the Center Congregational building, which still occupies the site 
given for that purpose more than a century ago. 



On a former occasion we visited in fancy the several sections of the parish, 
acquainting ourselves with the inhabitants and taking a look at some of their 
homes. Could we cross the threshold and have a glimpse of the actual home life, 
perhaps we should find more of comfort and good-cheer than we are apt to associ- 


ate with the homes of that period. We have heard so much of the stern and 
gloomy natures of our forefathers, of the rigid discipline in family life, and of the 
"blue laws" (mythical perhaps) that controlled the state, we have come to feel 
that living must have been a very sad pleasure a hundred years ago. But we for- 
get that nearly every house was full to overflowing with young people, for large 
families were the rule, not the exception, those days, and wherever there is youth 
there is always joy. There may have been a little more restraint then than now, a 
little more fear of law, human and divine, it is just possible, but we may be sure 
there were sports and merry-makings, although few reports have been handed 
down to us. 

Before we review the actual part of this parish in the revolution, let us for a 
moment consider the church. Although the three sections of the parish were 
widely separated, there was, at the time of the war and for many years after but 
one "meeting house." This was built in 1756 and stood near what is now, with 



singular infelicity, called " Paradise Park." It was a plain, barn-like structure, 
having few attractions without or comforts within. Here the people gathered 
with a zeal and regularity quite unknown in modern times. If we have read Dr. 
Smalley aright, no excuses having for their basis the "weather" or "distance" or 
"traveling" would have been accepted by him in lieu of attendance at church. 
The elders came on horseback, the younger people afoot, often carrying in their 
hands their precious Sunday foot-gear, which was not put on until the meeting- 
house yard was reached. When Dr. Smalley entered the front door he was accus- 
tomed to give a little stamp of the foot, which was the signal for the elders and 
principal men to rise and greet him as he passed along the broad aisle to the pulpit. 
The church was entirely without warmth excepting what was furnished by the 
foot-stoves of the women. (But perhaps a people who could accept some of the 
doctrines* of those times, did not mind the weather!) Dr. Smalley in his preaching, 
faithfully expounded law and doctrine. He used to say, "If you wish to have a 
revival begin, preach the law; if your revival begins to wane, preach the law; if 
you wish to secure sound conversions, preach the law." 

A half hour at noon for rest and lunch at the " Sabba-day house" near by, 
fortified them for the cold truths of another long sermon in the afternoon, after 
which they returned home to round out the day by saying the catechism. Can we 
imagine this congregation on a 
bleak December morning sing- || 
ing "O day of rest and glad- 
ness " ? But it was many years 
later before there was any in- 
spiration to write this and kin- 
dred hymns that so enrich the 
worship of to-day. That they 
had music of some kind at their 
services is shown by a vote of 
the society in 1786, that in order 
to " Improve the singing (what 
a very modern sound that has !) 
the Prudenshall Committee might 

draw a sum not exceeding six pounds for the Incouriging of singing, and to procuer 
such Instrewments of Musick as they think Propper and Decent." Whether this 
munificent sum was spent in teaching the demi-semi-quavers then in vogue, or 
whether it was invested in such " Instrewments " as pitch-pipes and sanctified 
fiddles, cannot now be determined. Well, probably the music of that day was 
very unmusical, and the sermons, which dwelt on the fear rather than the love of 
God, were long and heavy; nevertheless, the people found in this old church the 
comfort and sustaining help they needed. 

Those who take up Dr. Smalley's sermons to-day expecting only to smile at his 
old-fashioned theology, will the rather be impressed with his deep thought and 
sincere piety, and will understand why he is classed with the ablest of New Eng- 
land divines. There is a strong desire to record some stirring event of Revolu- 
lutionary days, some heroic deed or incident that belongs peculiarly to New Britain 
history. Alas, it is astonishing how great events and great personages of Revo- 
lutionary times avoided this particular spot. We may walk the length and breadth 


*." Elect infants dying in infancy are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit, so also 
are all other elect persons. Others, not elected, although they maybe called by the ministry of the Word, 
yet they can never truly come to Christ and therefore cannot be saved." 












ol" the city without feeling that we arc treading on historic ground. We have no 

"Mecca" within our borders which we as patriotic pilgrims may visit, no sites 

which may serve to keep fresh in our minds the heroism of our forefathers. There 

was never the sound of conflict in the limits of 

the town, never was a "red-coat" seen upon 

our streets unless it was when Thomas Sugden, 

a British deserter, laid siege to and captured 

the heart of Percia Mather. That he deserted 

the British army and married a New Britain 

girl, proves him to have been a man of sense 

and justifies this brief mention of him. So after 

all there was one engagement within our borders. 
Though there are no striking instances of 

heroism to record, the sentiment of the people 

was strong in opposition to British tyranny, and 

they generously responded to the call for men 

and means to carry on the war.* Religion and 

patriotism went hand in hand those early days, 

for the meeting-house yard was the "parade 

ground" of the military companies, and we find 

the same names on the roll-call of heroes that 

were prominent in the church. Three compa- 
nies from this place and Farmington were in 

action against Burgoyne, and at some time during the war nearly every young man 

of this parish was in the service. When, in 1774, the port of Boston was closed 

by order of parliament, a committee was at once appointed to "take in subscrip- 
tions of Wheat, Rye, Indian Corn, and 
other provisions, and to transport the 
same to the Town of Boston, to be dis- 
tributed by the Select Men to those 
who needed help in consequence of the 
blockade of the harbor." In fancy we 
see Captain Gad Stanley and others on 
that committee going from house to 
house collecting provisions to send to 
the "Town of Boston," and we wonder 
if that place ever had a realizing sense 
of its indebtedness to this little parish. 
We think of it all with amusement, but 
we know it spoke of a true patriotism 
and probably called for as great sacrifice 
on the part of contributors as for their 
descendants of to-day to give hundreds 
of dollars to some worthy cause. 

In 1775, when British ships-of-war 
cannonaded Stonington and other sea- 
coast towns, couriers were despatched 
among the colonies to warn them of 
their danger. News that armed vessels 

had appeared off New London reached New Britain one Sunday afternoon just at 

the close of the service. Ignoring the fact that Dr. Smalley was something of 




Camp's History of New Britain. 


a royalist,* Captain Stanley immediately stepped into the aisle and gave notice for 
his company to meet next morning on the " Parade." As Dr. Smalley left the 
pulpit and joined a group of his people discussing the news, he exclaimed, "What, 
will you fight your king! " In the excited state of feeling, this unwise remark 
might have caused a tumult if Col. Isaac Lee with wise and pacific words had 
not interposed. 

The militia of this and other towns was not wholly unprepared for service. 
The experience of the old French war had shown the people the necessity of some 
military training, and companies had been organized and to some extent provided 

with arms, previous to 
this time. Captain (after- 
wards Colonel) Gad Stan- 
ley, who was at the head 
of one company, quickly 
proceeded to the field and 
. . ,'.-,-. did good service for his 

country. At the famous 
battle of Long Island in 
1776, he was distinguished 
for his bravery and skill. 
This was a disastrous day 
,*'..••• ■ for the American forces, 

jft«j;-- ' all of whom were raw re- 
cruits while the enemy 
were the disciplined troops 
of England and Germany. 
I - .. . , ] Col. Stanley maintained his 

position as long as possible, 
1 • "* , .'•"*■" ' m '' and at last when retreat 

: : 


was ordered, he succeeded 
bv a wise manoeuver in 

home of colonel isaac lee. leading off his regiment 

safely past the British forces. During the war a son was born to him and the news 
was sent with the request that he should name the child. In due time came the 

" If he appear a likely lad, 
It might be well to name him Gad." 
The child that inspired this burst of poesy became the father of Frederic and 
William Stanley and others, so we conclude he was a very likely lad indeed. 

After the war Col. Stanley returned to his home in Stanley Quarter. He was 
a man of ability and intelligence, and, with one exception, was the wealthiest man 
in the parish. He was representative from Farmington and Berlin, and served in 
nearly every important office in the town. From the following incident it would 
seem that he showed in family affairs the promptness and decision that character- 
ized him as a military man. After the marriage of his daughter Mary (or Polly, as 
she was called) to Oliver Dewey, the young people proposed a journey to North 
Carolina. Col. Stanley, thinking that on the trip she might be exposed to the 
small-pox, a disease at that time greatly feared, insisted on her going first to the 
hospital on the old Farmington road, where patients might take the disease in a 
mild form and be properly cared for. The young couple entreated not to be sep- 

* Dr. Smalley afterwards became loyal to the cause of the colonists. 


arated, and the bride shrank from such an experience, but all was of no avail. 
"To the pest house she must go." She remained there a few weeks and had the 
small-pox "according to orders," after which the journey south was taken in 

Particular mention should be made of Major-General John Paterson, who was 
one of the most distinguished of New Britain's early citizens. Soon after the 
battle of Lexington he raised a regiment and was early in the field, serving with 
honor throughout the war. He was not only noted in military service, but was 
honored with the friendship of Washington. He was one of the court chosen to try 
Major Andre, and at the close of the war was one of the founders of the Society of 
the Cincinnati. After his marriage to Elizabeth Lee (which was spoken of in the 
first part of this paper) he lived at the Paterson homestead on East street until he 
removed to Lenox. In the center of the town of Lenox there is a handsome monu- 
ment to his memory, and on a memorial tablet in Lenox church it is written, " His 
love of country was unbounded, his public spirit untiring." The accompanying 
picture of Gen. Paterson was taken from the bas-relief on the monument at Free- 
hold, N. J., showing the group of generals who composed the famous " Council at 
Monmouth " in 1778. He is represented as listening attentively to General Lafay- 
ette, who is explaining his plan of action to the council. 

Another leading citizen of this period was Col. Isaac Lee, who gave New 
Britain its name, when in 1754 it was " set off" from Farmington and became a 
separate parish. Col. Lee did not enter the army but he served his country faith- 
fully in the legislature twenty-four years, and for many reasons deserves to be 
classed with the patriots of the times. For thirty years he was the principal mag- 
istrate of the place, his word and decisions having almost the force of law. The 
records he kept of church and town history during his forty years' service as clerk 
of the Ecclesiastical Society, are of great interest and value. They are in his hand- 
writing and are carefully preserved at the New Britain Institute. In point of influ- 
ence he was second only to Dr. Smalley, both of whom were held in such rever- 
ence that when they passed in the street the children made obeisance and the men 
uncovered their heads. 

Col. Lee is the hero of a poem written by Emma Hart Willard called " Bride- 
Stealing," which in the main is a true incident. In quaintest language it tells. 
of one of the old-time customs.* 

The house Col. Lee built and occupied so many years is still standing on North 
Main street, but like many others of that period, has passed into the hands of the 
stranger and foreigner within our gates. When we think of these old houses with 
their solid frames, firm and sound as on the day of the " raising," of their heavy 
oak beams, good for another half century, we cannot help wishing that one house 
among the number, by private or public enterprise, might be repaired and preserved 
from decay. A genuine " old colonial " house in our city would stand for the men 
and deeds of a former century, be an object lesson in history, and also have many 
uses to recommend it to the practical mind. 

Of the fifty patriots from this parish who were in the Revolutionary war, there 
is only the briefest mention ; but between the lines we read a story of hardship 
and suffering of which modern warfare, with its more humane methods, gives us 
little idea. Some perished in battle, some suffered in British prisons, and some 
returned here to die of their wounds or of disease contracted in the army. 
Enough may be gathered from the old records to show the patriotism of our fore- 
fathers, and their names and services are carefully recorded, but historians evident- 

See page 81, 



ly considered the foremothers, who, no doubt, were equally brave and patriotic, 
of very little account. We know from tradition that the women of that age were 
expected to be submissive and industrious and to attend strictly to the ways of the 
household. Aside from their domestic duties, their abilities were not very highly 
rated. It is a fact that a minister in a neighboring- town said with all gravity, 
in one of his sermons, " Women are quick of apprehension, but weak in judgment," 
and the statement was meekly accepted. We think of woman's position to-day 
and say, Verily, "the world do move " ! 

We know that with Spartan-like courage the women of this parish prepared 
husbands and sons to enter the army while they took upon themselves the burden 
and work of the home. We read of one mother* who fitted out six sons for the 
army, and we feel that the women were as patriotic as the men. But we would not 
indulge in sentiment or invest them with qualities that perhaps they did not possess. 
We know that different ages call for and develop different abilities in women, and 
that in every age there are noble souls who respond to the need of the hour, what- 
ever it may be. We can but wonder what the women of '76, whose energies and 
ambitions w^ere bounded by the walls of home, would think of their sisters of the 
nineteenth century. With wmat amazement would they look upon our societies, 
missions, clubs, — things that were never dreamed of in their philosophy ! 

If they could view the cares and responsibilities of the latter-day woman, not 
only in the home, but in the church, in society, and in public and professional life 
as well, I am not sure but they would be devoutly thankful they lived a hundred 
years earlier, when they had only the Indians and the Revolutionary War to look 
out for. 

In these glimpses of the past we must include the " old part " of Fairview 
cemetery which was given to the town in 1755 by the descendants of Stephen Lee, 
as a burying-place for the dead. Here rest many of the forefathers, so near to the 
street that we might almost greet them in passing, and yet so far removed from 

* Lydia, wife of Moses Andrews. 

' y?: 

Tombstone of Rev. John Smalley, D.D. 2 — Tombstone of Col. Isaac Lee. 


Tombstone of Lydia Andrews. 



the busy life of to-day that we seldom turn our thoughts or footsteps thither. 
Unmindful are they of the changes wrought in the swiftly moving years since they 
lived and labored; unbroken is their long sleep by the sound of business and travel 
that almost invades their resting place. The tombstones in their memory stand 

here and there in"or- 
little regard to bound- 
families. Despite our 
we can but smile at 
many of the stones, 
any symbolic meaning 
seem to be the favorite 
express nothing in par- 
attachments suggest 
quite sure the familiar 
angel " was never in- 

We stoop to read 
illegible, on the mossy, 
tell in plainest prose of 
even the occupation of 

derly confusion," with 
ary lines or grouping of 
reverence for this place 
the curious carvings on 
We wonder if there is 
in these heads which 
decoration. The faces 
ticular, but the wing 
angelic beings. We are 
hymn " I want to be an 
spired by this concep- 

the inscriptions, almost 
crumbling stones. Some 
the life, the virtues, and 
the departed; others in 

measured verse, give warning to the heedless or ask a thought of passers-by. 
The following by its simplicity and rhythm fairly sings itself into the memory, 
and to its appeal we can " no less" than respond: 

" Now I am dead and out of mind, 
Upon this stone my name you'll find. 
And when my name you plainly see, 
You can no less than think of me." 

On the headstone of one of the patriarchs we read : 

" He served his generation with diligence and fidelity," 

and this I think tells the life story of many who sleep here. 

But here is the electric car at the very gate of this " city of theMead," and the 
sound of its bell calls us from our revery. A moment's ride and we are in the 
midst of the stirring, thriving city of to-day, which, if not rich in historic associa- 
tions or many things of which other cities boast, yet claims a goodly heritage in 
the memory of those who laid its foundation stones. 



A Tale of New England's Middle Ages.* 



Our heroine's name, we grieve to say, 
Was unpoetic Tabitha ; 
Yet 'tis reported she was fair 
As Ellens or Louisas are. 
With cheek as ruddy, eye as bright, 
With form as fine, and step as light, 
In full expectance, too, of fortune, 
The daughter of rich Isaac Norton. 
And she could brew and wash and bake 
And weave and knit and mend and make, 
The little or the great wheel twirl, 
And was, all said, " a working girl." 
No wonder, then, despite her name, 
Suitors, or rather " sparks " there came. 


Grave and sedate, of twenty-three, 
Of giant mold was Isaac Lee. 
So slow his parts, 'tis said that once 
In school the master called him dunce. 
But then, to pass the matter by, 
For salvo made this prophecy : 
" Like winter apple he'd be found, 
Slower to open, but more sound." 
His ancestors, true men of fame, 
From Colchester, in England, came. 


'Tis well remembered of that wedding, 

Not one was slighted at the bidding ; 

And on they came, in troops along, 

A merry and a jocund throng. 

First, decked as bridegroom grave should be. 

And mounted well, rode Isaac Lee ; 

His father, Doctor Lee, with dame 

* This poem was read on the two hundredth anniversary of the settlement of Farmington, in 1S40. 
In the evening of that day there was an antique party, in the costumes of the olden times, during which 
this humorous story of an event well preserved in tradition, was presented. It is said to be a true account 
of a veritable transaction, the persons named being real actors therein, the author being a daughter of 
the " Little Sammy" mentioned, and a large number of the company descendants of the other persons. 
The interest and amusement awakened by the recital may be imagined. 



On pillion snug, soon after came ; 

His uncle, Deacon Jonathan, 

With Reverend Burnham, next rode on ; 

And thither hied in friendly part, 

Norton's next neighbor, Ensign Hart, 

Whose comely spouse was, when he took her, 

The modest maiden, Mary Hooker. 

They walked with firm and even mien, 

Their little Sammy in between ; 

And of those Harts, the whole three brothers 

That wived three Hookers, came with others ; 

Thomas and John and Hezekiah, 

Isaac and Nat and Zechariah ; 

And there came Demings, Cowles, and Footes, 

Beckleys and Buckleys, Norths and Roots, 

Gilberts and Porters, sons and fathers, 

Pecks, Smiths, and Booths, with Judds and Mathers, 

The Lewis and the Andrews clan, 

And all the Stanleys to a man. 


Now all the wedding guests were met, 

And all in order due were set. 

Uprose the pair, uprose the priest ; 

They owned their union, and he blessed ; 

Then pious exhortation made, 

And long with solemn fervor prayed ; 

And when the knot full fast was tied, 

He led the way to kiss the bride. 

Then cake went round and other matters, 

Handed on well scoured pewter platters. 

Next screaked the tuning violin, 
Signal for dancing to begin ; 
And godly fathers thought no sin, 
When priest was by, and at a wedding, 
" Peggy and Molly" to be treading. 
Nay, priest himself, in cushion dance, 
At marriage feast would often prance. 
The pair, of course, led up the ball, 
But Isaac liked it not at all ; 
Shuffle and cut he would not do, 
Just bent his form the time to show, 
As beaux and ladies all do now, 
And when the first eight reel was o'er, 
Stood back to wall and danced no more. 

His eye upon young Burnham * fell ; 

* A rival candidate for the bride's favor. He was the son of Rev. Mr. Burnham, the officiating 
minister, and had planned, in revenge for her preference of Isaac Lee, with the help of his associates, to 
carry her off in the midst of the festivities. It was one of the rude methods then in vogue, of retaliating 
some slight, real or imagined, received from the parties. 


He watched him close, and read him well ; 

Among his set detected signs, 

Then warned his bride of their designs : 

" Beware," he whispered, " Burnham's gang ; 

Villain ! he'll one day surely hang. 

They mean, my gentle love, to steal thee, 

Be silent, nor let looks reveal thee ; 

Still keep by me, and fear no harm 

Beneath the shelter of this arm." 

She said, " I will obey, not must, 

Thy head, thy arm, thy heart I trust." 

Burnham approached ; " Should he have pleasure 

With the fair bride to tread a measure? " 

" Sorry she was, but, truth be spoken, 

The heel-tap from her shoe was broken ; 

Yon ugly chink upon the floor 

Had snapped it off an inch or more." 

With look displeased the youth withdrew, j 

Much doubting if she spoke him true. 

To Mercy Hart away he posted, 

Who came and thus the bride accosted : 

" O Tabby, come along with me, 

I'll show you something rare to see." 

" Indeed, dear Mercy, I can't go, 

My stay-lace " — and she whispered low. 

"Well, then, Miss Lee, if you can't come 

And see your friends, we'd best go home. 

In vain ; she could not tempt the bride. 

To quit like Eve her Adam's side. 


Now came the parting good-bys on, 
Lee whispered few words, and was gone, 
And in a short five minutes more, 
By movement quick, she gained her door, 
Drew fast the bolt ; but straight pursue 
With riot the confederate crew. 
One mounted on fleet steed was near, 
The bride when stolen, off to bear. 
Now at the door with shout and din, 
They called aloud to let them in. 
" Quick, open, or the door we brake ! " 
Down falls the door with crash and crack. 
What saw those graceless felons then? 
A timid woman ? , Ay, a man ! 
And more than man he seemed to be, 
As armed with club stood Isaac Lee. 
Darted his eye indignant fire, 
Thundered his voice with righteous ire : 
" Back, villains, back ! the man is dead 
Who lifts a hand to touch that head." 
They stood aghast ; a moment gone, 


Mad and inebriate, all rushed on. 
"Seize him" cries Burnham, with a scoff, 
" While I take her and bear her off." 
Ere the word ended, down he fell, 
Lee's giant blow had lighted well ; 
And quick and oft those strokes descended. 
And when that battle fierce was ended, 
Three men lay on the floor for dead, 
And four more, wounded, turned and fled. 

Dead they were not, but bruised full sore. 

The bride and bridegroom, bending o'er, 

With care and cordial, life restore. 

Others came too ; the wounded raised, 

And Isaac's valor loudly praised. 

None thought him made of such true stuff, 

But hoped the rascals had enough. 

All said 'twas right, and south and north 

Abjured bride-stealing from henceforth. 

His neighbors Lee soon elevate 
In church, in army, and in state, 
And make him, spite of his desire, 
Colonel and deacon and esquire. 
And in the last it well appears 
He judged New Britain thirty years. 
When wearied out with public duty, 
His Tabby still to him a beauty, 
He to all rulers a bright beacon, 
Would office quit save that of deacon. 
His townsmen would not hear his plea, 
But he perforce their judge must be. 
Lee well resolved his cares to doff, 
Straight penned request to let him off 
To General Court at Hartford sitting, 
Who judged it hard and ill befitting 
To force a man, whate'er his skill, 
Office to hold against his will. 

And so his acts as magistrate 

Spread all through this part of the state ; 

Of his wise judgments you might hear 

In Christian Lane and Fagonshire, 

In. Woman's Misery, if you ask it, 

Or Sodom, where the Wyers made basket ; 

And not a man that you should meet 

In Cider Brook or Brandy street, 

Or Pumpkin town, or Pudding hill, 

Or Lovely town, or where you will, 

But knew the fame of Colonel Lee. 

Nay, some so zealous friends had he, 

Through the green woods his acts they ringed 'em. 

To Pilfershire and Satan's Kingdom. 




It was Saturday night when we drew up by the village store. After climbing the 
Burlington hills, and after listening to the smart man from the city, who was stand- 
ing on the store steps, discourse on the dull times and poor business, oracularly in- 
serting his views with a big I, freely used, we sought and found a comfortable place 
to stay until Monday morning. 

After the exercise of the week we were glad of the opportunity for rest and 
spent the Sunday quietly. Huggins regaled himself by eating what he called 
" those little red oyster-can apples," the cemetery here evidently having no attrac- 
tions for him — it was a bleak and desolate-looking place on a lonely hillside — though 
he might have found more interesting and curious inscriptions there than he did in 

The educational institution, a small, red building with white trimmings, was 
carefully examined, and we have since regretted that we did not go to another dis- 
trict where there was a schoolhouse with seats running 
around the room, near the wall, — the genuine old-fash- 
ioned schoolroom. They were there then, but have 
since been removed. 

Burlington differed from most of the towns visited 
in having a greater variety of names among the inhab- 

At least, we did not notice any such predominance 
of one or two names, as of Woodford in Avon, Case 
in Canton, Humphrey and Eno in Simsbury, and Hayes 
and Viets in Granby. 

Monday morning was clear and cool, one those de- 
lightful, exhilarating mornings of the latter part of sum- 
mer, a presager of autumn. It seemed so calm and 
restful, driving over the hills, everything in quiet har- 
mony with the deserted houses we passed. Some of 
these interested Sir Philip, and he must photograph 
them. Though he did not claim to be an antiquity, 
he admired the antique, and a quaint doorway or win- 
dow claimed his attention. There is always some- 
thing pathetic in an abandoned farm-house. A house 
seems typical of human life, and what it should be, 
reared amid rejoicings, but with much labor; strong in 
its middle age with its well-seasoned timbers, giving 
protection to the household from the storms and cold 
without, shedding warmth and cheer within; having a " A lilac spray, once blossom clad, 
life Of Usefulness, and serving the purpose well, it follows Sways bare before the empty rooms. 



the inevitable law, "to which all on earth must incline," grows old, and lapses^into 
decay. Whittier wrote of " The Forsaken Farm-House," and how well he expressed 
it in the following lines : 

Against the wooded hills it stands, 

Ghost of a dead home, staring through 

Its broken lights on wasted lands 
Where old-time harvests grew. 

Unplowed, unsown, by scythe unshorn, 
The poor, forsaken farm fields lie, 

Once rich and ripe with golden corn, 
And pale green breadths of rye. 

A lilac spray, once blossom clad, 
Sways bare before the empty rooms, 

Beside the roofless porch a sad, 
Pathetic red rose blooms. 

His track, in mold of dust and drouth, 
On floor and hearth the squirrel leaves, 

And in the fireless chimney's mouth. 
His web the spider weaves. 



Of healthful herb and flower bereft, 
The garden plot no housewife keeps; 

Through weeds and tangle only left 
The snake, its tenant, creeps. 

The leaning barn about to fall 

Resounds no more on husking eves, 

No cattle low in yard or stall, 
No thresher beats his sheaves. 

So sad, so drear! It seems almost 

Some haunting Presence makes its sign; 
That down yon shadowy lane some ghost 

Might drive his spectral kine. 

On the way through Whigville and Polkville, with their numerous streams and 
picturesque falls and mills, to Bristol, we passed the old pine tree made historic by 
the tradition that during the Millerite excitement of 1843, Asahel Mix, whose house 
Stood near, being a firm believer in the doctrine, was seen clad in an ascension robe 
up in the tree on the day they had set for the Lord's coming. This tree we must 
photograph, and to make the picture realistic we wanted Sir Philip to rig up, climb 
the tree and pose; but Sir Philip was unaccommodating and declined, in spite of 
Our persuasions and explanations that probably he looked enough like Mr. Mix to 
have the photo pass for a genuine one taken in '43. 

As we have since learned that there was a wide diversity in their personal ap- 
pearance, we think it is better to be honest, and not try to deceive, and in our de- 
sire to be strictly truthful, we have since inquired if the incident referred to was 
true, and have received the following from a gentleman in Bristol, whose word can 
be relied on and taken as authority: 

" Concerning the excitement of '43, and what was done at that time, I only 
know by hearsay. < The tenth day of the seventh month,' Jewish time, October 10,, 



1843, was fixed upon as the final day of the world's history. The believers met at 
the house of one of their number for some days previous to the expected event and 
held solemn preparatory services. There were no ascension robes prepared by 
these people, they regarding the 'white robes' as 'the righteousness of the saints.' 
Many stories and lies were told concerning the Millerites in those times. 
Among them was one to the effect that on that memorable day, Asahel Mix, 
who lived in the 'copper-mine' district, just north of Polkville, in this town 
was seen in a large pine tree near his house, clad in an ascension robe, in readiness 
to be 'caught up to meet the Lord in the air.' The fact in relation to the 
matter was simply that his well-sweep, which was attached to the tree by an 
iron rod, was out of order, and Mr. Mix got up into the tree to fix it. He was 


clad in no robe of any kind, except his ordinary everyday habiliments, that part 
of the story being supplied from the fertile imaginations of those by whom it was 
reported. I think the tree is still standing with the iron rod still in it. The house 
was burned many years ago." ' 

This illustrates the unreliability of tradition, and shows how facts become per- 
verted in passing from one to another. Many people now living remember the ex- 
citement of those times, relative to the predictions of the Millerites, and the faith 
the believers evidenced in expecting their fulfilment. It calls to mind the old re- 
frain :] 

" For eighteen hundred forty-three 
Is the year of jubilee," 


though it must have^beerfanything but a year of jubilee to those whom it scared 
half to death. Jwho neither t dared to believe nor disbelieve, but were in constant 

An old well-wheel served to revive a thought of olden times, and this time it was 
John who was moved to exercise the camera. He remembered Sir Philip's unac- 
commodating spirit relative to 
posing, so did not ask him to 
simulate the act of drawing wa- 
ter, but requested a friend whom 
he met to do so. Next to the 
well-sweep must have come this 
arrangement, a wooden wheel set 
in crude bearings, over which a 
rope and chain were wound, a 
bucket on one end and a stone 
on the other. From this it was 
a simple process to get to the 
windlass turned with a crank, 
drawing one bucket, or the iron 
pulley wheel, with a bucket on 
each end of the rope. 

In contrast to the weather-worn, 
undecipherable guide-boards we 
had seen during our journey, we 
came across one that really meri- 
ted recognition. Besides the 
clearness of its directions, the 
background was so picturesque 
that we halted to take it. Even 
the fact that it did not designate 
the distance might be considered 
as a virtue in a guide-board. It 
could not then be accused of 
falsity by the weary traveler, who thinks the distance lengthening out, as he grows 
more tired, and says: "The guide-board lied, as guide-boards always do." 

We were on the homeward road, with but a few miles more to travel. Huggins 
murmured that he had enjoyed the trip immensely, but he 
might have liked it a little better had it not been vacation 
time. Then we understood why he had so often been preoccu- 
pied, why that far-away look in his eye, why that tinge of 
sadness to his countenance and that gloom in his heart. The 
schools were closed, and the few inquiries he had quietly made 
had failed to reveal the whereabouts of Clara, his friend of old 
time school days. 

But we all had much to look back upon with pleasure, and 
decided that it was a "dividend-paying" trip. The regrets 
were few and immaterial, and we can recommend that for a 
genuinely pleasurable outing, a driving trip is par excellence, and 
almost any part of our state, with its diverse scenery, its 


, _ ■ ■._.., 





numerous streams and waterfalls, its hills and dales, give ample opportunity for 
such a trip, full of healthful enjoyment. 

Late in the afternoon, as the summer sun threw long shadows of the trees 
across the road, we drove into the town from which we started and were home. 




One of the inevitable results of the growth of New Haven is the gradual destruc- 
tion of many ancient landmarks that are valuable because of their historical associ- 
ations, as well as by reason of the fact that they were important features of the 
city's exterior form. One by one these old buildings have disappeared, remaining, 
indeed, long after the men who made them famous passed away, but, like them, 
finally swept aside and almost forgotten. The earth on which their framework 
rested now bears the weight of costly mansions or tall and solid blocks of iron, 
stone, and brick that promise to have a much longer if no more useful life. 

These old buildings saw the town expand from a mere village into a great city ; 
they witnessed the growth of the elms which James Hillhouse planted ; they felt 

the narrowing and crowding 
which was forced upon them 
i by the growth of the city. 

Stirring scenes they witnessed, 
noble men and women they 
sheltered from the storms of 
winter and the suns of sum- 
mer. But now they either ex- 
ist no longer or have ceased to 
have any interest for the in- 
habitants of the city except, 
perhaps, for those who love to 
linger in the past, and medi- 
tate upon the glories of old 
New Haven. The home of a 
famous man or woman always 
possesses a peculiar interest. 
The very buildings in which great statesmen, poets, or soldiers have lived, seem to 
share something of the interest that attaches to their lives and achievements. It 
is the home of Washington that draws thousands to Mt. Vernon ; and the little cot- 
tage in which Grant spent the last days of his life has made Mt. McGregor famous. 
The old Craigie House overlooking the banks of the River Charles, will be visited 
with eager interest as long as it remains to suggest the life and thoughts of Long- 
fellow. One feels the inspiration of precious associations in wandering through 
the rooms where the great and good have dwelt, as if the presence that made them 
famous were still to be found there. 

So, too, the home always partakes of the characteristics of the home-maker. 
It matters not who has constructed the edifice, nor whether its form be of wood or 
brick, nor whether its rooms be low and small and few in number, or many and ele- 
gantly furnished, the interior of the home at once suggests and illustrates the dom- 
inant characteristics of the people who dwell there. The men who built the first 
homes in New Haven were, like most of the early settlers of New England, serious, 


Credit should be given for the excellent pictures of many of these old buildings to Miss Susan M. Gower of New- 
Haven, who has collected many facts about them. Miss Gower's photographs are highly prized by those who have them. 



and shared with them the same sentiments. They dug the foundations of the town 
and their descendants builded upon it an enduring structure. One monument of 
their wisdom is the Green. Another lasting memorial to the wisdom of later New 
Haven is the elms. Of the Green and the noble trees the city is proud. New resi- 
dents soon learn to love them and no one would endure for a moment a suggestion 
of their destruction, although there are evidences of a desire on the part of some 
members of the community to restrict the one and neglect the other. 

The original settlement of New Haven was mainly included within the large 
square bounded by 

State, George, York, 
and Grove streets. 
The Green occupied 
the central block of 
this square, and it was 
surrounded by eight 
other squares of equal 
dimensions. The 
houses which were put 
up were, on the whole, 
of a better class than 
those of the average 
New England settle- 
ment, being types of 
the best colonial 
house architecture of 
New England. The 



9 2 


early settlers were engaged in trade mainly, and they were ambitious to make a good 
appearance and live well They therefore built what was considered exceedingly 
fine houses at that day, and furnished them lavishly, entertaining much. The houses 
were surrounded by spacious grounds. The lots on Church street extended back to 
what is now Orange street, although there was no street there at that time. There 
they met the rear of the lots which fronted on State street. On the Green was the 
central meeting-house, and in 1747 was built the first court house on the Green. 
President Clap of Yale occupied a spacious residence on College street near the 
corner of Chapel, where stood the one college building which made up Yale. His 
nearest neighbors were farmers. A cobbler named Mix had a little shoemaker's 



store where Battell Chapel now stands, and William Scott the barber, was one of 
the first squatters on the land now occupied by Peabody Museum. Most of the 
inhabitants of the northern and western sections of the settlement were farmers. 
The tradesmen lived nearer the water. 

The oldest house now standing in New Haven is the Trowbridge house in the 
rear of 175 Meadow street. It was built in 1684 by Thomas Trowbridge, Jr., and 
it appears on the map of New Haven of 1748 as occupied by Stephen Trowbridge. 
It remained in the hands of the Trowbridge family for many years, and was 
removed from the front to its present location a few years ago. 

An historic spot of much interest is the vicinity of the corner of George and 
College streets, where John Davenport preached his first sermons. On this spot 
still stands a house which was built in 1764 by David Beecher, a descendant of 
Isaac Beecher, one of the original colonists. David Beecher lived in the house 




until his death and his descendants owned the property until after 1800. Lyman 
Beecher, father of Henry Ward Beecher, was born here in 1775. 

Across the street from the Beecher house and a little farther down the street 
stood the Wooster House, until last year when it was torn down to make- way for 
the new Zunder school building. 
This house was the property of 
Major-General David Wooster, 
who was born in Stratford, 
March 2, 17 10, and was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1738. On the 
year following his graduation 
war broke out between England 
and Spain, and Wooster entered 
the provincial army as lieuten- 
ant. In 1745, he was a captain 
in the regiment of Col. Burr, 
which participated in the cap- 
ture of Louisburg, and was final- 
ly promoted to the rank of brig- 
adier-general during the French 
war. When peace was restored 
he engaged in trade in New 
Haven in partnership with a 
classmate, Aaron Day, and dur- 
ing his connection with Mr. Day he resided in the house on George street. Later 
he removed to what is now Wooster street. The George street house became the 
property of Michael Baldwin in 1769, and he and his descendants occupied it until 
long after the close of the century. 

A cluster of houses of historic interest is to be found to-day in the vicinity 

of Olive, Water, and Fair 
streets. Chief among these 
in point of popularity is the 
Benedict Arnold house. 
This is unquestionably the 
best known of all the colo- 
nial houses of New Haven. 
Whatever may have been 
true as to the esteem in 
which Benedict Arnold was 
held in Xew Haven during 
his residence here and his 
life as an apothecary, he 
certainly left sufficient no- 
toriety to mark the house 
he lived in. No door-plate 
or historic slab is needed 
to mark this house. Eve- 
ry boy in town knows its 
location although it is now 
sadly transformed, having been converted into a storage room for lumber. Benedict 
Arnold built the house about 1771. It was here that he brought his bride, and 
here that he lived until those events which led to its confiscationby the government. 





The house was very substantially built, and contained, among other things, some 
fine fireplaces and a commodious wine cellar. The grounds were extensive, the 
outlook pleasant, and the place in every way was a desirable one in which to live. 
Noah Webster bought it in 1798. James Hunt was a later resident and owner. 

The old fireplaces, of which 
there were many, were re- 
moved a year or so ago. 

Not far from the Bene- 
dict Arnold house, on the 
northeast corner of Wooster 
and Olive streets, stands a 
house which dates back prior 
to the War of the Revolution. 
It is a wooden structurean d 
is now three stories high, 
but was originally of but two 
stories. The house was 
II raised and a new story in- 
serted shortly after the Rev- 
olutionary war, so that it is 
over one hundred years old 
in its present shape. 
This house was built by Capt. Peter Bontecou. The exact date of its erection 
is not known, but it was not far from 1770. The Bontecou family lived in New 
Haven from 1694, when one member of the family fled from France and made his 
home in this city. There is a local tradition to the effect that this house was built 
by the elder Bontecou, who was a refugee from France, but that is not the case. 
The family was a family of sailors. Captain Bontecou used to bring cargoes of rum, 
sugar, and molasses from the - 
West Indies, being a prosper- 1 
ous merchant and trader. ' 1 
One difficulty confronted 1 
him. He was unable to find 1 
a suitable place in which to 1 
store his cargoes. That was 1 
before the days of bonded 
warehouses, cold storages, or 
immense sub -cellars. But I 
Captain Bontecou was equal | 
to the emergency. He built 
a big cellar under his new 1 
house- — big as a ship's hold — I 
and in it he stored his rum, 
sugar, and molasses, until 
such time as he could dis- 
pose of it. The cellar was 

built before the war broke out. It was not the only cellar of that kind in New 
Haven. It must be remembered that this house stood measurably close to the 
water's edge, not on the beach, but close enough so that Captain Bontecou did not 
have to haul his cargoes very far overland to reach their dark destination. It is 
probable, as will be seen by an incident to be narrated later, that no other house 




stood between this one and the water's edge, and in passing, it may be said that 
Captain Bontecou's possessions included the land on which St. Paul's church now 
stands, as well as considerable other land in the vicinity. 

Was Captain Bontecou a smuggler? Possibly. The king's taxes were very 
oppressive, and all taxes are unpopular. Smuggling was not an uncommon vice — 
or shall we say virtue ? — of the noble old men who settled in New Haven in the 
early days. Captain Bontecou was an active Frenchman, and he probably did no 



more than some of his neighbors. His house stood within a long stone's-throw of 
Benedict Arnold's, and he was anxious to make money, irrespective of the king's 
needs. Smuggling was not regarded as a high crime and misdemeanor in those 
days. Men of high station used to avoid paying taxes just as they do now. Pos- 
sibly Captain Bontecou's cellar, the big cellar under the house that now stands on 
the corner of Wooster and Olive streets, has contained goods that never paid the 
taxes due upon them. 

But Captain Peter Bontecou did not receive much benefit from the cellar 
under his house. The war broke out while he was on a voyage to the West Indies. 
He entered New York Harbor at the time it was in the possession of the British 
and was captured and confined in the prison ship Jersey, but afterward escaped 
and made his way through Long Island. However, he contracted smallpox and 
died at a tavern in Huntington in 1779. He was born in 1738 and was married in 
November, 1762, by the Rev. Chauncey Whittlesey, to Susannah Thomas, daughter 
of Jehiel and Mary Thomas, of New Haven. His widow survived him by twenty 

Many other members of the Bontecou family have lived in New Haven, but 
the family name is now practically extinct, but one member bearing that name liv- 

9 6 



ing, and she is old and infirm, having long ago lost her memory. The men were 
mostly followers of the sea, and some of the male descendants, but bearing other 
names, are now in the United States navy. 

It is related that at the time of the British invasion Captain Peter's father was 
still alive, but could not flee to the country, as did his neighbors. Polly Augusta 
Bontecou remained with him. When the drunken soldiers invaded the house they 
ripped open all the furniture and tore up the bedding in order to secure hidden 
valuables. They were much incensed against the old Frenchman, called him a 

rebel and threatened 
to hang him. The 
women in the house,, 
however, diverted the 
soldiers' attention by 
giving them plenty to 
eat and drink. They 
forgot about the old 
Frenchman and turned 
their attention to Miss 
Bontecou, who was 
very handsome and at- 
tractive. They made 
preparations to take 
her away with them, 
and would have done 
so had not her sister 
sent word to the com- 
manding officers of 
the invaders, whose headquarters were on the site of the old city market. The 
officers sent a guard and the ladies were not further molested. 

A pathetic incident happened near the beginning of the present century. One 
of the Captains Bontecou, James byname, was off in the brig Freeman on a voyage 
to the West Indies. As the time when his vessel should return drew near, his wife, 
who was Joanna Clark, daughter of Samuel and Anna Clark, looked for the boat. 
One day she pressed her face against the window pane and, peering down the 
harbor, descried the familiar form of the brig Free/nan. But she noticed that the 
vessel carried her flags at half mast. She hastened down to the docks with others, 
and awaited the landing of the brig, the supposition being that a member of the 
crew was dead. But what w r as the sorrow of this poor wife on being told that she 
was a widow, and on seeing her husband's lifeless body carried from the ship he 
commanded. He had died of yellow fever on July 12, 1806. These were some of 
the memorable occasions connected with this old Bontecou house which now has 
lost whatever air of romance it may once have carried, having degenerated into a 
commonplace hotel. 

On the corner of Fair and Union streets, in the same locality as the Arnold 
and the Bontecou houses, is the house known as the Admiral Foote place. This 
was built between 1780 and 1785, the exact date being unknown. It was erected 
by Captain Hull, the grandfather of Admiral Foote, who was, like Peter Bontecou, 
a West Indian merchant and ship master. The house has little interest except in 
connection with Admiral Foote, as it was not a fine example of colonial architec- 
ture. On one corner, partly hidden from view by the beer sign that advertises the 
saloon which now shares with a peanut-vender's stand the occupancy of the house, 



is a shield which states that Admiral Foote was born in this house, but it is doubt- 
ful if that is true. He was probably born in Cheshire. He did visit the house 
when a boy and lived there afterward. The house remained in the family for 
many years. Now it is in the midst of a notorious neighborhood, the Italian quar- 
ter. Union street and Fair street have unsavory names. 

But the spot in which this house stands has an interest aside from the fact 
that Admiral Foote lived there. On this site stood in earlier times a noble man- 
sion famed throughout New England, being one of the most sumptuous colonial 
houses in the country. It was the home of Isaac Allerton, in memory of whom 
to-day there is a granite tablet erected in the wall of a brick building nearby. The 
house was widely known as the " house of the four porches," having porches on the 
north, east, south, and west sides of the house. Inside, the house was magnifi- 
cently furnished for that time. It had fourteen large fireplaces and a large hall 
running through it. The famous Madame Knight, on her horseback trip from 
Boston to New York, during the colonial days, was a visitor at this house, and after- 
wards wrote of it as the finest she had seen between Boston and New York. There 
are no records as to the final disposition of the house. Whether it was destroyed 
by fire, or wrecked in a storm or gradually went to pieces is uncertain, and the date 
of its demolition is not known. There has been and still is great interest in this 
question and historians of New Haven's colonial houses have not yet abandoned 
the search for the facts concerning its fate. It is certainly a singular fact that so 
well known and costly a structure should have disappeared without leaving any 
trace of its departure behind. 

There are two brick houses still standing in New Haven that are of colonial 
origin. The oldest is at No. 535 State street, just north of Grand avenue. It was 
built of imported bricks by Jacob Pinto, of Spanish descent. The date was about 
1745. It was the first brick house New Haven ever saw. It is said that a shot 
fired by the British as they were leaving in 1779 passed through the house. The 
house remained in the Pinto family as late as 1829. 

The second brick house built in New Haven was the Rutherford Trowbridge 
house, at 295 Water street. This was built in 1774, and is still owned by the Trow- 
bridge family. It was saved from destruction during the invasion by Captain Rice, 
a tory, who was a strong friend of Mr. Trowbridge. 

At 83 Grove street stands a house built by James Abraham Hillhouse in 1762 
and it is in fine preservation and has the advantage of still being in a good neigh- 
borhood, unlike some other fine old colonial houses. Mr. Hillhouse died in this 
house in 1775 and his widow lived there until her death in 1822. James Hillhouse, 
their nephew, who was adopted by them, spent the early years of his life there. 

A very old house about which little is popularly known, is the parsonage of the 
" Blue Meeting House," which now stands at 40 Ashmun street. The Separate So- 
ciety, or White Haven Society, as it was afterward called, erected the building in 
1748, on the site of St. Thomas' church on Elm street. It was first occupied by 
Mr. John Curtiss, who preached for the society. In 175 1 it was deeded to the Rev. 
Samuel Bird, who had been chosen pastor of the Separate Society, and he lived in 
it until his death in 1784. From 1768, when a dismissal from his charge had been 
granted him, he carried on a general mercantile business, converting his study into 
a store. In the invasion in 1779, the house was despoiled by the English. It was 
held by his descendants until 1849, when it was sold for $100, and removed to its 
present location. Whitfield often lodged here on his way between Boston and Phil- 
adelphia, and gave encouragement and counsel to the " Tolerated Society " or 
" New Lights." 


In this the initial number of a new 
year, the second year in the life of our 
magazine, we start out with the assur- 
ance of a substantial and kindly interest 
in our undertaking from the many sub- 
scriptions received and ever-increasing 
sales. One year ago we started with an 
edition of 2,500. A small number, to be 
sure, but more than any one predicted 
we would sell. Of this number we issue 
four times the number first started with, 
a small number still, but a fair increase 
for one year in a local field. It shows 
the interest people feel in matters per- 
taining to their state, especially in the 
historical line ; a patriotic feeling of 
local pride they have in seeing their 
state well represented. 

The question has often been asked, 
" What will you do when you exhaust 
the material in Connecticut?" We 
must answer, "We cannot exhaust it." 
At first glance the question seems plau- 
sible enough, but like many another sub- 
ject, the more it is studied the more is 
to be found therein. It is not a ques- 
tion of what to get, but what to select, 
and what to use first. Verily, " there's 
the rub." We would like to give all 
parts of the state first representation, if 
we could. We cannot, and must there- 
fore ask those that do not come first to 
have patience. We will get to them 
soon as we can. 

There having been new arrangements 
made since the last number was issued, 
the former editor is no longer connected 
with the magazine. The general policy 
of the magazine will be continued the 
same as outlined in the last number. 
The departments we desire to make of 
general interest to our readers by hav- 
ing them deal with subjects directly 
within our province. The fiction and 
poetry in the magazine we wish to har- 
monize with the other subject matter 
and have distinctly a Connecticut flavor. 

Owing to the development of the 
magazine along lines which have been 
indicated by the tastes of the public, it 
has been deemed advisable to discon- 
tinue the publication of " Scrope." The 
space we were able to devote to it did 
not do it justice, and the abundance of 
new material at hand would of necessity 
crowd it too much for publication in a 
periodical coming out but once in three 

As we have remarked before, our aim 
is to constantly improve, to get out a 
better number with each succeeding 
issue, and to give the people a magazine 
which will be the best work on Connecti- 
cut ever published. 


In this department we shall aim to give interesting extracts from old papers and books, worthy 
for one reason or another to bring to the attention of our readers. 

Well authenticated incidents of general interest, especially if they have never been printed, 
will be welcomed from our readers. 


Mrs. Patty Richardson died at her 
home in East Berlin, Tuesday, Decem- 
ber 31, 1895. She was born in Connecti- 
cut, February 1, 1801. Her second hus- 
band, G. M. Richardson of Cambridge, 
Mass., at the age of sixteen years ran 
away from his father's home in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and helped throw up the 
redoubts on Breed's Hill the night be- 
fore the battle of Bunker Hill. 

Mr. Richardson received a pension as 
a minute man by special act of Congress, 
and this devolved upon his wife. Mrs. 
Richardson was twenty-nine and her 
husband fifty-six years of age when they 
were married. She was the eldest of 
the eight widow pensioners of the Revo- 
lution, and the last one residing in 




A year is past since the printer of 
this paper published proposals for re- 
viving the Connecticut Gazette. 'Tis 
needless to mention the reasons why it 
did not appear sooner. He returns 
thanks to all those who favored him at 
that time, and hope they are yet willing 
to try how far he is able to give them 
satisfaction. A sample of it is now sent 
abroad, in order to collect a sufficient 
number of Subscribers barely to pay the 
charge of carrying it on. When such a 
number appears — it shall be printed 
weekly and delivered to subscribers in 
town and Country, at the rate of two- 
pence, for each paper, which is Eight 
Shillings and Eight Pence, for one year. 
And no addition shall be made to the 
price when the Stamp Act takes effect, 
if it is then encouraged so as to be 
afforded at that rate. Subscribers are 
not desired to engage for any particular 
time, so that they can stop it when they 
please. — A special post is appointed to 
carry it out of the common Post-Roads. 
— Advertisements shall be printed at a 
moderate Price, according to their 
length. — All kinds of Provision, Fire 
Wood, and other suitable country Pro- 
duce will be taken as pay, of those who 
cannot spare money, if delivered at the 
Printer's Dwelling House, or at any 
other place which may accidentally suit 
him. The Printer hereby invites the 
benevolent of all parties to send him an 
account of whatever novelties they think 
may be useful to their countrymen. 
The shortest hints on such subjects, 
however written, will be gratefully re- 
ceived, and faithfully communicated to 
the Public if convenient. 

Besides the help he hopes to receive 
from different Correspondents in this 
colony and elsewhere, the Printer has 
sent for three sorts of English Maga- 
zines, the Monthly Review of New 
Books, and one of the best London 
News-papers ; these together with 
American Intelligence from Nova Scotia 
to Georgia, inclusive, and also from 
Canada, cannot fail to furnish him with 
a constant stock of momentous materials 
and fresh advices to fill this Gazette. — 

Benjamin Macom, at the Post Office, 

New Haven. 

July 5, 1765. 


Hartford, September 22, 7766. 

There are the greatest number of 
bears come down among the towns that 
ever was known ; they destroy great 
quantities of Indian corn, and make 
great havoc among sheep and swine. 
Last Tuesday morning a large he bear 
was discovered in an enclosure opposite 
the Treasurer's and being pursued, he 
took to the main street, which he kept 
till he got to the lane that turns east- 
ward by the south meeting house, (not- 
withstanding his being pelted from every 
part of the street, with stones, clubs, 
etc.), and was followed into the south 
meadow where he was shot. The num- 
ber of people that were out of doors, to 
see so uncommon an animal in the town 
made it dangerous to lire at him in the 
street. In the evening he was roasted 
whole, and a large company supped on 
him. — New London Gaz. — Oct. 10th, 

I"66. No. 7j2. 


This town was named, it is said, from 
Major Moses Mansfield of New Haven, 
who, in the Indian wars, routed a party 
of Indians somewhere in this region. In 
consequence of this exploit, he received 
a. grant of a large tract of land, now 
comprised in the limits of this town. 
The tradition is, that Major Mansfield 
received his name, Moses, from the fol- 
lowing circumstance : His parents, who 
resided either in North or East Haven, 
in crossing the East river in a canoe, 
were upset, and their infant, whom they 
were taking across the river in order for 
baptism, floated away from them. Being 
well wrapped up in blankets, the infant 
floated down the stream and lodged 
among the rushes, where he was taken 
up, having received no injury. His pa- 
rents intended to have named him Rich- 
ard, but from the circumstance of his 
being taken from the water and the 
rushes, he was called Moses. He was a 
major of the militia, which was the high- 
est military office in the country ; he 
was also a judge of the county court, 
and an assistant judge of probate. — 
From Barber s Connecticut Historical 
Collections — page jji. 



There is still extant, in the possession 
of a Windsor family, a copy of the 
Geneva edition of the Bible of 1599, 
comonly known as the " Breeches Bible," 
because the fig-leaf garment made by 
our first parents in the Garden of Eden, 
and which in the King James' Version 
is called Apron, is herein given as 
breeches. This Bible was brought to 
New England by Jonathan Gillett, Senr., 
and afterwards passed into the hands of 
,the Holcomb family, probably through 
Lois, who was the daughter of Jonathan 
Holcomb by his second wife, widow 
Mary Gillett, whom he married June 28, 
1721. In the family, this Gillett-Holcomb 
Bible was familiarly known as the " Bear 
Bible," because it was once, in the olden 
days, placed in a window to keep the 
sash raised, when a bear, endeavoring 
to effect an entrance, clawed it, leaving 
the marks of his claws so deep upon the 
edges of the leaves, that they are still 
very plainly to be seen. 

In this Bible occurs the following 
manuscript record : 

" My Father Gillett came into new-inglan the 
second time in June the yeare 1634 and Jonathan 
his sonne was bom about half a year after he came 
to land." 

— Stiles History of Windsor, Vol. 2, page 28g. 

Note. — Another one of these Bibles was men- 
tioned in our " Notes," of Vol. 1, No. 1. 

THE WINTER OF 1779-80. 

In the very rigorous winter of 1779-80, 
many deer perished in Harwinton, from 
inability of getting food. Those which 
were killed by hunters here, were in so 
emaciated condition that their value was 
solely for skins. Since that time no 
deer have been found here. Snow fell 
during forty days in succession. It lay 
four feet deep, even in March, covering 
fences, and had then become so hard 
that horses and oxen traveled on its 
surface. For weeks, at an earlier period, 
all travel, except by men using snow 
shoes, had been suspended. At Goshen, 
snow shoes were that winter in such 
demand that horses were killed to ob- 
tain, from their rawhides, materials for 
making these indispensable articles. 
— History of Harwinton, page 126. 

PAGE 320. 

" Know all Men by these Presents 
that I Rachel Johnson of Wallingford 
in the County of New Haven for Divers 
Good Causes me thereunto moveing and 
more Especially Because I Beleive that 
all Mankind ought to be free do by these 
Presents manumit my Servant Maid 
Dolly who is near about Eight years of 
age that is I Do Amply Franchise her 
when she shall arrive at Eighteen years 
of age and make her Absolutely Free 
from all the Bonds and Obligations that 
She is under to me as I am the sole 
owner of said Dolly at this Time Ac- 
cording to the Laws of this State and 
furthermore I do Promise that I nor 
any in my Name and Stead Shall make 
any Manner of Claim on the said Dolly 
after She arrives at the Age of Eighteen 
years but then all the Obligations is by 
me Desolved and She become as one 
Born Free, In Witness hereof I have 
hereunto Set my hand and Seal this 24 
Day of September 1778 

Rachel Johnson [seal] 
Street Hall 
Giles Hall 

This manumission is approved by us 
Selectmen in the Town of Wallingford. 

Received to Record November 11. 
1778. Entered ys n 

Caleb Hall 

Samuel Street "1 
Stephen Andrews Select- 

Laban Andrews 
James Hough 



Benedict Arnold — Wants to buy a 
number of large, genteel, fat Horses, 
Pork, Oats and Hay. And has to sell 
choice Cotton and Salt, by quantity or 
retail ; and other goods as usual. 
— New Haven, January 24, ij66. 

The paper on which this Gazette is 
printed, was manufactured at Norwich, 
a proof that this colony can furnish it- 
self with one very considerable article 
which has heretofore carried thousands 
of pounds out of it. This should excite 
every lover of his country to promote as 
much as possible this laudable under- 
taking, by saving all their linen rags. 
— New London Gazette, No. 161. Dec. 12, iy66. 


We should like to have reports from the patriotic and historical societies of Connecticut for 
this department so we can represent the State as completely as possible. In future we hope to 
devote more space to it. 

Mrs. Sara T. Kinney, of New Haven, 
has been elected State Regent of the 
Connecticut D. A. R., to succeed Miss 
Susan C. Clarke, whose sad death at 
Atlanta, on October 20, 1895, is sin- 
cerely mourned throughout the State. 
She was universally respected and loved. 

The new Chapter that she organized 
in Meriden but a few days before her 
death has adopted her name as the 
name of their chapter. 

The Connecticut Society, Sons of the 
American Revolution, will continue for 
the coming year the series of prizes 
offered last year for essays by public 
school pupils on historic subjects. The 
" Continental Congress," is the topic for 
high schools, and " Burgoyne's Cam- 
paign," for grammar schools. 


The Katherine Gaylord Chapter, 
D. A. R., of Bristol, are fortunate in 
being able to claim at least twelve 
direct descendants from the Pilgrims 
of the Mayflower, and also one own 
Daughter of a Revolutionary Soldier, 
Miss Mary J. Robbins, who has received 
from the National Society the beautiful 
souvenir spoon presented to all our 
daughters. The Chapter has also re- 
ceived lately, as a gift from the Vice- 
Regent, Mrs. M. L. Peck, a handsome 
silver-mounted walnut gavel, made from 
a piece of a tree which is now grow- 
ing on the site of Forty Fort, near 
Wilkesbarre, Pa., where the Chapter's 
heroine, Katherine Gaylord, suffered so 
much at the time of the Massacre of 
Wyoming. The grave of Katherine 
Gaylord has been unmarked in the old 
Burlington cemetery for nearly fifty 
years, and the first efforts of the Chap- 
ter were directed to raising funds for a 
monument, which is now in place, bear- 
ing this inscription: 

Katherine Cole Gaylord 
wife of 
Lieutenant Aaron Gaylord 
In memory of her suffering and heroism at the 
Massacre of Wyoming, 1778, this stone is erected 
by her descendants and the members of the Kath- 
erine Gaylord Chapter of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 

Clara Lee Bowman, Secretary. 
July 3, 1S95. 


The first meeting after the summer 
recess was held on the first of October, 
1895. A paper written by Major Asa 
Bird Gardner on the expedition to 
Havana, 1762, in which so many Con- 
necticut troops perished, was read by 
Mr. Joseph G. Woodward. 

At the November meeting a paper 
was read by Hon. Orville H. Piatt on 
the encounter in Congress between 
Matthew Lyon of Vermont and Roger 
Griswold of Connecticut, which was 
both amusing and instructive. A stone 
pipe once belonging to the Indian chief 
Philip, and now the property of Mr. 
A. C. Anderson of St. Paul, was exhib- 
ited bf Ralph W. Cutler. 

Mr. Lemuel Welles of New Haven 
read a paper at the December meeting 
on the causes which led to the constitu- 
tional convention of 1818. Much of the 
material for the paper was gathered by- 
Mr. Welles from manuscript sources, and 
it showed a thorough study of the 

At each meeting several new members 
were admitted to the Society. The 
Society's library continues to be the 
popular place for genealogical study 
that it has long been, and is visited 
almost daily by people from out of 
town. A number of new genealogies 
and local histories have been recently 
placed upon the shelves. 

A. C. Bales, Secy. 



"There is a Moral and Philosophical respect for our Ancestors which elevates the character and improves the 
heart." — Webster. 

Those having queries they desire to have answered are advised to send them to us; it may be the 
means of settling many doubtful and unknown points. Every querist is requested to enclose with que- 
ries ten cents in postage for replies and enquiries. All queries and notes for this department should be 
sent henceforth to Wm. A. E. Thomas, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. Owing to some changes since 
the last number was issued, the plan (proposed in the October number) of bringing down the history of 
the leading local families from their first settlement in the State to Revolutionary times, will not be car- 
ried out at present. It is earnestly requested that our readers co-operate with us in answering queries. 

i. Skinner-Bill. — Richard Skinner of 
Bolton, and wife Mary, had Rich- 
ard, b. 1730; Jerusha, b. 1733; Elias, 
b. 1736; Martha, b. Nov. 7, 1738. 
Jonathan Skinner, also of Bolton, 
wife Joannah, had children b. at 
same period as those above. Mar- 
tha Skinner m., 1763, at Lebanon, 
by a Bolton minister, to Oliver Bill, 
1737. Desired the names of the 
parents and gr. -parents of Richard 
Skinner. Was Martha, b. 1738, the 
one who m., 1763, Oliver Bill? Dr. 
Earl Bill (of Oliver), b., 1770, in Leb- 
anon ; m. Sarah, dau. of " Lt. Jack- 
son." Who was this "Lt." Jack- 
son? E. p. 

1. Fountain. — Aaron Fountain (of x\aron 
and Hannah) m., about 1721, Eliz- 
abeth. Her maiden name is desired. 

2. Perry. Elisha Perry, son of Elisha 
(John) and Ann (Saunders) Perry, 
m. Mrs. Hannah Sherwood (nee 
Fountain) before Feb. 12, 1762, and 
had 1, Milla; 2, Chloe, m. (?) Zal- 
mon Benedict; 3, John ; 4, Ruha- 
mah or Amy, m. 1st, ; m. 2d, 

1. Pier son. — Sergt. Abraham Pierson (of 

Stephen) of Derby, Conn., d. May 
1, 1758, ?et. 77. Who was his wife ? 

2. Blakesley. — Deborah Blakesley, b. 

Mar. 15, 17 13, at New Haven, Conn. 
She was daughter of John Blakes- 
ley, and granddaughter of John and 
Grace (Ventrus) Blakesley. What 
was the name of her mother ? 

3. Roberts. — Jonathan Roberts of East 

Haven, Conn., had daughters: Mary, 
Rebecca, and Thankful, b. 1730; and 
son Jonathan, b. 1733. What was his 
wife's name and who were his pa- 
rents ? 

4. French. — Francis French of Derby, 

Conn., m., i66i,Lydia Bunnell. Who 

were her parents? 

c. A. 

1, Merwin. — Deborah Merwin, m. Jan- 

uary, 17 1 7, Eliasaph Preston of Wal- 
lingford, Conn. Who were her pa- 
rents ? 

2. Mathews. — Sergt. Caleb Mathews of 

New Haven, Conn., m. Elizabeth 
Hotchkiss. They moved to Wal- 
lingford, Conn., Cheshire parish. 
Who were his ancestors ? 

3, Hopkins. — John Hopkins of Water- 

bury, Conn., m. Hannah . 

He was son of Stephen and Dor- 
cas (Bronson) Hopkins, and grand- 
son of John and Jane Hopkins of 
Hartford, Conn. I desire to learn 
the full name and parentage of 
Hannah and Jane. 

4. Warner. — John Warner, Jr. (of John), 

was a freeman at Farmington, Conn., 
1669; lived in Waterbury in 1703 ; 
d. in Farmington, 1706. The name 
and parentage of his wife is de- 
sired, j. s. 
1. Wyatt. — Hannah Wyatt, b. 1 760 [prob. 

dau. of and Temperance ( ) 

Wyatt, b. 1736]; settled at Ballston, 
Saratoga Co., N. Y., m. 1782, Hiel 
Savage, b., 1759, in Middletown ; 
moved in 1763-4 with his father, 
Ebenezer, to Lanesborough, Mass. 
The ancestry, names, and parents of 
Hannah Wvatt are desired, v. f. s. 

Obadiah son of Isaac Chase ; 5, 
Ann, m. Lieut. James Lockwood. 
Whom did Milla and John marry ? 
Who was the first husband of Ru- 
hamah ? 

3. Chase. — Isaac Chase, m. Thankful 

Maker, and had Isaac, b. Oct. 20, 
1750. This family lived either in 
Northwestern Fairfield or South- 
western Litchfield, Conn. Whom 
did Isaac, Jr., marry? 

4. Perry. — John Perry, son of Ezra and 

Elizabeth Perry, m., about 1682, 
Elizabeth. Her maiden name is de- 
sired. Their children were John, 
Joanna, Timothy, Experience, Ezra, 
Arthur, Elijah, Jacob, and Elisha. 

5. Saunders. — Anna Saunders, m. Sept. 

20, 1725, Elisha, son of John and 
Elizabeth Perry. Was she the dau. 
of Thomas and Deborah Sanders, 
m., Jan. 6, 1695, Sarah Freeman. 
Their issue is desired. 

The United States Navy 

has all the woodwork in its ships 
made fireproof by a patented process* 
We use the same process for making 
" Harrison's Electric Fire Resisting Paint 9i 

If the government can't afford to lose 
anything by fire, you certainly should not 
take any risks* Have you ever thought of this ? 
Perhaps you have never heard of this paint before ! 

We will send our book— " Paint as a Protection against 
Fire/' on application* 


New York, 

a* Connecticut Quarterly 

PRICE, 50 Cents a Year (4 Numbers), ) 


Single Copies, i5 Cents, J 

Remittances should be by Check, Express Money Order, P. O. Order, or 
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If more convenient for patrons, subscriptions may be handed to the following persons, 
who are authorized to receive them for their towns, and those immediately adjoining, that 
have no special agent. 

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MYRON BUTLER. Burlington. Dr. GEO. F. LEWIS, Collinsville. 

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Cbe Connecticut Quarterlp, 

Hartford, Conn. 


a AT tl 

the present time when nearly every 
\merican is more or less interested 
in the record his ancestors have made, there is 
constant enquiry for some series of forms suitable 
for preserving one's line of ancestry in all its 
ramifications. Several " tablets" "forms," etc., 
etc., are on the market designed to meet that de- 
mand, but none please so well, or are as cheap as 
"ANCESTRAL CHARTS," a series of ped- 
igree forms, simple and concise, capable of regis- 
tering nearly 600 ancestors of one person, besides 
allowing opportunity to record dates, events, etc., 
etc. There are specially arranged pages for coat- 
armor, list of heir-looms, portraits, etc., etc. 
These " Charts" are bound in cloth or leather , and 
were designed and published by Eben Putnam of 
Salem, Mass., a genealogist of reputation, the 
editor and publisher of Putnam's Monthly His- 
torical Magazine." 

The ''Ancestral Charts" may be had, bound 
in cloth, for $; half leather, $j.oo. 

EBEN PUTNAM, Box 301, Salem, Mass, 

Genealogical Investigations conducted at home or 

Send TEN CENTS for sample copy of PUTNAM'S 

A few copies of the Treat Genealogy left, $750. 

ss Connecticut 






Cash Capital, ... . $1,000,000.00 

Reserve for Re-Insurance, . . 1,375,050.28 

Unpaid Losses, 251,542.00 

All other Claims, 59,000.00 

Net Surplus, 506,409.41 

Total Assets, . . $3,192,001.69 

J. D. BROWNE, President. 

L. W. CLARKE, Ass't Sec'y. 


ve yonr ■ 1 - . . . . 
mi! and beau- 
■ii, is shown in 

meriean . . . 
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Sold by Newsdealers at I A Cents a copy, 
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Hartford, Conn. 

Hon. George E. Keeney, President. 
[E. C. Linn, Secretary. 

Hon. Geo. W. Hodge, Treasurer. 

Assets, over $300,000 

(Six Months' Business.) 

Cash Guarantee Fund, $75,000. 

Plenty of money to loan on first-class security. 
Agents wanted in every city and town 
in the State of Connecticut. 

For further information address the Secretary. 

Times indeed do great . ly change, In a lapse of three score years. 



Case, Tiffany & Company 

Case, Tiffany & Burnham 
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Reserve for Re-Insurance, ....... 

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Net Surplus, 






Total Losses Paid, over $38,000,000. 

D. W. C. SKILTON, President. 
GEO. H. BURDICK, Secretary. 

J. H. MITCHELL, Vice-President. 
CHAS. E. GALACAR, 2d Vice-President. 

JOHN B. KNOX, Assistant Secretary. 

T be Reading fire Insurance Gompany of America. 

Incorporated 1819. 

Charter Perpetual. 

Cash Capital, = 

= $ 4,000,000.00 

Cash Assets, 

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Total Liabilities, 

= = 3,642,651.78 

Net Surplus, 

= = 3,412,862.10 

Losses Paid in 77 Years, 77,313,153.68 

iAZ7UY. B. CLHRK, President. 

W. H. KING, Secretary. JAS. F. DUDLEY, Vice-President. 

E. O. WEEKS, F. W. JENNESS, Assistant Secretaries. 

♦ > » < ♦ 

WESTERN BRANCH, 413 Vine St., Cincinnati, O., 
PACIFIC BRANCH, San Francisco, Cal., 

j F. C. BENNETT, Gen'l Agent. 

J N. E. KEELER, Ass't Gen'l Agent. 

j WM. H. WYMAN, Gen'l Agent. 

j W. P. HARFORD, Ass't Gen'l Agent. 

\ GEORGE C. BOARDMAN, Gen'l Agent. 
j T. E. POPE, Ass't Gen'l Agent. 

CHICAGO, Ills., 172 La Salle Street. 
NEW YORK, 52 William Street. 





Assets, Over $900,000.00 

GEORGE POPE, President. 


$500,000 Five per cent. Coupon Certificates. 

In denominations of $200, $500, and $1,000. 

Selling price par ($200 per share), and accrued interest from January 1, 1896. 
Certificates redeemable at par after one year from date of purchase, at option of 


For information address, 

FRANCIS A. CRUM, Department Manager, 

No. 260 MAIN ST„ Hartford, Conn. 


1 J J Insurance against Loss or Damage 
Thorough Inspections and ip®jto Property and Loss of Life and 

1 J I Injury to Persons caused by 

Steam-Boiler Explosions. 

J. M. ALLEN, President. 

F. B. ALLEN, 2d Vice-President. 

WM. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-President. 
J. B. PIERCE, Secretary and Treasurer,. 

More than 60,000 Steam Boilers now under the Inspection care of the Company, 



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Paid Policyholders, $29,140,939, 

$2,244,588 in iSgs alone. 

JAS. G. BATTERSON, President. 

RODNEY DENNIS, Secretary. 

JOHN E. MORRIS. Ass't Sec'y. 

^ bo ut J ewelr y 

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offered at such pocket-pleasing prices. 
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'ol. II. 

April, May, June. 1896 

No. 2 

cts. a Year. 


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Clx Connecticut Quartcrlp. I 

An Illustrated Magazine. 

Devoted to the Literature, History, and Picturesque 
Features of Connecticut. 


65 State Street, Courant Building, 

Hartford, Conn. 

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Vol. II. 

April, May, June, 1896. 

No. 2. 

The Falls of the Tunxis. 



Photo by K. T. Sheldon. 

Canaan. ...... 

Mary Geikie Adam. 


Illustrated by Marie H. Kendall. 

The Old Brown Mill. Poem. Illustrated. 

Louis E. Thayer. 


Bacon Academy. Illustrated. 

Israel Foote Loo mi 3. 


The Old Red School House. Poem. 

A . H. Simons. 


The Axe and How it is Hade. 

Albert L. Thayer. 


Illstrated by G. A. Reckard. 

Day Dreams. Poem. .... 

Elizabeth A I Jen Curtis. 


Old Time Husic and flusicians. Illustrated. 

X. H. Allen. 


The Falls of the Tunxis. 

L. W. Case. 


Illustrated by K. T. Sheldon. 

New Haven Harbor. Illustrated. 

Charles Hervey TownshenJ. 


A Stuart in Exile. .... 

Ellen D. Lamed. 


A Panthorn Romance. Illustrated. 

Jessica Wolcott Allen. 


Love and Fame. Poem. .... 

Sophia B. Eaton. 


Jacob Heminway— The First Yale Student. 

Edwin Stanley Welles. 


Departments. — Historical Notes, 


From the Societies. 


Genealogical Department, 


Book Notices, 


Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of the second class. 
Copyright 1896, by Geo. C. Atwell. 
{Editors are at liberty to use parts of articles if propei 


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The Connecticut Quarterly. 

" Leave not your native land behind." — Thoreau. 

Vol. II. April, May, June, 1896. No. 


Illustrated bv Mrs. M. H. Kendall. 

In the beautiful valley of the Housatonic River, known to the Indians as the 
" Oosotonuc," lies the township of Canaan. What was once embraced in the ancient 
name, is now subdivided into Canaan, East Canaan, South Canaan, and Falls 
Village ; perhaps Huntsville ought also to be included. 

The town is bounded north by Massachusetts ; west by the fair stream above 
mentioned ; east by Norfolk ; and south by Cornwall. 

The township was sold at auction, in New London, January, 1738, and in May, 
1740, the first settler arrived. 

The name of this pioneer was Samuel Bryant. He came with an ox-team from 
Stamford, Ct., with John Franklin as teamster. Mr. Bryant had six sons ;■' his 
seventh child, also a son, was the first white child born in this town. In June of 
the same year Daniel and Isaac Lawrence, with their families, came to spy out the 
land ; they were soon followed by the Hewitts, and from that time the settlement 
of the town went on rapidly. In 1741 a church was formed in what is now South 
Canaan, and consisted of four persons, — Jacob Bacon and wife, Isaac Lawrence and 

The turnpike between Boston and the Hudson passed through part of the 
town, so that portion of it soon became a center of various industries. One of the 
first, perhaps the first, nice house built was erected by Captain Isaac Lawrence in 
1 75 1 ; and it stands to-day, to all appearances as solidly as ever; it has been re- 
modeled, and rejuvenated ; but the old frame still carries the modernized super- 
structure, as proudly as when the workmen laid down their tools, more than a hun- 
dred and forty years ago. 

The old well-scoop is still in use, if one prefers a draught from "the old oaken 
bucket," to one drawn from a modern faucet, equipped with the latest thing out in 
filters. For many years this house was used as a " Tavern," where the stages stopped, 



as they passed through 
Canaan, towards Hartford, 
Poughkeepsie, and Albany. 

Over the great front door 
still hangs the iron lantern 
frame, from which "the light 
of other days " used to shine, 
guiding the weary travelers to 
this welcome hostelry. Under 
this same door lies the broad 
stone doorstep, on which we 
can read the name of Captain 
Isaac Lawrence, his wife, and 
their eleven children, — seven 
sons and four daughters. 

The taste for large famil : 
ies seems to have been handed 
down, among other good 
things, in this particular line, 
as in 1850 we find there were 
more than 600 descendants of 
this father in Israel. In Haw- 
thorn's notes, 1838, we find 
these words: "At Canaan 
Conn., before the tavern, there 
is a doorstep two or three 
paces large in each of its 
dimensions ; and on this is in- 
scribed the date when the 
builder of the house came to 

the town, — namely, 1741. . . . Then follows the age and death of the patriarch 

(at over 90) ... It would seem as if they were buried there; and many people 

take that idea. It is odd to put a family record on a spot where it is sure to be 

trampled under foot." 

When the disagreement 

came, between the mother 

country and her robust child 

— who could no longer be 

kept in swaddling bands — 

Canaan promptly responded, 

sending into the field many 

of her sons. 

It must have been a stir- 
ring time, as troops were 

marched through the town ; 

sometimes their own soldiers ; 

at others mercenaries ; and 

it is most interesting to follow, 

so far as we can, the footsteps of a few of our revolutionary heroes. To the 

northwest of the town there stands an old house, where lived and died the man for 

whom it was built, — Jonathan Gillette. 





His father also, Jonathan 
Gillette, was already in the 
army, as captain of marines 
on an American man-of-war ; 
dying in the service. The son 
enlisted, when but eighteen 
years of age, as a drummer 
boy, and was marched with his 
company towards New York. 
At Horseneck, near Greenwich, 
they were taken prisoners, and 
brought on to New York, where 
they were confined in the old 

sugar-house ; here he was kept for ten months. Gillette and three comrad 
enlisted with him, fared better than many of the prisoners, as he made 


es, who 

known to a Mr. Hutton, a warm friend of his father ; who saw that they had food, 
and through whose good offices Gillette was eventually exchanged for an 

English soldier. 

It seems that Jonathan 
Gillette senior, and this Mr. 
Hutton were Masons ; and 
the grip of those sons of the 
square and compass proved 
a blessing to the boy, as it 
has to many another before, 
and since. After Gillette's 
release, he again enlisted ; 
faring better, and serving till 
his company was disbanded. 
Years afterwards, the old 
wood road on tom's mountain. sugar-house was taken down, 



and a patriotic gentleman looked up the surviving prisoners ; there were only ten 
living, and to each of them he sent a cane, with an ivory head, on which was 
engraved his name. 

Those sticks were made from one of the beams of the old prison. The cane 



given to Jonathan Gillette is now in the possession of Mr. Henry Gillette of Hart- 
ford. The name of the donor was not known. 

Some distance south of the " Gillette House " stands another landmark, — the 
"Old Douglass Place." 




Here a company 
of Hessian soldiery 
were housed for some 
days, as they were 
marching from Boston 
to New York. 

They were prison- 
ers ; and the huge fire- 
place is still in use, 
round which they sat, 
and in which they 
cooked their rations. 
The story is that some 
of them tried to es- 


chief when he crossed the 
East River at midnight. 

He was next at West 
Chester, N. Y., and was one 
of the guards over the ill- 
fated Major Andre, whose ex- 
ecution he witnessed. From 
there he went with Wayne 
to take Stony Point, and was 
again in Washington's com- 
mand when he crossed the 
Delaware on Christmas night. 
McClary says, " After we 


cape, were recaptured, and confined 
in the cellar. 

There — so goes the tale — used 
to be seen in the stone walls staples 
to which the malcontents were 

It may be that this last item is 
but legendary ; no matter, Hessians 
and drummer boys are not the only 
links that bind the good old town 
of Canaan to the historic past. 

From here also went to the front 
Nathaniel Stevens. He, with four 
brothers and a brother-in-law, Samuel 
McClary, were all soldiers during the 
revolution. McClary was a member 
of Sheldon's "Light-Brigade," which 
constituted General Washington's 
body-guard. McClary was mustered 
in at Boston, remaining there till it 
was evacuated. From there he went 
to Long Island with Washington, 
where they were defeated ; and was 
one of those who accompanied the 





vens, who entered the service May, 1775, and the next 
under the immediate com- 
mand of General George 

In 1777 he was with 
General Putnam, and in 1780 
was raised to the position of 
Deputy Commissary under 
General Washington. This 
responsible position he held 
until the dissolution of the 
commissary department in 
1782. Colonel Stewart was 
commissary-general ; and in 
his letter to Mr. Stevens, 

crossed the river I rode 
near General Wash- 
ington ; he was quite 
silent, and very grave." 

McClary was in 
the battles of Trenton, 
Princeton, and Valley 
Forge. _Was present 
at the surrender of 
Cornwallis, and with 
General Washington 
through the entire war; 
being discharged at 
Newburgh 1783. 

We must now re- 
turn to Nathaniel Ste- 
year served as commissary 



i ii 

a - 



giving him the place of deputy, 
he says: 

" I received yours of 
March 20th endorsing General 
Howe's, General Clinton's, 
General Schuyler's, and Mr. 
Fitch's letters ; these weighty 
testimonials as to your fitness 
to serve the public are to me 
entirely satisfactory." Retir- 
ing from honorable service, 
Captain Stevens built the 
house now standing, in fine 
repair, in East Canaan. It is one of our most attractive places, and stands to-day 
as a memorial of a bygone generation of patriots ; also a witness to the thrift 
and sagacity of Captain Stevens' descendants, who honor themselves*by honoring 
the memory of those who loved and served their country. 

On this same road, " East Canaan 

-:-.- Street," stands another old time 

home, where Captain Edmund Dun- 

I x^ ning spent a long life. When but a 

1 boy of sixteen Dunning enlisted r 

and was soon afterwards detailed as 
?y assistant to General Washington's 
cook. Here he remained some time, 
and in after years delighted his 
family and neighbors with many 
K j s ' anecdotes and personal recollections 

j of those stirring times, and of Wash- 

ington himself. 

Whether he served in the army 
and was wounded is not remembered, 
but he was one of those who received 
a pension. 

After the close of hostilities he 
was sent a commission as captain of 
the militia; it is signed by Connecti- 
cut's first Governor, Jonathan Trum- 
bull, and bears date 1803. 

Coming down this pleasant 
street, and following the windings of 
Canaan's picturesque stream, known 
to us as the " Blackberry," to the 
Indians as the "Bromfoxit," we pass 
a house where the great-grand- 
daughter of Captain Gershom Hewitt 

This Captain Hewitt served un- 
der Colonel Ethan Allen, when Fort 
9, 1775- 


Ticonderoga was surprised and taken, May 

Before the assault Hewitt entered the fort, as a spy. 

He was dressed, and behaved like a simple countryman, looking for an aunt 
from " Varmount." 



m bo 


O § 




His part was played so well that no suspicion was aroused. He was allowed 

to enter, and wander about at will ; the soldiers even entertaining him, they were 

so amused by his simplicity. 

He pretended never to have seen a cannon ; asking what those long iron things 

with holes in the end were for. After getting all the information he could, he 

wandered out, in further quest for the missing "Aunt." 
After the fort was taken 

the captain of the guard told 

Hewitt, that had he had the 

least idea who he was the day 

he entered the fort, he would 

have killed him. 

Captain Hewitt used to 

tell the story of the surrender 

of Ticonderoga with great 

animation ; and when he came 

to the place where Colonel 

Allen was asked by the British 

commander by what authority 

he demanded their surrender, 

and gave the fine reply: "In 

the name of the Great Jehovah, and the Continental Congress" — the old man 

would rise up, stamping his foot in excitement, while his voice rang out like a 

battle cry. 

A brother of this Gershom Hewitt served as a private, and was killed in the 

massacre of Wyoming. In camp, field, and kitchen, as officers, and in the ranks, 

Canaan has had her full share of brave sons, who counted not their lives dear when 

the country they loved called 
them to fight her battles ; 
dying if need be in her de- 

Doubtless there are other 
names deserving a place on 
the roll of honor ; but even to 
mention them all is quite im- 
possible ; we can but pick a 
flower here and there, when 
the field is starred with 

Canaan was a place of 
many industries, in the long 

ago ; let us bring some of those who were in the fore-front as business leaders into 

our lives again, for a few brief moments. 

No doubt there are those still living who will remember " Ishams Woolen 

Factory," in East Canaan, where a superior quality of goods was made. 

Besides this there was a cotton mill and puddling works, all of them doing a 

good business ; though they were not obliged to resort to the various tricks of 

trade in vogue and on the increase to-day, forced in the hot-bed of competition. 
Still following the windings of the bonny Bromfoxit, we come to one of the 

most interesting centers of activity in the town. Here was, for long years, a 

41 slitting mill," in which "nail rods" were slit from bars of iron, and from which 

" wrought'" nails were r hammerecl. 




The man who built and owned the slitting; 
mill was Samuel Forbes ; known far and near, 
for many years before his death, as " Squire 
Forbes;" a man of much enterprise, great busi- 
ness capacity and energy, also a man of sterling; 
honesty and uprightness. When the slitting mill 
was built, there were but two others in the 
country: one near Boston, the other in Maryland. 
The production of nail rods, in Canaan, 
brought much business into the place; men 
coming from all the " region round about " to 
purchase bundles of the rods. 

In the old State prison of Newgate, ham- 
mering nails was one of the employments of the 
inmates, who were obliged, no doubt sorely 
against their will, to combine usefulness with 
punishment, so that even in those far-away days 
Canaan was doing her part to vary the monotony 

of those who were retired from public life for longer or shorter periods. 

Samuel Forbes was the pioneer iron-worker of this part of the state ; discover- 
ing and operating the 

mine in Salisbury (our 

neighbor), which 

bears the name of / 

the "Forbes ore-bed " \ / 

to this day. In Lake- dLiwtf 

ville. two miles from HttB 



Salisbury, he had a 
forge, where many 
cannon were cast dur- 
ing the revolutionary 
war, varying in size 
from four to forty-five 
pounders. In Canaan 
he had a forge and 
anchor works ; and it is tradition that part of the chain which was stretched 
across the Hudson, to prevent the ships of the enemy from ascending the river, 
was forged in Canaan by Squire Forbes. Many are the stories told about this 

busy worker of the past. 

It is handed down in the 
family, that Benedict Arnold, 
passing through Canaan, at the 
head of some troops, and being 
weak from a recent wound, 
rested for a few days under 
the Squire's hospitable roof, 
rejoining his command later. 

The house was on the 
turnpike, and a conspicuous 
place ; it is wreathed in tradi- 
tion and made interesting by 
st. Joseph's church. — roman catholic. story; but we are almost afraid 


to put on paper all the nice things that have been handed down as household 
breas :res to the later generations, lest some genius for dates and statistics should 
arise, blowing aside the mists in which some of our legends may have taken form, 
and rudely depriving us of our inheritance of romance. 


One man, very famous afterwards, was interested with Squire Forbes in t te 

Salisbury ore-beds : and was also for a time his book-keeper. 

This man was Ethan Allen, a native of Connecticut, destined to play so fine a 
part in the war of the revolution. It is sixty-eight years since Samuel Forbes slept 
with his fathers. And there are still three persons here who remember him dis- 

•• Time would fail me to 
speak of Gideon, and of 
Barak, and of Samson : of 
David also;" so we most 
turn from the past, laying 
our little memorial wreaths 
on the graves of those who 
are gone but not forgotten, 
though they have passed 
"-- to the majority, giving 
place to others, who are 
carrying on the interests of 
our busy town. In the war 
of the rebellion Canaan responded nobly, giving freely to the country her br 
and best. Among the long list of honored dead, we name but twc 
David T. Cowles, who fell at Port Hudson. 

This gallant soldier sent his dying message to those he lored - - my 

mother. I died with my face to the enemy; Lord "^_ ; rece - my 5{ 
passed from earth u a true patriot, a loving son, a brave officer, and a sincere 





tian." The David L. Cowles 
Post of the G. A. R. in this 
town is a memorial to him, 
and the other brave men who 
answered their country's call. 
" Lord, keep their memories 

Although the Rev. Hiram 
Eddy, D.D., was not a native 
of this town, he has been 
identified with us for so many 
years, that we must claim him 
as our own. For some years 
pastor of the Congregational 
Church at East Canaan, marrying for the second time in the town, and spending 
the last years of a busy life, as a resident, he can never be forgotten. It is a 
little more than two years 
since Dr. Eddy left us, an- 
swering to his name in the 
last great roll call. 

Chaplain of the Second 
Connecticut Volunteers, he 
was taken prisoner after the 
first battle of Bull Run. 
Carried South, he was taken 
from place to place, till he 
had been an inmate, for 
longer or shorter periods, 
of five Confederate prisons. 
After twelve months of con- 
finement he was most unex- 
pectedly released. Worn and haggard though he was on his return, his magnificent 
physique gradually regained its wonted strength. Those who were privileged to 

know him to the last felt, that even though the 
four score years were reached, " His sun had 
gone down while it was yet noon ; " for " His 
eye was not dim, nor his natural strength abated." 
To-day, the chief industries of Canaan are 
fc | iron and lime. 

The Barnum-Richardson Company have three 
furnaces ; and when all are in blast, the output 
is about 40 tons per day. 

It is charcoal iron, and as the Salisbury ore 
is used, in part, the product is of very superior 
quality. One of the furnace buildings is seen in 
jl^jj the illustration. 

The lime business is carried on, at the 
present time, by five companies ; of which Charles 
Barnes' Sons is the oldest. 

This firm has been in existence since 1840, 

and is well known in the state for the excellent 

rev. hiram eddy. quality of its lime. One of the recent companies 


CAN A A.\ 


has an oil-kiln ; and they each produce an article of fine quality ; proved by the 
ready market which they all find. 

It would seem that in this way, at least, Canaan does her part in cementing 


the homes and hearthstones of her sons and daughters ; and yet with humiliation, 
we see that her divorce court still has a full calendar. 

Connecticut is justly proud of her beautiful capitol at Hartford, and Canaan 
does not forget that the marble with which it is built came from one of her inex- 
haustible quarries. 

The Bromfoxit or Black- 
berry river offers a fine water 
power; not to be despised 
even in these days of 
steam; and there are 
major and minor op- 
portunities for the 
right man in the 
right place to make 
his mark. But should 
he be a misfit — "the 
round man, in the 
square hole" — even 
Canaan is powerless 
to aid. Lying on the 
junction of the Berk- squire forbes tombstone. 

Shire division Of the (The square block like a table.) 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad and the New England division of the 

Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, the facilities for going and coming are excellent. 

Our scenery is fine, the drives beautiful, as Mother Nature has been generous 

to Northern Connecticut. Canaan mountain, called by the Indians, Wangum, a 



spur of the Green mountains, is interesting for the variety of its outline, and the 
beautiful sheet of water — Lake Wangum — lying on one of its summits. 

We have four churches ; so there is no lack of variety in the theological feasts 
spread before all comers ; while the clerical exponents of the various creeds are 
living demonstrations of obedience to the divine command, " Let brotherly love 
continue." What an anomaly it would be, should the "land flowing with milk and 
honey " be the abiding place of fanaticism and religious discord. 

Although the towns about us are supporting good boarding and day schools, 
Canaan steps to the front again, in wholesome competition. 

We have an excellent high school ; while the Canaan Academy for boys offers 
a home where parents can place their sons, finding the advantages of education are 
combined with other essentials for the proper development of mental and physical 

Another good gift from Dame Nature to our town is her water supply. The 
chemist of the State Board of Health last year made an analysis of some Canaan 
water, and the result was exceedingly pleasant reading to water-drinkers. 

Our " Douglas Library," containing about three thousand volumes, would be a 
blessing to any town, and is appreciated by us and our neighbors ; especially since 
it has been so nicely housed in a building, all its own, provided by the generosity 
of one of our citizens. It is now free ; has a fund by which it is increased from 
year to year, so that there is no lack of mental food for those who are blessed with 
that kind of an appetite. 

The writer of this paper is not a native of Canaan, so ought not to be accused 
of undue partiality, or of trying to produce on paper the Garden of Eden ; but if 
any one in quest of that favored spot will visit us, we hope they will feel con- 
strained to exclaim, like the Queen of Sheba, as she saw the glory of Solomon's 
Court, "The half has not been told me." 






Of my boyhood scenes there is one alone, 
Which about my life has ever thrown 
A light that has cheered me in my care, 
And driven away all dark despair. 

As a vision it comes, in these after days, 
When I feebly peer through time's black haze, 
As a vision that shows me a sloping hill 
Where stands, as of yore, the old brown mill. 

Once more I stand by the old brown mill, 
But the scene is changed and all is still : 
The wheel no more at its toil goes 'round, 
And the mill in a shroud of ice is bound. 

How often 'tis so. The scenes that cheer 
Our childhood change with each newborn year 
And the joyous paths of long ago, 
We find are hidden 'neath ice and snow. 



By Israel Foote Loomis 

' ' Patron and Founder, grateful thought doth turn reverently to thee . . . 
What throngs have drank the waters of the spring 
That thou didst open here ! 

We see them come 
Back through the mists of time. 

Where now is sport, 
They played, with merry shout, and flying ball, 
And trundled hoop, or o'er the frozen flood 
Glided with steel armed feet. 

As these now bend 
O'er Livy's lore, or Homer's glowing page, 
Or the long task of figures, without end, — 
They bent, perchance to hide vexation's tear. — 
They rose to men. 

Some from the pulpit spake 
The holy word of warning; some essayed, 
Of Jurisprudence the unmeasured toil, — 
Some, tending at the couch of wan disease, 
Parried the spoiler's shaft. To giddy youth, 
Some from the teacher's chair, wise precepts dealt. 
Some, 'mid the statesman's perils rode to fame, 
And others tested in the marts of trade, 
The value of the wisdom gathered here, 
• All were thy debtors. 

Sure these classic walls 
Should ne'er forget thee; but, with honor, grave 
Thy name upon their tablets, — for the eye 
Of all posterity." 

Lydia Huntley Sigourney. 

Chateaubriand, the French savant, makes this statement, "After planting a 
colony, — the English first build an inn, — the Germans build a beer hall, — 
the Spaniards build a chapel, — but the Americans build a schoolhouse." 

Whether the statement of the learned Frenchman be true or not, taken in toto, 
we would not call in question our part of his compliment, taken sei'iatim. 

Like all the other towns which were planted in the early settlement of Con- 
necticut, the proprietors and freemen of the ancient town of Colchester, after first 
" building a 'meeting-hows' for the worship of God" — made in their best way 
provision for the education of their children and the rising generation. They 
counted it " a barbarisme," " not to be able perfectly to read the Inglish tongue," 
and to "know the capital laws and be grounded in the rules of religion." 

So, with an earnestness which looks noble to us of to-day, they did provide for 
education, sometimes jointly by the town and by parent, — then again considering 

i 2: 


" what way may be best to have a school free for all " — now asking a load of 
wood, — or a few shillings from each pupil — now " appointing committees to build 
a 'School-hows'" — and appropriating money for such a building "near the 
church " and cheerfully " taxing themselves to pay the ' salary '," so small it 
seems to us, to Nathaniel Foote and Nathaniel Loomis, teachers, who 

" In their noisy mansion, skilled to rule, 

As village masters, taught their little school." 

They did not stop here, but made it the duty of the selectmen to see that children 
and apprentices should receive proper education and be " fitted for some lawful 
employment, and not become rude and stubborn." 

They also provided that the selectmen should " see that children and servants 
should be catechised once a week, usually on Saturday afternoon," "in the grounds 



and principles of religion," so as to be able to answer the questions in " the 
catechism to their parents or masters, or superiors — or to any selectman." [How 
saintly (?) some modern selectmen would look discharging this last duty ! Catechis- 
ing a brace of boys in divinity ! — and catching the response !] 

Thus they lived till near the commencement of this century, and in this time 
there came to " the new plantation at Jeremy's Farm,"* sometimes called " twenty- 
mile river," and "Jeremy's river," — new settlers from Weathersfield, Brainford, 
Glassenbury, Windsor, Hartford, and New London, mostly pious, intelligent, thrifty 

From the last-named place came Pierpoint Bacon. Though having the name 
and blood of a most honorable family, which has given to the professions of law, 

* This place was so named from Jeremiah Adams of Hartford, then known as " Jeremy" Adams. 
He had a tavern on Main street nearly opposite the Center Church, and owned a farm. It would 
appear from the records that the " steady habits " of some of the deputies to " the general court'' 
from the country towns were sometimes broken by the contents of his decanters. At a town meeting 
held in Wethersfield March 11, 1662, it was voted " That the deputies of Wethersfield shall do what 
lyeth in their power to procure a license to some honest man in Hartford to keep a victualing house, 
besides Jeremiah Adams, that thereby strangers might have good entertainment at ' court times,' and at 
other public meetings." [Wethersfield Records.] 


theology, and medicine, some of the most profound thinkers and leaders in 
America and England, yet he, it appears from what can now be gleaned about his 
life and preferences, seems to have belonged to that most worthy rank of good 
citizens who, "born to the great inheritance of labor," walk along the paths of life 
doing well every private or public duty, always behaving as if they knew that the 
eye of God was upon them. It is to such men that communities and states are 
largely indebted for healthy moral progress and stability. 

He bought a good-sized farm in the town some three miles south of the church 
in Colchester, and there pursued the business of his life, a thrifty, frugal farmer. 

Could one turn back the wheels of time, and see him as he went to the house 
of worship, we should see him, not in the "first seat in dignity," which was occu- 
pied by those of "age" and "dignity of descent," nor yet among those who 
occupied " places of public trust," but in among those of " pious disposition and 
behavior " and " estate." 

An old townsman who knew him, and who is now dead, describes his appear- 
ance as follows: "He was a small man in stature, with keen, black eyes, and a 
very dark, swarthy complexion." 

In carrying on his business, like many others in the towns of this common- 
wealth at that date, Mr. Bacon owned and worked negro slaves, 5 '' for this was 
before the agitation of the question of " the crime of buying and selling human 
flesh " had been begun and presented to the public conscience of the people of 

A story is told of a bit of pleasantry indulged in by a neighbor at Mr. Bacon's 
expense, which was related by the same man who described Mr. Bacon's 
appearance. He had hired this neighbor to work with him and his slaves 
in the field. His neighbor wore a "bleached tow frock," but Mr. Bacon and his 
farm hands had plain, "unbleached frocks." While they were busy, a man from 
Norwich came to the field to see Mr. Bacon about buying a slave, and, being 
unacquainted with Mr. Bacon, went up to the man who had on the bleached frock 
and made known his errand. The neighbor, seeing a chance for some sport, 
pointed to Mr. Bacon, who was some distance away, and said, " There is a nigger 
that might suit you." Whereupon the would-be purchaser went to Mr. Bacon, who 
had all the time kept at work, and, touching him on the shoulder, said, " Sambo, 
will you be my slave ? " In the scene which followed Mr. Bacon gave vent to his 
feelings, and the dilemma of the visitor can easily be imagined. The story was 
told on Mr. Bacon for years afterward in Colchester. 

It was his practice to market all the products of his farm in New London, and, 
during his whole life in Colchester, as often as need required, he went there, taking 
his own dinner and some for his team, returning often very late at night (for it was 
some eighteen miles distant), to save any expense, that he might thus accumulate 
the means to carry out his purpose to found the academy which now bears his name 
over the door, through which so many have gone out to win great reputations and 
high places in the varied walks of life. There is no portrait of Mr. Bacon. He 
did not invest in pictures, but the house in which he lived and died is still standing, 
though quite dilapidated and unoccupied. A cut accompanying, taken from a 
photograph of recent date, shows his last abode. There is, however, in the picture 
of the academy as it now appears, a limning of his good intentions toward all who 
have lived in the town of his adoption since his day, and another cut, taken from 

* In his will he made careful provision in the case of- each one of his slaves, especially for those 
males who were not 21 and females who were not 18. 

I2 4 


Barber's " Historical Collections," shows the academy as it appeared at the time 
of its completion, 1803. 

(From Barber's History.) 

From the " Historical Collections" we take the following: "In the first 
located society of Colchester there is a pleasant village of perhaps forty or fifty 
houses, having an elevated and healthful situation. The accompanying engraving 
shows the Congregational Church and Bacon Academy, situated on the western 
side of the open green in the center of the village. The small one-story building 
seen on the left is the conference house for holding religious meetings. The 
school for colored children is seen on the right under the trees. . . . Bacon 
Academy is so called from Pierpont Bacon, its founder. It was established 
in 1800, and possesses an endowment of $35,000. . . . It is a free school for 
the inhabitants of the society, and is open for scholars from abroad on very accom- 
modating terms. . . . There are usually about 200 scholars with four or five 
instructors. . . . This institution has ever been considered one of the most 
respectable and flourishing in the state." 

Mr. Bacon, as he grew older, had by dint of hard work and economy gained a 
large fortune for those days, and added to his estate by purchase until he was the 
largest landholder in the first society of Colchester, owning four large farms. 
These, with his personal property, he devised and bequeathed, as the following 
extract from his will shows : "Item, my Will is, and I do give all the remainder of 
my estate, both real, personal, and mixed of every kind that I now have either in 
possession, reversion or remainder, and all that I shall die seized of. All this I give 
to the Inhabitants of the First Society in Colchester for the purpose of supporting 
and maintaining a school in said First Society at such place as the Inhabitants of 
said First Society shall agree upon near the Meeting House in said Society, a 
School for the instruction of Youth in Reading, and writing English, in Arithmetic, 
Mathimaticks, and the Languages, or such other branches of Learning as said 
Inhabitants shall direct." . . . 




How the news of this bequest gladdened the hearts of the fathers and mothers 
then living in that society ! 

It was like the reading of the will of Cresar in Rome ! 

No more was heard the sneers of some who had jested of "the stinginess of 
Old Bacon ! " As he hoarded his well-earned profits he was every day nearing the 
river where he could turn and make this benediction after his life's toil to bless 
generations yet to come ! 

After the probating of his will, which was dated April 17, 1800, the inhabitants 
of the first society in Colchester moved, jointly with Col. Joseph Isham, the 
executor named in the will, in the matter of carrying out Mr. Bacon's will and 

A committee from said society to the General Assembly at Hartford carried 
the names of the following persons to be appointed by the General Assembly "To 
be first trustees of said Bacon Academy, to hold their offices during good behavior" 
and to be "a body corporate and politic, in fact and in name," by the name of 
"The Trustees and Proprietors of Bacon Academy," "seven of whom should 
be a quorum to proceed on business, and may adjourn from time to time." 
This committee appeared at the May session, 1803, and His Excellency, Jonathan 
Trumbull, Jr., Zephaniah Swift, Gen. Epaphroditus Champion, Hon. Roger Gris- 
wold, Rev. Henry Channing, Rev. Salmon Cone, Col. Daniel Watrous, Maj. Roger 
Bulkeley, Col. Joseph Isham (executor), John Watrous, M.D., Asa Bigelow, Esq., 
and Ichabod Lord Skinner were appointed to constitute the first board of trustees 
for the said corporation, who held their first meeting July 5, 1803. 

From this date till the present day the influence of this school on the people 
who have received instruction there cannot be measured. It will be noticed by ref- 
erence to the preceding passage taken from Barber's " Historical Collections," and 
be it said for the credit of the men of Colchester in those days who maintained it, 
that there was in this village for many years "a school for colored children," "just 
north of the church under the trees," 

This caused a great number of colored people to come to Colchester to live, and, 
after the academy was completed, there they stood, the academy on the right of 
the church as a handmaid of the church, and " the little colored school under the 
trees " on the left as another handmaid, all three a trinity working together to 
"bring up the children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord." 

A gentleman whose name is in the list of first trustees — Gen. Epaphroditus 
Champion, who was congressman from Connecticut from the Tenth Congress in 
1807 to the Fifteenth Congress in 181 7, inclusive, and consequently passing to and 
from Washington, D. C. — used to remark to the trustees that "wherever he 
went, east or west, north or south, everybody, even the negroes, were inquiring about 
'Cowlchester,' Connecticut, and the way to get to it." 

In the early years of the academy there were many students from the Southern 
states, sons of Southern gentlemen, who sent them here to be fitted for college, and 
if a record had been kept we should find names from nearly every state of the 
Union, previous to the war, on the roster of the academy. 

The planting and nurture of such a school was a matter of so great interest 
that a sketch of the lives* of some of its active promoters should be given at this 

First on the list was His Excellency Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., of Lebanon, Conn., 
second son of the " old war governor," — a graduate of Harvard in 1759; paymaster- 

*It is evident from the appointment of these men, so prominent and taken from different parts of 
the state, that the school should be patronized by students from abroad. 


general of the northern army under Washington, and in 1781 succeeded Colonel 
Hamilton as private secretary and first aid to General Washington until near the 
close of the war; was twice speaker of the Connecticut House of Representatives, from 
1796 to 1809; was annually elected one of the twelve of the Council of Assistants 
of the State, and as such a member of the " upper house." In 1790, was represent- 
ative in Congress, and in 1791, elected speaker of the United States House of 
Representatives, and so continued until 1794, when he was elected to the United 
States Senate. In 1796 was elected lieutenant-governor, in 1798 elected governor, 
and annually reelected for eleven years, until his death in 1809. While holding this 
office he was also Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Errors of the state, — all 
of which give evidence of his great ability and integrity. 

Second was Hon. Zephaniah Swift, who came from Massachusetts; graduate 
of Yale in 1778. He practiced law in Windham, Conn., — a man whom no lawyer 
would admit being unacquainted with by way of his published works. He was 
congressman from Connecticut from 1793 to 1797. In 1800, was secretary of the 
American legation to France; 1801, was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court; 
was Chief Justice of Connecticut from 1806 to 1819; was a member of the " Hart- 
ford Convention" of New England Federalists, 1814. He published "A System of 
Laws for Connecticut," " Laws of Evidence in Criminal Cases," " Digest of the 
Laws of Connecticut," 1822. 

Third was Hon. Roger Griswold of Lyme, Conn., a graduate of Yale, where 
many of those who fitted for college at Bacon Academy have entered since. He 
was an eminent lawyer, elected to Congress from 1795 to 1805. In 1807, was made 
Judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut; from 1809 to 181 1 was lieutenant- 
governor, and then chosen governor, dying in office in 181 2. The men of his time 
estimated him as one of the foremost men in the United States, in talents, political 
knowledge, and legal acumen. 

Fourth was Gen. Epaphroditus Champion, who was born in Westchester, the 
second society in Colchester, April 6, 1756. He entered the Continental army 
April 9, 1776, as assistant commissary-general to General Trumbull, and served in 
this office under him, and afterwards under his own father, Colonel Henry Cham- 
pion, about four years; elected to the general court as deputy from East Haddam, 
1792 to 1805; elected to Congress on the general ticket to the 10th, nth, 12th, 
13th, 14th Congresses; was lieutenant-colonel of the " 24th regiment," and resigned 
in 1795; was with Washington in the evacuation of New York, and at the battle of 
White Plains. His daughter, the late Mrs. Lucretia Deming of Litchfield, thus 
describes his appearance: "Dressed in blue broadcloth coat, with gilt buttons, 
yellow vest, ruffled shirt, white neckerchief, breeches buttoned at the knee, white 
silk stockings in summer, shoes with silver buckles, hair in a 'queue.' When he 
heard of Washington's death he said, 'I am glad he has done nothing to tarnish his 
great name.'" General Champion died December, 1834; his epitaph contains this 
sentence : "Talents, benevolence, and integrity characterized his spotless life." 

Fifth was Rev. Henry Channing, native of Newport, R. I., graduate of Yale 
1 781; was tutor in Yale 1783-6; pastor of the First Church in New London from 
1787 to 1806. He was an uncle of William Ellery Channing, D.D. 

Sixth was Major Roger Bulkeley, lieutenant of the company which volunteered 
from Colchester in the time of the " Lexington Alarm," April, 1775. He afterwards 
had command of a train of ten teams, which took supplies from Connecticut to the 
Continental army, in 1777. He built and lived and died in the house known as the 
" Burr place," now owned by Charles Williams, Esq., Colchester. 


Seventh was Rev. Salmon Cone, who was born in Bolton, Conn.; graduate of 
Vale, 1789; minister in First Church of Christ, Colchester, from 1792 to 1830; died 
1834. An anecdote told of him and Rev. David Austin, who had become estranged 
from the Presbyterians, and whom Mr. Cone had allowed to preach in his pulpit, 
shows the "authority" of the old-time preacher. On seeing a crowd going into 
his church one week-day, he inquired of his family the cause of the stir among the 
people. Just then Mr. Austin came in to see him, and he asked the cause of the 
excitement. Mr. Austin replied, "A lecture." "A lecture] I have not appointed a 
lecture" said Mr. Cone. "No," replied Mr. Austin, "I appointed it." "What!" 
says Mr. Cone, "you appoint a lecture in my parish without my consent?" Mr. 
Austin replied: "Brother Cone, don't be angry; the pigeons are down, let us 
spring the net on them." 

Eighth was Colonel Joseph Isham of Colchester, who was the executor of Mr. 
Bacon's will. .He represented Colchester many times in both houses of the legisla- 
ture; was a life-long friend and treasurer of the Academy, until old age compelled 
him to retire from all public stations. 

Of the others, Dr. Watrous was a prominent physician; graduate of Yale. He 
lived and died in the house now owned by the Hay ward family. Asa Bigelow, Esq., 
was a farmer, neighbor of Mr. Bacon. Ichabod Lord Skinner was a Marlboro and 
Hartford man. He was a graduate of Yale, a surveyor, and builder of public 
works ; a leading man in the State. 

These were the men who planted and cared for the Academy in its early years. 

At one of the first meetings of the trustees by-laws were adopted for the man- 
agement of the school, and chapter first of the original by-laws gives the course of 
instruction as consisting of three branches. In the first branch instruction was 
provided for in "the learned languages — English grammar, logic, rhetoric, belles- 
lettres, mathematics, natural philosophy, moral philosophy, and astronomy." 

This high standard has always been maintained, with such changes as have 
been for the better to prepare pupils for more advanced study. 

The preceptors of Bacon Academy, in the order of their service, are as 
follow, viz.: 

1st, John Adams, 1803-1810. H. T. Steele, 1846-48. 

Rev. Salmon Cone, ) G William Kinne, 1848-so. 

' >• 1810— 1 3. 
Hezekiah Rudd, J J. H. Brewer, 1851-52. 

R. Burleigh, 1813-15. David C. Kinne, 1851-52. 

D. A. Sherman, 1815-17. William Kinne, 1852-56. 

J. Miller, 1817-22. E. N. Chamberlin, 1856-57. 

Elizur Goodrich, 1821-23. P. J. Williams, 1857-59. 

Francis Yose, 1823-26. B. F. Parsons, 1859-62. 

Charles P. Otis, 1826-36. J. L. Shipley, 1862-64. 

Rev. Myron N. Morris, 1836-3S. Willoughby Haskell, / ^, _,_ 

Edward Strong, 1838-9. Alden A. Baker, ) 

R. D. Gardner, 1839. Charles F. Bradley, 1865-67. 

Rev. Myron N. Morris, 1839-43. James L. Linsley, 1867-69. 

Lewis H. Hurlbut, 1843-45. Francis E. Burnette, 1869-75. 

J. S. Wallis, 1845-46. Geo. H. Tracy, A.M., 1875-87. 

Edward Eells, 1846. Otis Adams, 1887-88. 

James R. Tucker, B.A., 1888, now Principal. 



Of the first preceptor, John Adams, LL.D., we have to say that he has the 
greatest record of the whole list. 

He is very near the same to America that " Dr. Arnold of Rugby " was to 
England. He was born in Canterbury, Conn., September, 1772, died in Illinois, 
April, 1863. Graduate, Yale, 1795 '■> was teacher in Canterbury three years. In 

1800 became rector of Plainfield 
Academy. In 1803, when Bacon 
Academy was opened to receive 
students, he was selected by its 
first trustees to be first preceptor, 
and build, so to speak, the founda- 
tion of its reputation. In 1810 
his renown as an instructor of 
youth attracted the attention of 
the trustees of Phillips Academy 
at Andover, Mass., and they 
invited him to become their 
principal. He accepted, and for 
twenty-three years he was in this 
position, where he molded and 
gave impetus to more young men 
who have made great names for 
themselves in after life than 
almost any teacher in America. 
In addition to his school 
work he took an active part in 
forming several of the great 
charitable associations that have 
attained national fame. In 1833 
he resigned as principal and went 
to Illinois, which state was then 
fast being settled by emigrants 
and eastern people, and devoted 
his time to establishing Sunday- 
schools. It is difficult to tell which part of his life had the most benign influence 
in America. 

So late as 1854 he received the degree of LL.D. from Yale. Few men can be 
found in this age of such rigid, conscientious integrity as this first preceptor of 
Bacon Academy. While Dr. Adams was in Colchester his son William was born, 
the late William Adams, D.D., the " silvery voiced " pastor of the Madison Square 
Presbyterian Church, New York, — one of the most gifted pulpit orators in the 
United States. 

The next preceptor of note was Mr. Rudd, from 1810 to 1813. Mr. Rudd was 
a great lover of music, and we believe was father of the author of the national 
hymn commencing : 

" Hail ! the bright and glorious day, 
When our country in her might." 

The next of the early preceptors of note was Charles P. Otis, from 1826 to 
1836. He instructed a greater number of pupils of both sexes who have become 
famous than any of his predecessors or successors in office. The Hon. Lyman 
Trumbull, LL.D., of Chicago, in a letter of recent date, says: "Charles P. Otis 


{By permission of American Sunday-School Union.) 



was preceptor of Bacon Academy during the last year of my attending school 

I received. I have always felt 



there, and to him I. owe most for the education 
my great obligation to him. . . . Chief 
Justice Waite, late of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, was in the same 
class with me. . . . Thompson, who 
afterwards became a missionary, a very 
brilliant scholar, was also a classmate. I 
left Colchester in 1833, and cannot now 
recall many of the schoolmates of my 

James T. Champlin, D.D., fitted for 
college here at that time. He was vale- 
dictorian of his class at Brown University 
1834, afterwards pastor of Federal Street 
Baptist Church, Portland, Me.; president of 
Colby University 1857-73. He published 
many text-books — "Demosthenes on the 
Crown," "Intellectual Philosophy," "Prin- 
ciples of Ethics," et al. 

The next preceptor of note was Rev. 
Myron X. Morris/fYale, 1837, preceptor 
1837-38; again, 1840-43. A very much 
beloved teacher and man. He afterwards 
was teacher at Andover, Mass.: trustee 
of Bacon Academy, 1851-64; principal Norwich 
Congregational Church, West Hartford, 185 2-1 875 
1867-85: vice-president of Connecticut Bible Society: representative from West 

Hartford, 1872-75. 

B. F. Parsons, preceptor 1859-62, whom the writer 
remembers with pleasure as a gentle helper and friend 
in "scanning" and expressing in English the beauties 
of Virgil's ".Eneid" and Xenophon's "Anabasis," was 
a fine teacher. I never recall his pleasant face without 
these words come instantly to mind : 

" Arma viruraque cano, Trojae qui primus ab oris 
Italiam fato profugus Laviniaque venit," 
for it was the first recitation we attended under 
his direction. 

Mr. Parsons, after his term of service, 
left the Academy, to the regret of many 
whom he had instructed, and with him went 
one of the brightest of the former students, 
as his wife, Miss Leonora Bartlett. 

J. L. Shipley, preceptor 1862-64, who 
died in Springfield, Mass., quite recently, 
kept bright the reputation of the school. 
He, too, like his immediate predecessor, took a wife who was educated at the 
Academy,*Miss Margaret Weeks, a greatfavorite among the students of that time. 
Deacon Alden A. Baker was preceptor 1864-5. His relation to the Academy was 
first as student, next as teacher and preceptor, then as trustee and treasurer for many 
years, and at present a working friend and promoter of its welfare. To him and the 
late Dr. S. L. Chase, trustee, should be credited the neat appearance of the building. 

town high school ; pastor of 
; member of Yale corporation, 




Prof. James L. Linsley, preceptor 1867-69, will be remembered by his pupils 
as of a kindly heart and a Christian gentleman — a fine instructor for pupils who 
needed no governing. 

F. E. Burnette, B.A. graduate of Amherst, preceptor 1869-75, did his office 
credit while at the head of this Academy, and is still " working at the forge of the 
teacher," head-master of the Putnam High School. 

George H. Tracy, A.M., preceptor 1875-87, graduate of Williams, class '66 } for 
twelve years at the head of the Academy, the longest term of service of any 
preceptor in the first century of the Academy, is son of Wm. Tracy, D.D., graduate 
of Williams College, '33, a missionary of the A. B. C. F. M., stationed at Tirriman- 
gulum, India, where he died. There Professor Tracy was born, 1842, and lived in 
his boyhood. 

His life shows us what strange things happen. It is enough to "almost per- 
suade " one to believe without any doubt in " foreordination." He was sent to 
America to be educated, and after the death of his parents did not return. After 
graduation at Williams College he was for three years at Durham, Conn., as 
principal, then came to Colchester as preceptor. He did much to increase the 
influence of the Academy. He was the first proposer of a four-years course, 
graduation, and diploma. Mr. Tracy had a deep religious interest in his pupils, 
leading many by personal exhortation to walk in the paths of religion. Among 
these was Rev. John Swift, B.A., who fitted for college under his tuition, whom 
he was personally interested in converting. Mr. Swift, after being ordained, went 
out to Japan to superintend the establishing of Y. M. C. associations through that 
fast-advancing country. How do we know but what the Lord sent this little 
Tracy boy from tropical India to convert a servant to go to Japan, to put Christian 
machinery at work there, to convert that vast population to Christianity ? 

After Prof. Tracy left Colchester he was for five years head-master of the 

High School in Bristol, Conn., then prin- 
cipal of the High School at Waterbury, 
Conn., where he still resides. 

Tames R. Tucker, B.A., preceptor since 
1888, a graduate of Yale, was the first pre- 
ceptor to put in practice the four-years 
academic course, and to have diplomas 
showing the proficiency of graduates. A 
good specimen of his method of fitting and 
equipment for college may be found in the 
person of Edward M. Day, B.A., Yale '94. 
He is in the class of '96, in the Law School, 
being, facile princeps, the winner of the 
coveted " Betts prize " among his class- 

When we look over the roll, and see 
among the citizens who have received 
the benefits of early training at Bacon 
Academy, whether of those now living, or 
of those who have passed over to that 
other realm, we find some of the results of 
Pierpont Bacon's "final investment" for 
his property.* 

* Mr. Bacon's will was not satisfactory to some of his relatives, and as he had no children, his rela- 
tives expected a " plum " when he died. After Col. Isham had proved the will and it had been approved 
by the Probate Court, an appeal was taken from probate. The will was sustained. This suit delayed 
the opening of the academy to 1 803. 




The name which first occurs to mind is that of Deacon Asa Otis, who was born 
in Colchester, and received his early education there. When he was about to en- 
gage in business he had an 
opportunity at Richmond, Va. 
During his active life in 
Richmond he accumulated 
princely fortune. He was a 
very plain unassuming gentle- 
man, and is the only man who 
has, as yet known, given the 
Academy any addition to its 
fund. Mr. Otis gave the 
Academy by his will $10,000, 
and made the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions the residuary legatee 
of his property, which was 
about one million dollars. He 
died in New London, March, 
1879, at the age of ninety-one, 
having only a short time pre- 
viously made his will. He 
had no children, having never 
married, and none of his rel- 
atives thought of trying to 
interfere with his last wishes. 
We only wish he had given 
the Academy more, for, years 
before, the Academy had deacon asa oti« 



given training to Rev. Win. Thompson and Rev. George Champion, pioneer 
missionaries, serving in Africa, in Zululand, and, quite recently, Rev. Charles N. 
Ransom, who is now in their service at Natal, South Africa, where Champion had 
been in 1834, until ruined health compelled him to return, and Swift, the emissary 
of the Y. M. C. A.'s of America to Japan. The gifts of the Academy to the 
missionary work are equal to that of Deacon Otis. 

He belonged to the first church in New London. It was his practice to give 
in charity without having it known. One of his methods was to visit the market 

in New London on market morning, and 
pay for baskets of provisions for others 
whom he knew to be in poor circumstances. 
He kept with him up to his death, his body 
servant, " Preston," whom many will re- 
member seeing at Mr. Otis's home in New 
London. " Preston " was so important that 
but for his color, one might think that he 
was the owner of the place. 

The oldest person now living who was 
a student at the Academy is Mrs. Abigail 
(Foote) Loomis, own cousin of Deacon Otis, 

{The Oldest Living Graduate.) 

hale and of good memory, at the age of 
ninety-eight. She was a student under 
the instruction of Mr. Rudd, the second 
preceptor. To her clear memory of 
events which occurred very early in this 
century, the writer is indebted for some 
of the incidents of the early history of 
the Academy. 

Speaking by contrast, we mention 
Howard Melville Brown, the youngest 


{The Youngest Graduate.) 

graduate of the Academy, aged sixteen, 

son of Hon. E. M. Brown of Brown Bros., the extensive paper manufacturers at 

Comstock's Bridge, Conn. 

The ancestors of Mrs. Loomis built mills soon after Colchester was settled in 
1700, and lived on the site where the great mills of Brown Bros, now stand, near 
which place Howard M. Brown was born ; and the " honors " of the Academy are 
mostly " between " the student lives of these two who were reared quite near the 
same spot. 

Hon. Lyman Trumbull, LL.D., is the oldest living student at the Academy, 
whose fame is national. He was born in Colchester, Oct. 12, 1813. His education 


is accredited by himself, as previously stated, solely to the Academy. He began 
teaching at the age of sixteen, and was principal of an academy in Georgia at the 
age of twenty. He studied law and was admitted to practice in 1837, at Belleville, 
111. In 1841, was Secretary of State in Illinois. In 1848, was elected judge of the 
Supreme Court. In 1854, was elected to Congress from his district, but, before Con- 
gress assembled, was chosen United States senator. In i860 he was brought for- 
ward as candidate for President, but had no desire to be so considered, and when 
his most intimate friend, Abraham Lincoln, was nominated, he worked with great 
earnestness and effect for his election. In 1861 he was again put in the Senate of 
the United States, and there, during those perilous times, he supported his friend 
Lincoln, and the union of the states. In the Senate he was one of the first to pro- 
pose the amendment to the Constitution of the United States, for the abolition of 

Hon. Eliphalet Adams Bulkeley, born 
in Colchester, June, 1803, fitted for college 
at Bacon Academy, graduated at Yale, 
1824. He studied law with William T. 
Williams at Lebanon, Conn., was admitted 
to practice, and settled first in East 
Haddam, Conn. Was there president of 
East Haddam Bank ; judge of probate ; 
representative to the assembly twice ; and 
senator from his district twice. In 1847, 
he removed to Hartford, and was school 
commissioner for Connecticut. In 1857, 
was elected member of the legislature for 
Hartford, and by almost unanimous con- 
sent became Speaker of the House — one 
of the most dignified presiding officers 
that the legislators of Connecticut have 
placed in the speaker's chair. For many 
years he was associated with the late 
Judge Henry Perkins, in the law firm of 
Bulkeley & Perkins, and later in life 
organized the Connecticut Mutual Life 

Insurance Company, and was its first president. He afterwards organized the 
.Etna Life Insurance Company, of which he was president for many years. Judge 
Bulkeley died in Hartford 13th of February, 1872. He was for many years 
president of the Board of Trustees of Bacon Academy. 

Hon. Morrison R. Waite, born in Lyme, Conn., November 29, 1816, was fitted 
for college at Bacon Academy, graduated at Yale 1837, in the class with William 
M. Evarts, Benj. Silliman, and Sam'l J. Tilden, studied law with his father and 
completed his studies with Samuel N. Young at Maumee City in Ohio in 1839. On 
being admitted to practice he formed a partnership with Mr. Young at Maumee 
City. In 1850 they removed to Toledo, O., and for thirty years he was the recog- 
nized leader of the Ohio bar. He first attracted national attention as counsel for 
the United States before the tribunal of arbitration at Geneva, Switzerland, 187 1-2, 
his associates being Caleb Cushing and Wm. M. Evarts. He argued the case of the 
liability of the British government, for allowing Confederate cruisers to be supplied 
with coal at British ports. By his robust logic he carried every point raised. 

He was nominated by President Grant for chief justice of the Supreme Court 
of the United States and was confirmed by a unanimous vote. He is regarded as 
being one of the ablest men who have held that office. 


1 34 


Hon. William A. Buckingham, born in Lebanon, Conn., May 24, 1804, received 
a part of his academic training at this school. At the age of twenty-one he went to 
Norwich, Conn., where he became a successful manufacturer and merchant. He 
was mayor of Norwich, i849-'5o-'56-'57, was elected Governor of Connecticut 
in 1858, and each succeeding year till 1866. During the war Governor Bucking- 
ham co-operated most heartily with President Lincoln. Although known as the 
" war governor," he was by nature eminently a civilian, deacon of the church in 
Norwich, a man of the noblest qualities, gentlest manners, and kindly disposition, 
president of the American Temperance Union, — one of the corporate members of 
the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. After his time of 
service as Governor expired he had two years of private life, then was elected 
United States Senator from Connecticut. His bronze statue is in the Capitol 


. ' * . .■'■■,■. 


at Hartford, surrounded by the tattered battle flags and guidons of the many regi- 
ments which he equipped and sent to the front, in the war for the Union cause, in 
suppressing the great rebellion. 

Hon. John T. Wait, born August 27, 181 1, w r as a student at Bacon Academy 
and fitted for Trinity College, Hartford. Studied law with LaFayette S. Foster, 
Norwich, began practice in 1836; was State's attorney for New London County, 
i842-'44-'46-'54; has been president of the New London County Bar Association 
since its organization, 1874; was first elector-at-large on the Lincoln and Johnson 
ticket; member of State Senate 1865-6, being Chairman of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee and president pro tempore of the Senate; was Representative in 1867 and 
Speaker of the House; in 1876 was elected to Congress from the Third District, 
Conn., and did fine service for eleven years, serving in the Committees on Foreign 
Affairs, Commerce, Elections, and other House committees, in the joint committee 
to secure greater efficiency in the signal service, geological, coast, and geodetic 
surveys, and the hydrographic office of the navy department. He was chairman of 


was one of the 
i 8] 5. fitted for 

the select committee to attend the unveiling f the statue of Prof. Henry at Wash 
ington, a well-deserved compliment, for he was one of the most respected men in 
Congress during the whole time of his service. He was untiring in giving 
attention to any business for his constituents, something which many Congress- 
men forget after they arrive in the Capitol. " The Hon. John T. 
best men that Connecticut ever sent to Washington. 

Hon. Henry Champion Deming of Hartford, born Colchestei 
college at Bacon Academy; graduated, 
Vale, 1836, Harvard Law School, 1839; 
served in the Legislature, i84o-'5o-'5i ; 
Senator from First District, 185 1; 
mayor of Hartford, t854-'58-'6o-'62; 
October 1861, Speaker of the House 
of Representatives, Connecticut; 1861, 
commissioned^colonel of the 12th regi- 
ment; went with Butler's expedition to 
New Orleans. His regiment was first 
to enter the city, and was given the 
post of honor at the Custom House. 
He was on detached duty, acting as 
mayor of New Orleans from October, 


1862, to February, 1863, then resigned, re- 
turned to Hartford, was elected to Congress 
from the First District, Connecticut, two 
terms, served as Chairman of the Committee 
on Expenditures of the War, and Committee 
on Military Affairs. In 1866 was delegate to 
the Loyalist convention in Philadelphia; from 
1869 to the time of his death, 1872, was 
internal revenue collector for his district. 
He was one of the most eloquent, graceful 
orators in New^ England, a gentleman of the 
finest culture and instincts, and the most refined literary taste. He translated 
and published Eugene Sue's "Mysteries of Paris," and "The Wandering Jew," 
and delivered an eulogy on Abraham Lincoln, by invitation of the Connecticut 
Legislature, in 1865, which was replete with his marvelous eloquence. 

Rev. Ezra H. Gillett, DtD., born Colchester, July 15, 1813, fitted for college at 
Bacon Academy; graduated, Yale, in 1841, Union Theological Seminary, 1844; 
ordained pastor of Presbyterian church, Harlem, N. Y., the same year; in 1868, 
professor of political economy, ethics, and history in the University of New 




York. He contributed many papers for the "American Theological Review," 
"Presbyterian Quarterly," published a "Life of Christ," "God in Human Thought," 
"Ancient Cities and Empires," and " England Two Centuries Ago." 

Hon. Leverett Brainard, born in Westchester, Conn., was educated at the 
Academy. He went to Hartford to commence his active business life in 1853 
as secretary of the City Fire Insurance Company. In 1858 he became a member 
of the firm which was incorporated in 1873 as The Case, Lockwood & Brainard 
Company, one of the largest printing establishments in New England. He is con- 
nected with many of the largest financial and manufacturing interests in and about 

Hartford. In 1884 he represented the 
city in the Legislature, serving as Chair- 
man of the Committee on Railroads, was 
Chairman of the Connecticut Commission 
to the World's Fair, and Chairman of the 
Committee on Manufactures, the most 
important of the working committees. 
He is at this time Mayor of Hartford, 
being the third mayor of that city (Deming 
and Bulkeley preceded him) which the 
Academy has had as students in their 



youth. In comparison with other mayors 
of the city, those educated at Colchester 
stand with good records. Mayor Brainard 
takes great interest in the city of his J 

Rev. George Champion, born in West- 1 
Chester, Conn., fitted for college at Bacon | 
Academy, entered sophomore class at Yale, I 
graduated 1831. After three years at ■ 
Anclover Theological Seminary, was or- 
dained in Colchester. Rev. Dr. Bacon of 

New Haven preached the sermon. Mrs. Sigourney wrote for the occasion a hymn. 
He and his wife sailed from Boston Dec. 2, 1834 for Zululand as missionaries of the 
A. B. C. F. M. His grandfather, Gen. Henry Champion, a man of great wealth, tried 
without avail to dissuade him from going. He was the only heir to his name. He 
offered to send five missionaries in his stead ; George's reply was, " If I stay it 
will be said that only the poor go. You send five and I will make the six." After a 
voyage of 67 days they arrived at Cape Town, he being one of the first missionaries 
to South Africa. "Then," says his journal, "with eyes fixed upon the benighted 
heathen land, as we entered the harbor at Natal, we sang the hymn : 

" ' O'er the gloomy hills of darkness, 
Look my soul, be still and gaze.' 



" These moments were rich in blessing. We have safely arrived at our field, 
and our hearts leap for joy." He learned the Zulu language, built at Ins expense 

a mission house at Port Elizabeth, established schools, and was one of three to 
translate the Bible into the Zulu language. The work was disturbed by fighting 
between the Boers and Zulus. After four years he returned to America, to wait 
for peace. When here he preached in Dover, Mass., where he was seized with 
hemorrhages of the lungs ; sailed for St. Croix, West Indies, where he died soon 
after his arrival, from disease contracted in Africa. He was described by those 
who knew him to have been most beautiful and lovely in his life. 

Hon. Morgan G. Bulkeley, another of 
the Bacon Academy students, born in East 
Haddam, was merchant in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
in early life. On the death of his father 
he removed to Hartford, became president 
of the United States Bank, and later, 
president of the .E^tna Life Insurance 
Company, one of the great corporations 
founded by his father. He was four times 
elected mayor of Hartford ; was elected 
Governor of Connecticut in 1889, and 



*-* v 



served for four years in that office. His 
reputation as a financier stands among the 
first in New England. 

Hon. Charles X. Taintor, born at 
Pomfret, Conn., moved with his parents to 
Colchester in 1848. He fitted for college 
at Bacon Academy, graduated at Yale, 1865. 
In 1867, he engaged in publishing, in New 
York city, and has since been in that busi- 
ness with his brother, Judah Lord Taintor, 
who was also educated at the Academy. 
Judge Taintor has filled public offices in New York with great credit to him- 
self and friends. In 1881, he was appointed by Governor Cornell member of the 
Board of Commissioners of Emigration, and served at the port of New York until 
1889, when he was appointed a police judge by the mayor of New York, a man, 
if we are rightly informed, who was a democrat, and Judge Taintor is a republican. 
He continued in this office for about seven years, until the reorganization of the 
department by the Legislature. Judge Taintor is director in the Astor Place Bank, 
also of the Riverside Bank, New York. In the bill now pending in Congress, appro- 
priating $5,000,000 for a new United States Custom House in New York city, he 




is one of the three named as commissioners to execute the trust of building this 
great structure. He is also trustee of the Grant Monument Association. He was 
chosen by the republicans of the seventh congressional district of New York to be 
delegate to the national conventions at Chicago in 1884 and '88. He is a member 
of the Union League Club, University Club, Republican Club, Yale Alumni Asso- 
ciation, and a prominent member and officer in the Fourth Avenue Presbyterian 
Church, president of the Bacon Academy Association, and it goes without saying, 
that he is a great friend of the Academy. Of the many others who have been 
students at this school, the want of space for so extended an article debars from 
more than mentioning. Mrs. Swift of Colchester, formerly Miss Almira Lathrop, 
to whom I am indebted for the names of some of the earlier students, especially of 
lady students, — and who taught the writer his " ab-abs," — the Misses Mary, Matilda, 
and Sarah Leffingwell, for many years eminent teachers in New York and Rich- 
mond, Va.; Miss Mary Gillette, mother of 
the wife of Prof. Beardsley of the Hartford 
Theological Seminary; Miss Lydia Morgan, 
afterwards wife of Judge Bulkeley, so well 
known in Hartford to the time of her 
death, in connection with the charitable 
associations of the city ; Miss Martha 
Woodward, who became the wife of Rev. 
Joseph W. Backus; Miss Elizabeth Brooke, 
now the wife of Hon. Francis Miles Finch, 
Judge of the Court of Appeals in New 
York; Harriet Trumbull, now wife of Prof. 
Brush, of the Scientific School at Yale 
College; Miss Rebecca Peters, afterwards 
teacher in the Academy, now wife of 
Reuben Smith, Esq., of Cleveland, Ohio; 
Rev. David Trumbull of Valparaiso, Chili ; 
Hon. Charles E. Brownell, manufacturer, 
president of bank of Moodus, Conn., 
graduate of Yale 1852 ; Hon. Joseph 
Hammond of Rockville, Conn.; Miss Cath- 
erine Olmsted, now wife of Hon. E. S. Day, 
Colchester ; Mr. and Mrs. William E. Baker of Hartford; Frank D. Haines, Esq., 
Executive Secretary of Governor Coffin; Daniel Haines, Esq., secretary of the 
Middlesex Banking Company, Middletown, Conn.; Charles W. Haines, Esq., a 
leading attorney at Colorado Springs, Colo.; Miss Phebe Taintor, now wife of 
Edward Gates, Esq., South Orange, N. J. ; John C. Shepherd of Chatham, Conn., 
former student, and afterwards teacher in the Academy, and an eminent teacher of 
youth for many years; Edward F. Bigelow, editor and proprietor of extensive print- 
ing establishments in Middletown and Portland, Conn.; and Dr. E. B. Cragin, who 
graduated at Yale in 1882, took the five-hundred-dollar prize for best examina- 
tions at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, served upon the staff 
of Roosevelt Hospital a number of years, is now Secretary of the College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons, and is one of the most successful and celebrated specialists 
in his line in this country. These and hundreds more make up the roll of those 
who claim Bacon Academy for their alma mater. 

It is a matter of regret that no one of those who received education at this 
Academy, some of whom have become millionaires, has seen fit to endow it with a 
large fund, and put it on a financial equality with many other institutions which 




have been established in this country. Others have surpassed it in the number of 
students which they register, but few have a better record of results as seen in the 
subsequent lives of their pupils. 

How it would rejoice the hearts of the great number of students now living 
who have received training at this Academy, if this should occur to their alma 
mater. Who is the man that will take the lead in this matter? It must naturally 
be one of the older students, for the younger ones have not the means yet to do it. 
In order to maintain its place in the coming century and this electric age of the 
world which we are just entering upon, it absolutely needs this new blood and im- 
petus to enable it to keep in the fore rank of preparatory schools. 

The location of the Academy is certainly in its favor for receiving this help to 
increase its sphere of work, its corps of instructors, its capacity for usefulness. 

Colchester is a beautiful village. In its appearance, as a place of residence, in 
the culture of its families, and the moral 
tone of its citizens, it will come close to 
hrst place when compared with any village 
in the United States. 

It is a fine place of residence for youth 
of both sexes in the formatory, educa- 
tional period of their lives, being so free 
from the many temptations which some- 
times overcome young men in the larger 
towns and cities. 

For this very state of the case the 
inhabitants of this delightful village are 
indebted to the influence of the Academy 
more, probably, than to any other agency. 

Although so secluded, and favorable 
for the education of youth, it is easily 
accessible by a branch of the Air Line 
division of the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad. 

It is but three hours' ride from either 
Boston or New York, and so equally ac- 
cessible from other places, being but 
thirty miles from Hartford or New Haven, 
and less than twenty from Norwich and New London. 

The picturesque country near the village, with every variety of scenery, espe- 
cially in the west portion of the town in the valley of the Salmon River, which has 
been told of in song by the poet, J. G. C. Brainard, is scarcely excelled by any other 
part of New England. 

Dr. Barnard of Hartford, one of the oldest and most illustrious educators now 
living, says, after an experience of more than sixty years : " It is extremely difficult 
to persuade men to endow institutions which bear other men's names." 

Probably that is true, for it is natural that men should desire posthumous fame 
for themselves, rather than to perpetuate the names of others; but the students 
from Bacon Academy can afford to waive this objection, as has been done in the 
case of Elihu Yale at New Haven, and put the Academy into new buildings on the 
higher ground on Pleasant Street ; and those who feel the warm blood of youth re- 
coursing through their veins, as they recall these early scenes and the halcyon days 
at Bacon Academy, can now not only grave deeper the name of Bacon on the tablet 
of the academy, but place their own beside it. 

{Preseti t President of Board of Trustees.) 



The old red schoolhouse was the crown 

That capped the highest hill in town. 

It calls to mind those former days, 

Our grandsires trod in learning's ways ; 

'Twas where they ciphered numbers through, 

And solved deep problems hard to do, 

Then lound in games to boyhood dear, 

Escape from study too severe ; 

In forest shade, — " the wolf to spy " ; 

Adown the hills on sledge to fly ; 

In near-by field with ball and bat, 

To play at " two and three old cat " ; 

And there as fox, with pace not slow, 

To chase the geese across the snow. 

That men should teach the winter school, 

Became the universal rule ; 

Much brawn the teacher must possess, 

Though he might have of knowledge less. 

The switch was large and toughened through 

And freely plied whenever due. 

One thing promoted discipline, 

And held the roguish nature in. 

It was the never-failing rule, 

Two strokes at home for one at school. 

The schoolhouse was a place where met 
Staid learned men of every set ; 
The doctor came, the lawyer too, 
And clergyman, each with his cue ; 
But 'twas the school committee man, 
Who terrified the little clan. 
Just twice he came in every term, 
To tell them what and how to learn, 
And show the school and teacher too, 
How very, very much he knew. 

How generous teachers then were found, 
They aired spare beds the district round ! 
To spend those long cold wintry nights, 
Oft teachers went on queer " invites " ; 
At close of school one winter's day, 
A bonny lass was heard to say : 
" We've butchered pigs and killed the cow, 
We're ready for the teacher now." 

This boarding round was not all vain, 
The child's and parents' hearts they'd gain : 
And were they what they ought to be, 
The family life in some degree 
Would rise, expand, and nobler be. 

Among our teachers, not a few, 

Were noble souls as e'er we knew ; 

In school they more than science taught, 

Taught manhood's worth in life and thought. 

And if we could, we'd let them know 

How through our lives their teachings flow. 

But they'll not lack their meed of praise ; 

Their work will live in other days, 

And with an influence sublime, 

Will leave its mark throughout all time. 

In legends old we're often told, 
How powers above their calling hold. 
The story runs that Jove one day 
Called to him those who thought that they 
Had service rendered to mankind ; 
And whomsoever he should And 
Had done the greatest good below, 
On him a crown he would bestow. 

So, one by one, he called them forth, 

To show their own peculiar worth. 

The painter comes with brush in hand ; 

" The beauties of the sea and land, 

I show," he said, " and all the grace, 

That e'er adorned a human face." 

He stands aside. The sculptor then 

Declares : "I, more than that, make men, 

In form and guise with beauty rife, 

They lack but breath to give them life." 

And now the poet takes the stand, 

To claim the good his works command : 

" Some merit sure to me belongs 

I write and sing a nation's songs ; 

The highest thought of angel ken, 

Finds fit expression from my pen." 

Then achievements great were sung, 

By the orator with silver tongue, 

" O Sovereign Lord of all, none can 

So near approach to thee as man 

Whose glowing thought and tongue of fire 

Do listening throngs, as one inspire. 

To think and act as he may will ; — 

Impelled by him, his purpose fill. 

This is a power so much like thine, 

The orator must be divine." 

The contest ends, none others dare, 

Their deeds, though great, with these compare. 

All eyes are fixed on Jove, most high-, 

While his are on a form near by, 

Of one whose furrowed brow and face, 

Bespeak a soul of thought and grace. 

'" What hast thou done, thou man of age ? 

Thy looks betoken thee a sage " 

At this command, he modest, then 

Declares " I've but a teacher been, 

My pupils were these noble four, 

As have been many hundreds more." 

" Enough," cries Jove, " thy work exceeds, 

In worth, all these competing deeds. 

Put on his head the glittering crown ; 

At my right hand, let him sit down ; 

For he that hath true teacher been, 

Is made thereby the prince of men." 


Illustrated by Gardner .1. Reckard. 

j|ULCAN, the god of fire and metal working, was the 
earliest maker and user of the axe, according to 
mythology. Down deep in the bowels of the vol- 
canoes Etna and Lemnos, he wrought in his workshop 
with his workmen, the one-eyed Cyclops, about him, 
fashioning from the red-hot metal such implements or 
parts of armor and shields as the demand or occasion 
seemed to warrant, and his skill was widespread. We 
read that A'ulcan took an axe and clove with it the 
skull of Jupiter, thus bringing into being the goddess 
Minerva, who sprang forth fully armed, ready for dire 
war or the gentler arts of peace. 

Down through the ages of myth and realism we 
trace the axe in stone, bone, copper, and iron, until in Genesis we learn of Tubal 
Cain, who is spoken of in the fourth chapter as "an instructor of every artificer 
in brass and iron," and we cannot but think of him as a maker of the axe as 
well as of other tools. Herodotus mentions the use of iron tools in the construc- 
tion of the pyramids, and although we may not here find the axe mentioned 
specifically, yet there is no reasonable doubt that it was a well-known tool 
then. Reference to the axe is frequent in Scripture, in both the Old and New 
Testaments. It has been merely to prove the early existence of the axe and to 
establish its longevity that we have extended our meager research into the 
far-away past, but it is the axe of the present, that common prosaic tool of 
every-day life, which we propose to consider in detail. 

One of the commonest implements known to man at 
the present time is the axe. Every householder has one. 
Just where it is at the present time, or just what its condi- 
tion will be when found after a prolonged search, probably 
not one in a hundred can tell, for the axe is a much abused 
and frequently lost tool ; a wretched outcast when not 
needed, lying out in the snows and rains, rusted and 
blunted, with its handle riven and splintered, and edge 
nicked, with scars that tell of many a fierce contest in 
untutored hands with nails and the frozen ground or I 
cemented cellar bottoms and icy sidewalks. And yet, in 
all its commonness it is strange that so little is really 
known of the axe by its average owner. The skilled 
chopper knows his axe thoroughly, and, like the rifleman 
who cherishes his rifle with tender care and solicitude, so he keeps hi 
and ready for use. 

If you were asked to describe your axe, the width of cutting edge, the length, 
width, and thickness of poll or head, or to give an idea as to the proper shape of an 

axe bright 

4 2 



axe that would do the most effective work, you would, perhaps, be 
unable to give an intelligent answer; you would learn for the first 
time that axes were not all alike the world over, in the United States 
or even here at home, in New England. Even artists, those very 
observing people, often put axes into the hands of their woodsmen 
that are clumsy and unheard-of specimens of this common tool, and 
which would be warmly criticised by the forester who, however 
unlearned in high art, can be taught nothing that he has not already 
found out as to the proper shape of the implement most highly prized 
by him. And yet, every skilled user of this edged tool has his 
foible, his pet idea as to the proper weight, size, width, thickness? 
and length of bitt and head, and many an axe, the style of which 
originated in the brains and mind of some gifted son of toil, comes 
down to us through many years with the name of the town, state, or 
locality clinging to it in which the originator was an inhabitant, as, 
for instance, the "Maine axe," the " New Jersey," "New England," 
" Kentucky," " Baltimore," " Long Island," " Georgia," " North 
Carolina," etc. Others bear names indicative of their uses, as the 
"Turpentine," "Boxing," "Post," "Ship Carpenter's," "Firemen's," 
" Butcher's," etc., but we are treading on dangerous ground here 
and branching away from the common or "Yankee" chopping axe, the mission 
of which is chiefly and purely to fell trees and work the same into wood and timber. 
At the North an axe of light weight is the desideratum, say 3 to 3^ lbs., with 
a very thin and wide bitt, and a poll ^ to J/% or 1 inch think, while in many parts 
of the South, axes with narrow bitts, and polls lj/s to 1% inches thick, with a 
weight of 4J/2 lbs. and even 7 lbs., are in demand. 

The axe of our fathers was wrought by sturdy blows of hand, hammer, and 
sledge on an anvil, without the intervention of machinery. Even now, we have 
those who, wedded to the traditions of their forbears, still procure their chopping 
axes from some old hand craftsman, skilled in the old ways, who tediously trans- 
forms the bar iron and steel into the axe by hand labor of the severest kind, and 
afterwards laboriously grinds the tool to a semi-keen edge on an ordinary grind- 
stone, turned by his helper, and then tempers it over a charcoal fire, thus com- 
pleting a comparatively rough though oftentimes good tool, and leaving the polish 
to be put on by the user at his work ; but these old fellows, user and maker, are 
rapidly passing away, and the shops which a few years ago rung to the merry 
chime of hammer and anvil, and heard the babble of country sage and patriot, are 
fast going to ruin and decay. The day of the old-time forger of axes is gone ; 
machinery that never errs or tires turns out a more symmetrical axe with the aid 
of intelligent and careful mechanics, and at a greatly reduced price to the consumer, 
than did the old and now greatty reverenced skilled workman of years agone, and 
though the traditions of the past may come to us with soothing effect in these days 
of stir and bustle, and charm us by their quaintness and restful flavor, yet the 
changes in modes and operations of axe-making are in the lines of real progress,, 
and have proved blessings to the masses. 



"lis not many months since that I heard an old-timer talk and air his knowl- 
edge of axe-making, and express his contempt of modern methods. " You can't 
get a good axe now-a-days," he said. " Axes are made in too much of a hurry ; 
Why, when old " (naming reverentially the curtailed family name of an axe- 
maker to the manor born, and who long since has been laid away to sleep in the 

quiet country burying place) " When old used to make an axe, he would be 

all day about it, an' he'd hammer the steel edge till it was black an' shiny, an' so 
smooth it didn't need any grinding, only a little on the edge ; that refined the steel 
better'n it gets refined now-a-days ; an' the tempering was better. I don't take any 
stock in this thermometer business " (referring to tempering ovens kept at an even 
temperature). I have a great respect for these old fellows, and often humor their 
whims, and draw them out, for I know there's a story back of all this talk, waiting 
to be told, or reminiscent vaporings of a time that has a halo floating over it — 
a sort of sanctity — a 
golden age, so to speak: 
days when time was 
not so fleet nor so pre- 
cious but that it might 
be trifled with and 
wasted a bit in neigh- 
borly chat about the 
forge, or pleasant chaff 
and interchange of 
news and ideas; but the 
practical age is here 
7ioii' : months fly only 
too fast, and the forger 
who learned his trade 
of axe-making by " serv- 
ing his time," has given 
way to machinery and 
less skilled labor, and he stands no better chance than he who becomes expert after 
a short apprenticeship "drawing bitts " under a trip hammer, or, "hammering 
heads " under a drop, and the " puncher " and ''nipper " whistle and sing happily at 
their work, untroubled by the thought that no complete axe would be produced if 
it waited for them to make it. Let us take up the manufacture of the American 
or so-called Yankee axe in the routine of its various operations, from the bar iron to 
the finished state. 

As you enter the grounds of a great axe manufactory, over which are scattered 
the various buildings that make up the plant, you are stunned almost by the myriad 
noisy trip hammers that pound the dies with their heads of iron and steel as though 
they were frantically engaged in driving into the earth the huge hammer blocks 
which receive the giant blows. On every hand are huge piles of iron of almost 
every dimension known to the trade and used in the production of axes. Such 
sized bars are used as will most economically make the poll or head of the axe. 
I use the word " economically " advisedly, for prices are very close and competition, 
though often quoted as the life of trade, is very aggressive, yet the honest axe 
manufacturer will not sacrifice his good name at the expense of quality in order to 
make his profits larger. There must be no more waste than actually necessary, 
therefore, each sized axe must have its poll made from a bar of iron about the 
width and thickness of axe head desired, say about one inch thick (or a trifle less) 




and three inches wide for a four-pound axe. The bars are heated and fed into 
huge machines which cut them into desired lengths, and these pieces are then 
punched and formed by this machine into heads or polls of axes with the eye 
roughly shaped. The very earth shakes under your feet to the throbs of these 
great monsters as they force the heated metal to its proper shape, and your 
thoughts (if you are scholarly rather than a plain practical mechanic) go back to 
the fabled age of which we have already spoken when Etna and Lemnos throbbed 
and groaned in great throes from Jupiter's metal working, and echoed and re-echoed 

the blows of the Cyclops on the 
\ huge anvil where the heated 

\ metal was hammered into desired 
^..- J shapes. All axe polls or heads 
are not made in this way, how- 
ever ; many manufacturers use 
\\^""" a so-called "pattern," which is 

in shape as shown in drawing. 
The iron bar is first cut to proper length, and is then subjected to pressure 
in the center under hammer, drop, or machine of other device, and is drawn 
thin enough to form the "strap," as the part about the eye is called; when 
thus formed this pattern is then bent (with the depression on the inside) until the 




thick parts come together as here 
are then welded, uniting with the 
top of the poll a piece of iron or 
and the axe is then ready for the 
Although much in vogue, it 
method cannot be so prolific in 
and eye are formed and punched 
and many an eye formed by the 
at the bottom which opens into a 

shown ; the parts below the eye 

steel to form the axe. At the 

steel is welded to form the head, 

' finisher. 

I is plain to be seen that this 

\ good results as where the head 

from solid iron, as here shown, 

pattern method has a poor weld 

sorry seam when the handle is 

driven and wedged into place, thus ruining the tool for all practical uses. 

The "steel " is made in two ways, and like many a deception in this life that 
appears well on the surface, so the axe that shows the most steel often contains the 
least. One form, and the best without doubt, is the so-called "solid or inserted 
steel." This is a piece of steel with corrugations at the top so 
that it can be held firmly in place when united with the poll. 
When the steel is first inserted the unformed axe looks some- 
what as shown. Steels are formed under a trip hammer or 
m\ drop, the "scarfed" edges being truly drawn in a second by 

the skillful hammersman who allows the steel 
to receive three or four blows on the edge, 
drawing the steel toward him at each blow, 
thus pinching it into a series of steps or 
corrugations on the edge that is to be inserted 

THE INSERTED STEEL. into the P o11 - To the ptllooker, this is a 

fascinating operation, and although apparently 
simple, yet the novice, should he try to make a " steel," would hammer it into 
such shapes as to render it unfit for further use except for scrap, even if he were 
fortunate enough to escape injury from flying tongs twitched from his hands, and 
sent whirling into space by a foul blow. As can be readily seen, with an axe 
made in this way, the iron of the poll shuts down over the steel and holds it firmly 
in place, thus making a sure weld, and, although not so much steel is in sight as 



in axes made by the next process described, vet there is really twice the quantity. 
The other form of steel used in axes is called the "overcoat steel," and is shaped 
as in cut, the edge of the poll fitting into the corrugation of the steel as shown in 
drawing. When the poll and steel are united 
"\ by the welding process the steel is plated over 
" 1e Vl / ~* Cc ? t J the iron and makes a great display, although 
^^# very thin at point of contact : and when the axe 
is ground by the user, the steel rapidly disappears 

to the sorrow and dismay of 
who rinds himself trying to 
a soft iron axe. and not know- 
reason thereof is liable to be 
ed the same way. by the line 
ance of the tool, and the 
storv of the dealer who is 

the owner 
chop with 
i n g the 
again dup- 
h i m s e 1 f 


often the dupe of an unprincipled manufacturer, who only puts into an axe about 
half the steel that is used in the first method mentioned. Remember this when 
you buy your next axe. 

From the poll department, after a rigid inspection, the axe heads are taken to 
the bitt drawing department. As you hrst stand at the entrance of this long build- 
ing you are simply stunned and blinded. Red-hot hres range their way on one 
side of a row of anvils, and grimy smiths are constantly taking from their glowing 
coals axe polls heated red. and passing them with long tongs to foremen who stand 



waiting to receive them ; a transfer is quickly made, the foreman deftly turns the 
poll on its head, seizes a long-handled chisel, and placing its sharp edge on the 
edge of the poll, the heater, with quick blows of the sledge, splits the poll for an 
inch or more in depth along the entire edge. Into this furrow the steel is placed, 
and the sides of the poll are hammered dowm to hold it in place : a welding com- 
pound is sprinkled along the edges where steel and iron join, another heat is 
taken, and then the axe comes forth from the fire at the proper time, to be wrought 
and welded under the trip hammer, and thus is fashioned approximately the shape 
vou cannot fail to recognize as the comino- axe. 

4 6 


9 ^J^ 

hSim m * 

There is no more particular part of axe manufacture than this : a 
novice would be unable to detect the proper welding heat that would 
be sure to produce a perfect amalgamation of the iron and steel. It 
takes long- practice under a good tutor to make a first-rate heater, a 
slight misweld and the axe is practically worthless so far as its value 
as a chopper in the hands of an expert is concerned. Alone in the 
forest, far from a store, the heart of the woodman would sink within 
him, should a part of the steel edge of his axe cleave from the iron 
with which it ought to have been firmly united, and after such an 
accident, the unfortunate manufacturer will probably lose forever the 
trade of such a man, and with it the good will of others of the ilk 
who view the fracture, shake their heads and try another brand of 
axe when next they purchase. In the bitt drawing department the 
axes are subjected to another close inspection. No axe is allowed to 
go through that is not supposed to be first class. (I am taking it for 
granted that the company is one which values its name and reputation, 
and would not knowingly put out a poor tool.) After such inspection 
the axes are taken to the head hammering department; here the eye 
receives its final shaping and the head is hammered to its proper 
pattern for the style of axe desired. Some axes have straight heads, 
some curved, some are quite thin, others very thick ; perhaps you 
have never noted these differences, not having had your attention 
called to them, they may seem trifling to you, but to others (the 
users especially) they mean a great deal, these slight deviations carry 
into practical use the theories which the chopper can explain to you so 
clearly that you will want an axe made for your own use that shall 
embody all these fine points, and for a time, perhaps, you will endeavor 
to create an axe that shall, by its new shape and style, displace the 
almost innumerable patterns in the market, and cause your name to 
go down to posterity as one who was a great benefactor to the human 

The hammering of the head is still extensively carried on even 
in modern establishments, in the old-fashioned manner, the poll being 
formed by the blows of hand hammer and sledge entirely ; but in 
many of the present day elaborately equipped plants, pressure is 
brought to bear, and the head or poll is quickly shaped in dies. Drops 
are used which let heavy dies fall from a height of three feet or 
more upon the axe which is placed on a die in which is cut the proper 
axe impression, and the tool is thus completed with, perhaps, the [aid 



-- ■ j 

of small hammers run by power, which strike rapid blows upon 
the poll, smoothing and finishing it to the satisfaction of the 
foreman. In this department the axe is again inspected and 
compared with the pattern to make sure that the outlines are correct; 
gauges are used in each department, and step by step the axe is 
brought to its final finishing stages with the same careful tests 
and inspection necessary to ensure the perfect tool. 

From the hammering, we follow the axe to the grinding depart- 
ment. Here the tool undergoes many operations, the outline is 
made regular by "scribing," which is a term used to denote this 
particular work. The axe is "press ground," which is the first 
grinding of bitt and head on a coarse grindstone. As you gaze 
down through the shop where fifty or more huge grindstones rotate 
swiftly, you wonder how the men who sit on spring-boards over the 
stones can work in such a place mid swift-running belts and reeking 
moisture. Innumerable small pipes constantly spout water over the 
stones to keep the grit wet down, as well as to improve the cutting 
qualities, and a foggy, damp atmosphere pervades everything. The 
operation of grinding is an interesting one to watch, however ; the 
forged axe is placed under the spring-board, and the grinder presses 
his whole weight upon it and soon brings the rough forged tool to 
shape ; he rolls and rocks the axe this way and that, releases and 
looks at it frequently, noting at a glance just wdiere it needs touching 
to perfect the shape. Under these manipulations the axes are soon 
brought to the pattern desired, and when finished are taken to the 
inspecting room for gauging and critical examination. Such axes 
as are up to the proper standard are now sent to the tempering 
department, where that great essential, the proper degree of tough- 
ness or "temper" necessary for a strong cutting edge, is given. 
There is no more important operation than this, for no matter how 
beautiful the tool, how nicely it may be ground, how sharp the edge, 
all is for naught if the steel crumbles or bends in use ; only men 
who thoroughly understand this branch, and who are careful and 
painstaking, are employed in this department, and sometimes there 
will be one w T ho is so superior in the tempering art to his fellows, 
that he becomes locally famous as an expert. I mind me now of one 
aged man who had a widespread reputation as an axe temperer ; 
he always wore a tall beaver hat while at his work. It was not an 



uncommon thing- in those days of open fire tempering for the countrymen to brings 
in half a dozen old axes or more on a string, like so many fish, to have them "done 
over," or relaid, the operation consisting in cutting out what remained of the old 
steel and putting in new, then finishing the axe by the same processes as in the 
making of new ones ; almost invariably the customer would add as a finale to his 
instructions, "I want the old gentlemen with the tall hat to temper 'em," and often 
would the owner of the axes wait until he saw the old workman perforin this opera- 
tion and thus make sure that only he did it, and then, well satisfied, would stroll 


"up street" to see the sights, content to take the rest of the work on faith. In the 
process of tempering, axes are first heated to an even cherry red, and then are 
plunged into a strong brine ; this hardens the steel, making it so brittle that a 
slight blow breaks the edge easily ; the axe is then re-heated until a uniform pigeon 
blue covers the steel surface, when the operation is arrested, the axe is allowed to 
cool, and the temper is accomplished. Should the workman be color blind, he 
would fail to detect the proper color, he would call the temper right when there 
was no uniformity, but a mingling of beautiful colors, red, straw, and blue. The 
outcome of such a temper would be soft and hard spots in the axe bit, resulting 
in breakage and bending, and perhaps something worse, destroying the good 
nature of the user, and causing loss of trade to the manufacturer. 






Before the axes leave this department they 
are tested by the foreman, who makes sure they 
are right, and when he is satisfied they are sent on 
their way to be "finish ground" on fine grind- 
stones, when, after another inspection and gauging, 
they are ready for the polish or gloss which is 
given them by rapidly revolving emery wheels, 
the surface of the tool being first smeared with 
oil and emery, and then worked down on a coarse 
wheel and finished on a finer one. Here the axe 
receives its final inspection and is examined 
closely for any flaws which may have been hidden 
from the keen sight of the inspectors in other 
departments. The gloss shows every fault. It 
may be a temper crack, a check in the steel, a 
misweld of iron and steel. The first quality axe 
must be absolutely perfect, i. <?., so far as human 
ability and eyesight can make it, and many an axe 
that will do nearly if not quite as good service as 
the best, but which shows a surface seam or flaw 
that only injures the appearance, must be placed 
in the pile of "seconds" and sold for a sum that 
leaves but a scant margin, if any, over cost of 
material and labor. Other axes, which, on ac- 
count of flaws or other imperfections are unfit for 
second quality, are thrown into the scrap bin, as 
unworthy of further consideration as edge tools. 
At this point the axe seems to take upon 
itself a proud consciousness of its proper dignity 
and coming usefulness ; it glistens and glows, 
flashing the light from its surface like a mirror. 
Now the artist in colors takes it up, and with red, 
blue, black, or bronze decorates the head or poll 
and upper part of axe to a point about an inch 







above the mark which shows the joining of steel 
and iron ; a roll of the brush in experienced hands 
and a semicircle of bright paint presents a charm- 
ing contrast to the polished steel, and a gilt label, 
with perhaps a fancy title or a Hercules, or other 
fabled personage, will perhaps still further dec- 
orate and adorn the tool, though I notice that the 
old-time makers often think it poor taste to use 
gaudy decoration, and stick to plain labels which 
bear their imprint and address, leaving the tool 
itself to prove by works its true worth. 

The axe is now complete, but where orders 
are received for axes with handles the painting is 
left until the handles are inserted and wedged 
in place, as the operation of handling would 
otherwise mar the artist's work. 

With regard to handled axes it might be well 
to speak in passing of the smaller sizes which 
are so handy about the house and barn ; the 
weights range from one and one-quarter to two 
and one-half pounds, and commencing with the 
smallest their names are respectively, Camp 
Hatchet, Tomahawk, Hunter's Hatchet No. i 
and 2, Quarter, Half, Three-quarters, Boys' No. 
i and 2, and Miners. These are all miniature 
copies of the axe, have short handles, and are 
very popular and well known to the trade. We 
have thus followed the operations of axe-making 
step by step. We have seen, 

First. The cutting of the bar iron for polls. 

Second. The making of the poll. 

Third. The making of the steel. 

Fourth. The insertion and welding of the^steel 

Fifth. The hammering of the head. 

Sixth. The rough grinding. 

Seventh. The tempering. 

Eighth. The finish grinding. 

Ninth. The coarse polishing. 

Tenth. The finish polishim 


r, "*«aiiiiis?S'' ;l 

77//:' AXE AND HOW //' As MAPI-.. 


Eleventh. The handling. 

Twelfth. The painting. 
Thirteenth. The boxing. 
Fourteenth. The inspection in all 
Yon had not thought that so simple 
and common a tool must go through so 
many operations to fit it for its sphere 
of usefulness. Do not debase it. then, 
for its mission is a noble one. As an advance 
agent it levels the forests in new lands and 
countries, and prepares the way for progressive 
civilization. It has figured largely in poetry and 
song, it has had an important part in the making 
of history, and many a man who has toiled earn- 
estly with his axe has been crowned at last with 
laurels by his fellows who gloried in his worth as 
a woodsman, rail-splitter, and statesman. Take 
up your axe, then (if you can find it), and look it 
over, note its beautiful curves, the exact contour 
of its bitt, the arch of the head, and beauty of 
outline. Resolve to give it better care in the 
future than it has received in the past. Do not 
leave it out of doors in the storms or covered 
all winter in the snows where you cannot find it. 
It will repay you for the care by doing your 
bidding when needed, or, if the axe you have has 
performed its mission, and old age and 
hard service has incapacitated it for 
further use, buy another ; select a good 
one, let it be a first-class tool of some 
standard make; let loose upon its pur- 
chase your aesthetic and artistic tastes ; 
buy one that suits your eye, that is beau- 
tiful in shape, that is thin in bitt, that 




i5 2 


hangs on the handle just to your liking, or in woodcraft parlance that "fits the 
hand," and when you return home with your purchase have a certain place where 
it can be kept and when needed always found ; wipe it carefully if it gets wet ; do 
honest, legitimate work with it on wood and kindlings, and use the old axes for 
nails and hoop iron. Look no longer, then, upon the axe as a despised thing. 
Your example has debased it, it has been pernicious and the tool has been the 
sufferer. Do what you can, then, to raise it from the odium cast upon it by the 
householder, and the long unanswered question of "Where's that axe?" will be 
laid aside forever and need be asked no more. 

m\ '-■: ' 



Revery is sweet, 

An isle of retreat 

To the earth-trammeled soul. 
In its comforting shades 
The life struggle fades, 

And we reach the far goal. 

The deep tolling knell 

Of a far-away bell, 

Sets the heart all a thrill; 

And the golden light streams 
O'er our rapturous dreams 

In a luminous rill. 

From the hovering haze 

Of soft vernal days, 

Our air castles peep, 

And our lives are in chime 
To the pastoral time, 

And the tinkling of sheep. 

May revery 

Ne'er set us free 

From her glistening webs. 
On the mystical strand 
Of her peace-giving land 

All bitterness ebbs. 



The organ which did service in Trinity Church, Newport, for more than a 
century was not accepted cheerfully when first presented by Bishop Berkeley to 
the town in Massachusetts bearing his name. Indeed, it was so stoutly opposed 
that it lay in its original packing several years ; and as sentiment had not changed, 
it was taken to Newport, where the people were readier to accept it, and it there 
became known as a famous instrument. 
In Middletown there was a case with 
similar features. The Episcopalians had 
been slowly increasing in numbers before 
1750, and had long desired to erect a 
modest church edifice, but there was oppo- 
sition from the authorities, and no suitable 
lot could be procured because of it. At 
length a low, boggy piece of land was 
granted, as good for nothing else ; but 
there were men of force, notably the broth- 
ers-in-law, Joseph Wright and Richard 
Alsop, who were ready to go ahead, rathei 
than wait longer, and by draining and 
filling make a safe spot on which to erect 
a church. Christ Church was finished in 
1755, and Richard Alsop imported an organ 
from England and presented it to the 
parish. In 1785 his brother, John Alsop 
then residing in New York, presented a 
bell, and this bell is still in use in Trinity 
Church. This organ, ornamented with 
the crown and mitre, stirred up strife enough, and no doubt increased the ill-will 
that was manifested towards this church for many years. It remained in place, 
however, until near the end of the century, and soon after its removal the church 
edifice itself was destroyed. In Hartford, the first organ was in Christ Church. 
It was built not far from 1800, and was a home product. George Catlin was the 
maker, and his shop on the Windsor road was about opposite the north cemetery. 
This organ was a small affair, hardly more than five or six feet square, a 
mere "box of whistles." It does not appear that it was purchased outright at first ; 
for the agreement with Mr. Catlin was, that he should receive two dollars per Sun- 
day for its use, out of which he was to provide a suitable person to play the instru- 
ment. It evidently became the property of the parish later, for in 181 2 another 
organ was built by Catlin and Bacon, which cost five hundred dollars, and the old 
organ was taken by the builders at a valuation of one hundred and fifty dollars. 
In 1829 a subscription was started for the purpose of raising seven thousand dol- 
lars, a part of which was to be applied to the purchase of a third organ when the 




new church should be finished. This organ was the one built by the Hook Broth- 
ers of Boston, on which Downes and Wilson played so many years and which has 
but recently given place to a fourth and much larger instrument. Before the third 
organ was purchased, some orchestral instruments were used, and money was 
appropriated to hire a teacher of singing, and the name of Mr. Ives, mentioned in 
the last chapter, appears as one of these teachers. Christ Church maintained at 
the time a musical society, from which the choir was no doubt recruited, and 
which gave occasional sacred concerts in the church. 

From 1795 t0 i799 the First Ecclesiastical Society, now popularly known as 
the Center Church, voted fifteen pounds yearly "for the encouragement of psalm- 
ody." From 1800 to 1807 the society voted fifty dollars 
yearly for the same purpose, and from 1808 to 181 3, one 
hundred dollars yearly ; thence on to 182c with the excep- 
tion of one year, with a yearly appropriate 1 of seventy-five 
dollars. In the records of the society may be found the 
following entry: 

" At a special Meeting of the T Ecclesiastical Society 

in the Town of Hartford, legal rned and held at the 

North Conference ^ouse in said Hartford 
on the first day of June, 1822, warned at the 
request of the subscribers for an Or£ >r fo* 
the Brick Meeting House in said socie 

" Andrew Kingsbury, Esqr., was 

"Voted, That this Sor will che 
accept of an Organ no^ red to be 

cured and put up 1: .Is of 

Society for the use .ame, and will 

when said Organ is pr ed prepare a place 
for the same in their House of Public 
Worship, keep said Organ in proper condi- 
tion r use, and a suitable Organist for the 

[Does this mean that the organist was 
to be kept in proper condition for use ?] 

"Voted, That Mr. Lynde Olmsted be 
appointed in conjunction with the Society's committee to carry into effect the 
above vote." 

Another entry in the records of th. year 1822 is as follows : 
"Upon the Petition of Dani n Colt, as President, Flavel Goldthwaite, Thomas 
Smith, George W. Bolles, c hristopher C. Lyman, as officers of the Jubal 

Society of Hartford, whose object is the improvement of the members of said 
Society in the scientific and practical knowledge of Music, etc., praying for the use 
of the Meeting House four evenings in the year, to exhibit their performances, 
with liberty to sell Tickets of admission for defraying the expenses they may 
incur, etc., as per petition on file. It was on the Petition — 

" A^oted, That the Society's Committee be authorized to permit the Jubal 
Society to perform Sacred music in the Meeting House with open doors, and with 
liberty of a Contribution, but without any sale of Tickets." 

I hope to get further information about this society for a subsequent chapter. 
It was probably the first choral society in Hartford of any importance, and pre- 

■-;;;,:Vj** : .|;:|««-:S 




pared the way for the Beethoven and other societies which performed oratorio. 
No mention is made of the builder of the first organ for the Center Church. It 
may have been built by Catlin and Bacon, but if ordered elsewhere, 1 am inclined 
to think it was furnish- 
ed by William Goodrich 
of Boston, successor to 
Leavitt and forerunner 
of Appleton, and for 
his time the most suc- 
cessful organ-builder 
in Xew England. 

In 1824 thesociety 
voted " to pay Lynde 
Olmsted one hundred 
dollars for his services 
in promoting Church 
Music the year past." 
The three follow- 
ing years, two hundred 
dollars were voted for 
an organist, and one hundred for "Church Musick." 

At the Historical Society's rooms may be seen a subscription paper which was 

circulated in 1822, for the purchase of a bass viol for the Universalist Church, 

m then located on Central Row. The list contains 

thirty-three names, and the sums subscribed range 

from six dollars down to fifty cents. With this 

paper is also preserved a bill of Hall & Erben, 

organ builders, dated New York, Jan. 15, 1827, for 

an organ set up at that time in the Universalist 

Church. The bill is made out to Wm. Connor. The 

organ was brought here in a sloop from New York. 

Mr. Henry Erben, the junior member of this firm, 

and then a very young man, afterwards became 

famous as an organ builder, and built many fine 

instruments. There are two of his organs 

now in use in Hartford, that in St. Patrick's 

Church, a very large instrument, and that in 

the Pearl street Congregational Church, 

which when new was probably the best organ 

in the city. If I mistake not, this Hall & 

Erben organ, built for the Universalist 

society, was, after many years' use, rebuilt 

by McCollom, who had a shop on Market 

street, and about whom more will be written 


Taking a little jump to 1835, one comes 
upon an event of unusual importance and 
interest in the musical annals of Hartford. Thomas Appleton of Boston had 
been commissioned to build an organ for the Center Church, which was to have 
three manuals and a heavy pedal, and was to be in all respects the equal of any 
organ in the country. The instrument was brought from Boston in the schooner 





Zydia, which arrived at the foot of State street on the 2d day of April. On Sun- 
day, the 17th of May, it was heard for the first time, and a great deal was made of 
the event. Lowell Mason, then at the height of his reputation, was invited to giye 
an illustrated lecture on church music, and with him came Geo. James Webb of 
Boston to play the organ. A large chorus choir had been organized and drilled by 
Mr. Benjamin C. Wade of Springfield, Mass., and for this occasion all the other 
choirs of the city were invited to be present and take part. This was on the Mon- 
day following the first use of the organ, and was an occasion in which the whole 
city took a lively interest. Samuel A. Cooper was engaged at once as organist, 
and was an efficient worker, and from time to time gave oratorios with his choir. 
Neukomm's David was a work then in vogue, and was given by Mr. Cooper sev- 
eral times. He remained three years, and was succeeded by Henry W. Greatorex, 
an English organist, who was engaged for the place before leaving England. Mr. 
Greatorex was considered a remarkable player for the times, and enjoyed an 
unusual popularity. He remained but two years, left the city for a short period, 
and returned to play the organ in St. John's Church, remaining there several 
years. He subsequently went to Charleston, S, C, where he died. The name of 
Greatorex was popularly known throughout the country, twenty-five or thirty 
years ago, by a collection of original anthems and hymn tunes which he published. 
Greatorex came of a musical family. His father, Thomas Greatorex, was a highly 
educated and prominent musician ; at one time organist of the cathedral of Car- 
lisle, and for twenty-seven years conductor of the so-called Ancient Concerts in 
London, after which he was appointed to succeed Dr. Cooke as organist and mas- 
ter of the boys at Westminster Abbey. The likeness of Mr. Henry Greatorex, 
here given, is said to be excellent by some who knew him well. He was succeeded 
at the Center Church by Mr. Otto Jacobsohn, who played one year, and was fol- 
lowed by Mr. Joseph Monds, who remained five years. The next organist was Dr. 
James G. Barnett, who held the post twenty years. I shall have a good deal more 
to say about Dr. Barnett in the next chapter, when the history of the Beethoven 
Society is given, and shall then present a portrait of him. Since the last number 
of the Quarterly appeared, I have stumbled upon some rare and curious old instru- 
ments, to a description of which I will give the remainder of the allotted space. 

In the Historical Rooms at Bristol is an upright piano that should interest the 
musical antiquary greatly. But little can be gleaned of its history, and it must 
speak for itself. It was made in Vienna by one Lautmann, and it has features that 
seem contradictory in trying to determine its age. The action, i. <?., the hammers, 
jacks, etc., give evidence of great age. Judging by cuts given in various books, 
the hammers are very similar to those used soon after the piano-forte mechanism 
was invented. The Italian Christofori is said to have invented the piano-forte in 
1709. Marius, a Frenchman, exhibited his invention to the Academy in Paris in 
1 7 16, while Schroeter first made his known in Germany in 17 17. It is said that 
each of these men wrought in ignorance of the other's doings. 

The Bristol piano, however, has a compass of six octaves, which is evidence of 
a considerably later date. Of course there is no iron bracing of any sort, as iron 
was first used for that purpose in American pianos, and not earlier than 1820. 

The stringing is very light, and the tone could never have been strong. But 
much of the interest in this old piano lies in the accessories. There are four 
pedals, and in the space below the action is a drum and cymbals worked by the 
pedals, and also a harp imitation, which is probably something applied to the 
strings where the hammers strike them. The exterior, even in its present ruinous 
state, gives evidence of former beauty. There are many applied ornaments in 


brass, and the front, both above and below the keyboard, is filled in with silk, 
which was once red, in wide plaiting. The instrument is evidently a hundred 
years old, and possibly much more than that. 

Mr. Richards, who will show visitors the collection in which this piano stands, 
has an old instrument at his home, which he calls a Columbian harp. It is a rather 
rude affair, and a cut is here given. It is built into the box which serves as its 
case, is perhaps two feet and a half long and ten inches wide. The case is the 
rudest part of it, for the wood never knew the touch of a plane, and shows the 
original marks of the saw by which the boards were cut from the log. Inside more 
care has been taken, and the wood is well selected and finished. It has six or 
eight strings, about one-half of which have frets under them, and in this respect it 
is like a zither in principle. It is provided with/ holes, like a violin, and appar- 
ently has a sounding-board throughout half its length. It is evidently an instru- 
ment of little musical value, and is interesting chiefly as a curiosity. 

Another instrument of even greater interest than the Austrian piano is the 
one described below by Mr. Marcus A. Casey, who has kindly permitted me to 
insert his copy. 

Judge William L. Loomis of Suffield is the possessor of an ancient musical 
instrument known as the English lute, probably derived from the Spanish bandola. 
So far as is known, there is no other specimen in this country save the one in the 
United States National Museum at Washington. The body of that instrument is a 
little longer and more " pear-shaped " (as the lutanists say) than Judge Loomis's. 
The instrument in the museum was presented to Eleanor Parke Custis, step- 
daughter of Washington, by the General himself, and was played by her. It is 
now among the Washington relics. Both instruments were made by Longman & 
Brodrip, No. 26 Cheapside and 16 Haymarket, London. 

Judge Loomis's lute belonged to his mother, who was an expert player, to the 
extent of its capabilities. As will be readily seen, the metal strings are struck by 
six hammers beneath the keyboard, on the principle of the piano-forte. The sys- 
tem for tuning is extremely complicated, and there are many reasons, apparent to 
musicians, why the instrument early fell into disuse. The workmanship and 
varnish are exceedingly fine, equaling that of many historic violins. The ancient 
instrument is tenderly preserved in the original case made for it. 

Judge Loomis was at one time urged to present his instrument to the Smith- 
sonian Institution, that it might be preserved in companionship with the Custis 
relic. The judge felt obliged to decline the request; stating in his reply that "its 
early associations, and not its intrinsic value, has caused it to be retained within 
the family and household, and no one at present could think of parting with it. It 
would be like removing the hearthstone, or the old brick oven, or the crane in the 
fireplace." Here and there, all through the Loomis mansion, are many articles of 
ancient design and use, including old china, bowls, vases, antique silver, old and 
curious paintings, chairs, tables, clocks, etc. 

It is the intention to give more information as to the early organs of Hartford 
and vicinity in the next paper, and also of the musicians who were active in the 
first half of this century. 


KV L. \V. 


Adown thy sles p< 

D I : 

Thy sparkling 
Embosomed in his' shad 

I irearr. rae -.vher: :..: Tr . ..:. r. 

hunter came 

As I to gaze upon t 

gladsome face, 

Ar. : - : :_:: r. \ : rer :her. 

the fleeing game, 

But tempted by thy smiles 

forgot the cha;7 

Forgot his warriors waiting in 

their camps 

F^r : r:; ;r. Easrerr. ~: :- 

raias. /.-here hi; ; :ua 

I rave i :ae ;rea: spirit :ha: 

the "heavenly Ian:::; 

Burn bright for him her 

. a:e::a:a ar: i aer . 

Forgot his pappoose. in the 

cradle swung 

Above the rea :h : 

Forgot the shouts with which the h 

When late his braves laid low ti 

Forgot the vaunting days of youth. 

He rriei his hazei the arr 

Which flew betipt with certain deal 

His father's cleft the soaring eaj 

Forgot the weird emotions of his h< 

When oft the i sky Venus cami 

Her soft and glowing cheek on his, 

Neath aromatic hemlocks' amr 

Forgot the Manitou, and spirits dr 

That hovered always near his d( 

Fori : :': e iivir _- i i:r^:: the . 

Within thy silver ripplings 

And there, entranced upon the grai 

Thy foaming waters kiss in mei 

Basked in a maize-enrip'ning sun tr 

And to thy beauty- deep adoring 

; a r : : e 



And in unbroken tremor of delight 

Breathed out his soul upon the autumn air 
Till morn had faded into ghostly night, 

No more to rise upon the hunter there — 
But with thee fain his spirit lingers still 

And guards thy passes, as the gateways dear 
Through which his happy tribe come down at will 

From out their spirit " Hunting Grounds " anear. 
And these around thee gathering now I see, 
On this unclouded, soft, September day, 
In joyous dance, in merry revelry, 

And laving in thy cool and fragrant spray. 
They seek the soft recesses of the grove 

Which lordly bends above thy banks in sheen, 
Where frost-touched maples spread their tints above — 

Rose, purple, every-hued — the hemlock's green ; 
And frolic there, or daily in the sun 

With wanton wiles, or o'er their battles tell 
With mimic rage — and feign for scalps they've won, 
The countless shadows of thy bosky dell ! — 

And so in idling joys I pass the hours, 

Enthused with charms of Nature blest in thee 
O Tunxis ! would I had a poet's powers 

To wreathe thy beauties for eternity ! — 
But ah ! I do recall with dread when thou 

Thy smile didst chill, one day, to anger's 
frown , 
A day when stormy clouds hung o'er thy brow, 

And icy boulders grated in thy crown. 
It was in early Spring : mad freshets tore 

From distant lake and from the mountain 
With melted snows and rains, and onward bore 
Huge logs and "drift," in stemless currents 
And rushed with torrent roll and ceaseless roar 
Upon thy naked breast — and all the wood, 
And mountains high, gave forth their grand 
As thou didst headlong dash the giant flood ! 
For thou art Power and Beauty, both, allied — 

Like Venus unto forceful Vulcan given — 
A monster he, in rage — but she, his bride, 

The dearest star that beams in all the heaven ! 



Of Raynham, New Haven, Conn. 

Adrian Block, the celebrated Dutch hydrbgrapher for the Dutch East India 
Company, then stationed at New Amsterdam, gives us positive proof of his having 
visited our beautiful and spacious harbor, through the medium of a valuable chart 
which was constructed 
on a voyage of explora- 
tion, and deposited on 
his return to Holland 
in the Lokas Kas of 
the State General in 
the Royal Archives at 
The Hague. This voy- 
age was made during 
the summer of 1614, 
when he explored this 
place in his yacht, 
Our ust ( The Restless) , 
of sixteen tons burthen, 
which he had built the 
winter before, and was 
probably the first vessel 
constructed in these 
parts by a European. 

This region he 
named Rodenbergh 
(Red Mount), no doubt 
suggested by the ap- 
pearance of the two 
prominent bluffs, East 
and West Rocks, as 
seen by him from his 
vessel's deck, studding 
the coast range. It is 
probable that Block 
sailed up this harbor 
and explored its shores 
in his yawl, leaving 
the Onntst at anchor in 

the quiet roadsted off the Oyster Point of our day. We judge from his report that 
his stay in our harbor was brief, and he soon pursued his voyage eastward, 
locating numerous shoals and islands. 

Previous to 16 14 our harbor was frequently visited by Europeans, while on 
their voyages of exploration or trade with the Indians, the English claiming by 




right of Cabot discovery (although he 
never set foot on the shore), the French 
from Varrazano reports, and the Dutch 
by Hudson's explorations and purchases 
from the Indians. 

It is quite likely that Block's voyage 
was followed up by one or two visits 
yearly from Dutch vessels for the purpose 
of trading with the natives in furs, which 
was found to be quite a valuable specula- 
tion, so valuable, indeed, that the Dutch 
kept very quiet about it, evidently fearing 
that the English might interfere should 
they know of it. 

The events which led up to the settle- 
ment of Eaton, Davenport, and their fol- 
lowers at Quinnipiac seemed to have had 
a providential guidance, as viewed in 
retrospect. Arriving from England for 
the purpose of planting a new colony at 
the time the expedition sent to suppress 
the troublesome Pequots had returned to 
Boston with the reports of their task 
accomplished, and the additional report of 
a favorable country inhabited by friendly 
Connecticut Indians, the Quinnipiacs, 
Eaton was at once dispatched to explore 
the country and bring back word concern- 
ing it. He immediately sailed, and found 
the country greatly to his liking, chiefly 
and foremost for the reason of its advan- 
tageous aspects for commercial purposes. 
Being a merchant, and his company well 
equipped for trade, the harbor was of 
prime importance and determined the 
location of his colony. The region suited 
him so well that he took the precautions 
of establishing an undisputed claim by 
leaving a small party to stay through the 
winter, while he returned and made pre- 
parations to join them in the spring, and 
also by writing "to the most honored 
Governor, Deputy Governor and assistants 
of Massachusetts Bay Colony," in a letter 
dated on the 12th day of the first month, 
1638, that it is the intention of his company 
to remove hence to Quinnipiac, saying, 
"We hope in mercy and have sent letters 
to Connecticut for a speedy transacting 
of the purchase of the part about Quilli- 
piack from the natives wJiicJi may pretend 
utle thereunto" etc. 



These natives, the Quirmipiacs, having 
been reduced by a plague to about one 
hundred and fifty people, among them only 
forty-seven men, and wanting protection 
from neighboring tribes, who had exacted 
heavy tribute from them, were very glad 
to confer with the English, and arranged 
for sundry articles of exchange and protec- 
tion from their enemies, to give certain 
lands to Eaton and his company. 

The records of the town in its early 
days abound in allusions to its commercial 
interests, and long before the settlers had 
named their town New Haven, stringent 
laws to regulate commerce had been 
enacted by the Court, and the English 
coat-of-arms had been placed on the 
water-front to notify outsiders of its true 

The chief requisite for successfully 
carrying on trade was soon found to be 
suitable wharf accommodation, and in 1644 
" come Richard Malbon, John Evance, 
and George Lamberton to inform the 
Court, that having seriously considered 
the damages which hinder vessels from 
coming neare the towne, they will under- 
take (upon conditions named) to build a 
wharfe, to which at least Botes may come 
to discharge their cargoes." 

The wharf which they were authorized 
to build stood on the present site of the 
City Market. 

The landing places at the earliest 
•settlement of the Colony were on the 
creek west of Meadow and George streets. 
It is well known that the founders of our 
Colony landed far up the stream near the 
junction of College and George streets. 
That was called the upper landing. A 
more important one was near or at the 
point where Whiting street crosses the 
creek. There was quite a large bay 
extending up to this point. 

For the building of the wharf of 
Richard Malbon and others, the Court 
ordered that they should have "four days' 
work of every male in town from sixteen 
years old to sixty, those that cannot work 
to hyre others to work in their stead, 
and those that can to work in their own 



This project, which called for such a conscription, seemed, indeed, to have 
been a commercial necessity. 

This and other small private wharves in the creeks were used by the people 
for a few years, but before long they realized the necessity for a wharf in the 
harbor to accommodate vessels as well as boats and lighters, and in 1663 Mr. 
Samuel Bache had a grant of ''about fifty or sixty feet " (for a warehouse), and as 
far down into the flats as he should see cause to build a " wharf or dock." This 
may be considered as the first wharf built in the harbor, and was really the com- 
mencement of Long Wharf. It was added to in 1683 — nineteen years later — by 
Mr. Thomas Trowbridge obtaining a grant, and building adjacent thereto and 
eastward, and from these two grants, all since granted to Union or Long Wharf 
take their start from the shore. 

What little had been built up to this time was added to in 17 10 and 17 17, and 
by the end of 1731, the people realizing the necessity of making a combined 
effort and building one great wharf, there were donations by various persons, and 
the wharf had become a fixed fact and taken the name of Union Wharf, which 
continued to be its proper name for years, though it was popularly called Long 
Wharf as early as 1738, when it extended into the harbor about twenty-six rods. 

In 1760, the Union Wharf Company was formed and lasted until 1802, when a 
re-organization took place. 

In 1770, a pier about eighty feet square was built by popular subscriptions, on 
the west side of the channel of the harbor, where vessels could lie afloat at all 
stages of the tide. There was an effort made in 1772 to connect this pier with the 
end of the wharf, then about one-third of a mile apart, but, the war coming on, 
nothing was done until 1810, when about fifteen hundred feet were built by William 
Lanson, a colored man, who quarried the stone at East Rock, and, by means of a 
scow, put it in place and filled in with mud from the harbor, which has stood solid 
to this day. Relative to this building by Mr. Lanson, Mr. Thomas R. Trowbridge, 
in his exhaustive paper on Long Wharf given before the New Haven Colony His- 
torical Society, from which many facts in this article are taken, tells of a man in a 
western hotel being overheard to remark that " Long Wharf was the longest wharf 
in the world, that it was over five miles in length and was built by a colored man." 

The actual length is 3,480 feet. It was built to nearly its present termination 
in 1812, the final termination being reached in 1855. Since 1802 there has been 
upwards of §80,000 spent on it, and before that time thousands and thousands of 
dollars were spent and lost of which we have no account. Every dollar of receipts 
up to 1799 had been expended on its improvement and extension, and large 
amounts had been necessary to repair parts swept away by the water at the time 
of storms. 

When twenty-six rods long a portion of the grant was sold for an equivalent 
valuation of .£530 for the whole wharf, and when a few years ago the Consolidated 
road bought it for $100,000, it may be considered that they secured it at a bargain. 

As a commercial city, New Haven owes its chief importance to Long Wharf, 
and rightly have the citizens fostered it and had its well-being always at heart. 
It has been one of the most important institutions of the city, and not groundless 
has been the pride of the wharf merchant in the realization that the building of 
such a structure, great to undertake at our time, but a far greater undertaking at 
the time it was done, was completed in the early part of this century. 

Since then there have been over one hundred and fifty acres of land reclaimed 
from the harbor by wharves, bridges, and filling-in to the sea-wall. As far back as 
the railroad office building now stands, considerably west, and east along Water 
street to Tomlinson's bridge is "made" land. The canal basin, which has been 


filled in and wharfed to the channel, making canal dock, and the numerous docks 
and wharves and bridges between there and Tomlinson's bridge, with the amount 
of land from the railroad office building to the water-front, including the land 
where the railroad station and car-shops now stand, give us some conception of 
the changed appearance of the water-front of the present day from that of early 

One of the most prominent objects in the foreground on approaching our 
harbor is the new lighthouse on the west end of the east breakwater. The light is 
fifty-seven feet above the sea-level. A bell on the lighthouse is struck by 
machinery at intervals of fifteen seconds in thick weather. 

The old lighthouse at Morris Point, built in 1840, on the site of an earlier one, 
is a handsome structure of stone, painted white, with its black lantern elevated 
ninety feet above sea-level. It is a picturesque landmark dear to the New 
Havener, and should never be taken down. It is now used as a United States 
Signal Station, and could be restored, in case of necessity, to its ancient use. 

The length of the harbor along the channel in a north and south direction is 
about four nautical miles, and the width from Fort Hale to Sandy Point at high- 
water is one nautical mile. The average depth of the channel, at low tide, is 
fourteen feet. The United States Coast Survey of a chart of 1846 gives the depth 
of the channel at low-water at Crane's Bar as seven feet, and on the chart of 1875, 
sixteen feet is indicated by low-water at the same place. By the excavations now, 
it is intended to make it from two to four feet deeper. This will add six and one- 
half feet of draught for vessels, counting the mean rise of the tide, allowing vessels 
of 22 ft. draft to reach the wharf. 

Its important location midway along the Sound, the enormous amount of com- 
merce passing through the Sound made it most essential that the breakwaters at 
its entrance be built to afford a safe refuge for shipping in time of storm. This 
was begun and is now going on, with other harbor improvements, after years of hard 
work and constant agitation by New Haven's foremost citizens in getting requisite 
appropriations from Congress. 

Upon making a tour of the shores from Oyster Point, where an ancient Indian 
village stood, around to the old lighthouse, one is constantly reminded that he is 
treading on historic ground, and here in the times of peace and war took place 
eventful scenes. 

Here in the ancient wood and stone mansion of the Morris family, and partly 
destroyed by the British July 5, 1779, the town records of East Haven were kept 
for sixty years. From this house were taken in the dead of night Captain Amos 
Morris and his son by a raiding band of Tories from Huntington, L. I., to New 
York, to be confined in the jersey prison ship. 

Nearly opposite the residence, and built soon after 1760, of heavy boulders of 
the same conglomerate granite that composes the shore is the Old Wharf, the site 
of the ancient salt works. It is said to have been built by giant Indians who came 
from the east end of Long Island to assist Thomas Morris in the undertaking. 

The famous cargoes that have been landed, the many ships that have sailed 
away, some never to return, the events of the various wars from the time Fort 
Hale and Fort Wooster and their predecessors did effective service in protecting 
the town from invaders, the burning of the stores on Long Wharf by the British 
when they took possession of the pier, establishing there a flotilla to cannonade the 
town, the use of Grape Vine Point for Camp Ferry, one of the four conscript camps 
of the state, during the latter part of the civil war, and numerous other stirring 
and important events, impress one with the necessity of honoring the past and 
appreciating the present by acknowledging what New Haven Harbor has been and 
is to the city of New Haven. 



The last slice of unappropriated Mohegan land east of the Quinebaug in 
northeast Connecticut, was sold to four Plainfield gentlemen in 1699. This 
" Owaneco Purchase " comprised the south part of the present town of Killingly. 
In time it was divided into shares that were made over to sons of the original 
purchasers and other Plainfield residents. Its first settler was Jacob Spalding, who 
took possession of his allotment npon coming of age in 1721. He brought to this 
new home his young bride, Hannah Wilson, said to have come from Plymouth 
Colony. She had a brother living in Providence, where, quite probably, she may have 
met Mr. Spalding, as there was much intercourse between Plainfield and Providence. 
It was a pleasant region, but beyond the outpost of civilization. The early 
settlers of Plainfield and Killingly had made their homes along the Quinebaug and 
Moosup valleys. The purchase lay some two miles back from the Quinebaug and 
was much infested by Indians who still clung to their old rights and hunting 
grounds. Jacob's triumph over the Indian who attempted to pick a quarrel with 
him is related by Barber in his " Historical Collections of Conn." One of Jacob's 
grand-daughters preserved some other incidents depicting their early privations 
and struggles. During the first year it was impossible to raise sufficient food to 
carry the family through the winter. Repeated snows had blocked up the narrow 
paths leading to the distant settlements. Lowering skies and piercing east wind 
foretold a heavier storm approaching. Supplies for men and beast were nearly 
gone. Should they be shut in but for a few days starvation was inevitable. One 
course was left to them, and making hurried preparation they sallied out in the 
bleak winter afternoon for the father's house in Plainfield. We see the little pro- 
cession toiling through the drifts. " Jacob ahead with the oxen to break out a 
path, the cows followed, and then Grandma Spalding with her baby in her arms." 

Some years later there was another season of privation, a failure of crops from 
drought and frost two successive summers. On one occasion, Jacob, who had 
gone to mill at Moosup, five miles distant, was detained over night by a sudden 
snow storm. There was little food in the house. The children had been pacified 
during the day scraping what they could from an enormous beef bone. This bone 
it may be said, picked clean and white from every particle of flesh and gristle, 
served as an object lesson to generations of greedy children. Now the children 
had been lulled to sleep, and the mother guarded them with anxious heart. The 
Indians had been prowling around all day, angry and quarrelsome, demanding food 
and drink that she was unable to give them. In the storm and darkness her 
quickened ears detected stealthy footsteps. They were around the house ; they 
were preparing to burst through the wooden shutters that served for window. 
Glancing round the room for weapon of defense, her eye caught the great beef 
bone. Quick as a flash she seized it, and as the first Indian stuck his ugly head 
through the opening, with all the force of desperation struck him full on the mouth. 
"Ugh ! Ugh ! " he cried, tumbling to the ground, and all scampered off in hasty 


Industry and patience overcame frontier trials and privations, and in a few 
years the family was in a flourishing condition, with sufficient land under cultiva- 
tion, abundance of stock and outbuildings, and a large roomy house built after the 
prevailing fashion. A sudden blow deprived it of its head. Mr. Spalding was 
instantly killed by a fall from his cart. Mrs. Spalding was left in very comfortable 
circumstances — a farm for herself and one for each of the two children. She was 
a woman of pleasing appearance and fine character. All widows married again in 
those days, and she was especially eligible. The stranger who won the prize came 
from the adjoining township, Voluntown. This narrow, straggling strip of land on 
the border of Rhode Island would hardly seem to offer attractions to a superior 
class of settlers. But in the northern part, in the vicinity of Moosup River, were 
fine farms and favorable openings, which were mostly appropriated by a number of 
Scotch emigrants comprising ancient and highly respectable families. 

Among these new settlers, about 1730 appeared one who seemed "among them 
but not of them" — a sojourner or visitor, perhaps, who took no part in labor or 
town affairs, and held himself aloof. Girk, the name by which he was designated, 
seemed strangely inappropriate. Riding about the country with his friend and 
host, Dixon, they chanced to call at Mrs. Spalding's. Her pleasing manners and 
ready sympathy attracted the lonely stranger, and as their acquaintance increased 
he confided to her willing ear his story of exile and misfortune. His true name 
was Edward Stuart. A lineal representative of the royal line and banished house, 
he had been compelled to leave home and country and hide himself away, hoping 
for some chance to retrieve his fallen fortunes. He was of fine person and courtly 
manners, in striking contrast to rival rural suitors. Those were days of romance 
and sentiment. Few women would have resisted such overtures. Against advice 
and remonstrance from friends and relatives, Mrs. Spalding plighted faith with the 
alluring stranger. He had papers to show that appeared satisfactory. His friends 
in Voluntown vouched for his veracity and standing. They were married with 
much ceremony by Rev. Mr. Dorrance, in the Spalding mansion that then became 
the residence of the exiled Stuart. 

This affair, as might well be supposed, excited much interest and speculation. 
The plain country people of Plainfield and Killingly greatly disapproved the mar- 
riage and scouted Stuart's pretensions. They liked him none the better " for his 
gold-laced waist-coat and shirt so fine, it could be drawn through a ring," and 
prophesied that he would waste the estate and bring the family to ruin. But to 
those who saw him intimately the validity of his claim became more and more 
apparent. He is described as tall and stout, of light complexion and commanding 
countenance. His dress and demeanor were elegant and courtly. He spoke 
French with great fluency, danced, fenced, and played on the violin. He went 
armed night and day, and had a sword of most extraordinary strength and temper^ 
and " would, upon occasion, show his strength and skill in the use of it." He had 
a kingly inaptitude for labor, and equal aptitude for enforcing it from others. 
Accustomed to read the daily family prayer from the English church book, he 
always added to the prayer for the King, and " for all other members of the Royal 
Family." Doubtless, he had in mind the old Jacobite song : 

" Long live our Royal Lord — the Faith's Defender ; 
Up with the King and down with the Pretender. 
But which Pretender is, and which is King, 
Why really, that is quite another thing." 

To the one daughter of this marriage, born June 29, 1735, " ne gave the name 
of Mary, Queen of Scotland, as being her descendant." Soon after her birth he went 


abroad for eighteen months, but failed in any design he may have projected. 
Soon after his return he persuaded his wife to sell the farm she held in her own 
right, giving him the proceeds. This act confirmed the ill-feeling against Stuart. 
Friends and neighbors were indignant with Mrs. Stuart for thus robbing her daugh- 
ter of her birthright. Mary Stuart was growing up a beautiful child, and a great 
favorite in the community. Her half brother, Simeon Spalding, was now old 
enough to understand the significance of what was passing. Naturally, he had no 
love for the foreign step-father, who made him carry him all over the farm in his 
cart while he gave orders. Thinking over all his airs and waste of his mother's 
property, on one such occasion, he purposely tipped over the cart, hoping, perhaps, 
that Stuart might meet the fate of his own father. But he rose up instead in such 
wrath that the boy was afraid to face him, and ran away to his friends in Plainfield, 
where he remained some months. 

Stuart's affairs were now approaching a crisis. With funds procured by the 
mortgage of the farm his wife had given him, he was preparing for another venture 
across the ocean. His proceedings, though carefully guarded, excited the suspicions 
of the community. The class of people who came to see him was objectionable in 
character, and he was forbidden by the town authorities " to entertain one Sher- 
rod." He was watched, followed, and threatened with arrest and inquest. Mrs. 
Stuart's health was seriously affected by anxiety and distress of mind. The estrange- 
ment of her son, the approaching separation from her husband, the distrust and 
enmity of her neighbors, were too much for " her gentle spirit." When Simeon 
returned home he found her greatly changed and broken, and the household in com- 
motion. Stuart, who had been for some days concealed, was preparing for depart- 
ure. His mother "was as pale as a sheet " and greatly agitated. "She was up 
all night assisting him away." He went "to the Chesapeake," and had friends or 
followers in Maryland. Thence he sent a letter to his wife, informing her that he 
was on the eve of sailing for Europe, expressing the hope that his fortune might 
be better, but whatever it might be " it would not be too good to share with her." 
This was the last word or tidings of Edward Stuart. Whatever might be said of 
his other pretensions he showed to the last a real and strong attachment to the 
woman who loved and trusted him. With regard to these pretensions, it may be 
said that Stuart never claimed, as was reported by neighbors, that he was " heir to 
the throne of Britain." But he did claim to be of Stuart blood, associated with 
those who were plotting and laboring to restore the Stuart dynasty to the throne. 
In view of all the circumstances, it seems more reasonable to accept his own ver- 
sion of the story as true in the main, than to assume that any pretender could 
personate such a character. The date of his departure tallies remarkably with the 
first abortive attempt made by Charles Edward. In 1743, a great invasion was 
prepared from France. Charles Edward was summoned from Rome to command 
an army of veterans, "having the great Marshal Saxe to lead the troops which 
were to drive the Elector of Hanover from his usurped throne." The expedition 
sailed from Dunkirk early in 1744, but a great storm destroyed or scattered the 
fleet, and wrecked all hope of immediate restoration. If Edward Stuart had 
planned to aid in this enterprise he doubtless met the fate of his associates. 

Mrs. Stuart survived his departure but a few months. Mary grew up in the 
"old Spalding House," sharing the home of her brother and sister. She was a 
lovely and attractive girl, strongly resembling her father in personal appearance. 
In time she married a respectable young man, William Earle of Brooklyn Parish. 
But the evil destiny of the Stuarts pursued her. Soon after the birth of her second 
son a midnight fire consumed their dwelling with all its contents. With difficulty 


they escaped through a window, throwing the children first upon a blanket, and 
wading half a mile through the "deep snow in their night clothes with bare feet " 
to the nearest neighbor. In hopes of making up in some degree this heavy loss, 
Mr. Earle enlisted in the expedition against Havana in 1762, commanded by Col. 
Putnam, but with many others died of yellow fever. Mrs. Earle had no fortune of 
her own and her husband's estate was insolvent. She supported herself and her 
boys till her marriage with David Dodge, a young man of good family but reduced 
circumstances, a carpenter by trade. Finding plenty of employment in building 
for the great men of the neighborhood, Colonels Malbone and Putnam, some years 
passed in comparative comfort. A son and daughter were added to the family. 
The older boys, after the usual fashion of the day, went out to serve as apprentices. 

But with the breaking out of the Revolution new trials came. - The young 
Earles, though only fourteen and sixteen years of age, were induced to enlist with- 
out the knowledge and consent of their parents. They were well-grown, spirited 
lads, florid in hue and hair, " Stuarts in everything," said old people of Killingly. 
Their going to the war was a terrible blow to Mary Stuart, who had inherited her 
mother's keen sensibility. Her fears and forebodings were too fully realized. The 
lads suffered even more than the ordinary fatigues and privations. One was 
brought home and brought up from the very gates of death by the devotion of his 
step-father. Both were home for a time, and then re-enlisted for three years' ser- 
vice in the Connecticut line. Their young brother David remembered most vividly 
through life the agony of his mother when she took leave of them. Both died in 
camp during their term of service. 

The remaining years of Mary Stuart's life were burdened with labor and sor- 
row. Mr. Dodge with large outlay engaged in the manufacture of continental 
wagons, but lost all that he had through the depreciation A currency. Renounc- 
ing his trade he moved from farm to farm, by economy and hard labor making a 
scanty living. Mrs. Dodge was greatly broken in health and spirits, her nervous 
system seriously deranged. Amid the trials of later life she had the comfort of 
promising and devoted children. Her daughter married in Hampton, Conn., and 
was greatly esteemed for character and piety. Her son, David L. Dodge, went 
out early into the world, taught school for a time, and engaged in various business 
ventures, culminating in the establishment of a mercantile house in New York. 
Sons and grandsons of equal ability and probity have added lustre to the 
name, and whether or not he descended from a race of kings, we know that he has 
founded a line of merchant princes. 



A bright June morning, the fifteenth, the Farmington Town Records say, in 
the year seventeen hundred and seventy-four, a young man in Panthorn said to his 
brother ; "I'm going up to the Town Meeting with Uncle Jonathan. We have suf- 
fered enough at the hands of those Britishers and this Boston Port bill is going to 
be the ' last straw.' " 

The speaker's eyes flashed and his whole manner showed great excitement, 
but his mother said with deliberate calmness, "Josiah, you must think less about 
these insults to the colonists. Talking with your Uncle Jonathan does you no 
good. We are obliged to submit to the King, and with what grace we can the 

" Perhaps you speak well, mother. I prize your words, but I do believe that 
the time is not far off when we will be ready to fight if needs be rather than bend 
to such unreasonable demands." 

" Oh, speak not of war, Josiah. This country is but barely out of its cradle 
and unfit to battle with an adult nation." 

She clasped and unclasped her hands nervously and her face showed lines 
which were indicative of past sorrow. Her mouth was curved to smiles but other 
lines bespoke more trouble than her nature was intended to bear. Her husband 
Josiah died before this son was born, and the young Josiah had been both a com- 
fort and a burden to his mother. 

After five years of widowhood she married Ebenezer Hawley of Farmington, 
but her son had been brought up to know his own father through Keziah Root's 
remembrance of him. 

It was very early in the morning when the above conversation took place, and 
now she placed a large bowl of porridge on the table saying, " If you really have 
the mind to go to the meetin', Josiah, you must eat now, for your uncle always 
takes an early start for the long step to town." 

"Yes, good mother, but sit thee down too, for else the porridge lacks flavor." 

" There, no more of flattery. Your tongue will tell you by the half of a grain of 
salt if the porridge is right and it's naught else I have to do with the eating of it." 

The door opened and a young man about Josiah's age came in saying : " Good 
morning, good-wife. Are you going up to the meetin', Josiah ? " 

"Yes, yes, Wadsworth, I shall be one of them," he answered, his face kindling 
with both enthusiasm and indignation. 

" Amos Barnes says this means war," said Theodore, " and if that comes, doc- 
tors as well as fighters will be wanted. I think you and I will have to hurry with 
our studies and be ready to go, Josiah." 

" Well, when we get on the road we will talk of it. Mother has heard more 
than she likes already this morning." 

This caused Keziah to explain : "This continued abuse of the colonists might 
be carried so far as to justify war but the heads older and wiser than thine shall 
lead the meeting to-day and decide these great questions in the future." 

The simple meal was finished and after a drink of cider the two young men 
joined a group of men coming up the road and started for Farmington. We can 
imagine that there was considerable animated conversation during that long walk, 


for its fruit was shown in the proceedings of the meeting when and where it was 
voted : 

" At a very full meeting of the inhabitants of the Town of Farmington, legally 
warned and held in said Farmington the 15th day of June, 1774, Col. John Strong, 
Moderator, voted that the Act of Parliament for blocking up the Port of Boston is 
an invasion of the Rights and Privileges of every American, and as such we are 
Determined to oppose the same with all other such arbitrary and tyrannical acts in 
every suitable Way and Manner, that may be adopted in General Congress ; to the 
Intent we may be instrumental in Securing and Transmitting our Rights and Priv- 
ileges inviolate to the Latest Posterity. 

" That the fate of American freedom greatly depends upon the conduct of the 
inhabitants of the Town of Boston in the present crisis of public affairs. We 
therefore intreat them by everything that is dear and sacred, to preserve with 
unremitted vigilance and resolution till their labors shall be crowned with the 
desired success. 

" That as many inhabitants of the Town of Boston must in a short time be 
reduced to the utmost distress in consequence of their Port Bill, we deem it our 
indispensable duty by every effectual and proper method to assist in affording them 
speedy relief." 

Of the thirty-four on the committee appointed to " take in subscriptions " of 
wheat, rye, Indian corn and other provisions," we see thirteen were those who had 
taken that long walk from Panthorn. Although " poor as Panthorn " was a pro- 
verbial expression, these poor people shipped 149 bushels of grain to Boston "for 
the relief of the industrious poor." 

During the long walk home the young blood bounded quicker and yet quicker 
in the veins of the men, and they pledged themselves that if war came they would 
leave the old doctors to care for the poor Panthorns, and they would labor in the 
fields and hospitals. 

The strong feeling aroused by the Port Bill grew steadily stronger until indig- 
nation became a more powerful factor in the fight with the red-coats than the poor 
firearms which were wielded. 

Not far from Josiah's home was the more pretentious one of Mr. Lemuel 
Lewis. When he was forty-nine years old there were only six in the town whose 
property was listed higher than his, and two of them were Lewises. His Puritan 
grandfather came over in the ship Lion, which also brought Gov. Winthrop's 
"sweet wife" Margaret. The family traced their descent from the French Louis, 
and if this genealogical record appears unnecessary to the thread of the story you 
will understand it better in the light of an apology for the " high feelin's " of Lem- 
uel Lewis' oldest daughter Merab. 

She was a beautiful girl and bore evidence of her gentle ancestry, her hair and 
eyes were said to be "black as coals," and, although quite tall, her hands and feet 
were very small and shapely. 

The neighbors said that Josiah Root was more fond of watching those pretty 
hands as she sat at her spinning-wheel than he was of reading Dr. Todd's old man- 
uscripts or of caring for the herbs he had in the garden. Even people waiting to 
give the young doctor their life's blood, were frequently obliged to "stay a bit" 
till Josiah could come around the back way from Merab's house. 

After his return from the town meeting he no sooner had eaten his succotash, 
rye and Indian bread, with his " flip of beer," than he started over to talk with 
Merab of the " doin's." 

She sat by her spinning-wheel and he looked at her pretty hands and then up 



into her face as she rose to greet him and, more impulsive than wise, he expressed 
the first thought which she inspired. 

" I saw many a lass on the way to town this morn, Merab, but none methought 
looked fair as thee." 

" I'll offer thee a stool, Josiah, but I never thought greatly of thy judgment 
or thy taste." 

Ignoring the failure of his compliment he turned the subject saying, " Tis a 
bit too warm for comfort, think you not." 

" I could guess that much of folks that have naught but their^comfort to 
think on." 

Dr. Root's pocket-book, razor, punch glass, decanter, scales, mortar and pestle, account book, and old 

bottle, which he brought home from the Revolution. The spread on the stand 

was his silk handkerchief. 

" Thy guessing served thee but poorly this time, Merab, for I never had more 
to think on. And beside, I came to tell thee something of my thoughts if there's 
time to hear me." 

" Thy thoughts being so busy mayhap thy hands '11 take a turn some day," 
was the sarcastic reply. He winced but said calmly, "some day thou '11 know that 
hours spent in study are not to be sneered at," and " Oh, no," she interrupted with 
a ringing laugh — "not if thy mother will furnish the porridge and cider." 

A tinge of red swept over his pale face making his blue eyes look still deeper 
blue and his light hair more golden. 

Jumping up from the stool he said quickly but without any sign of anger, " I 
wanted to talk in a sensible way, but it's without use in trying, and I'll bid you 
good-day, Merab." 


Now it was her turn to be really a trifle uneasy, although he lost the satisfac- 
tion of noticing it. 

" Sit down, Josiah," she said in more persuasive tone than was her wont — "I 
am waiting to hear all the news that shall come from thy slow lips." 

He resumed his seat and began by expressing the opinion that there would 
soon be a general war which would affect all the colonists. He concluded by 
watching her closely and saying : " If we are wanted Dr. Wadsworth and I have 
vowed that we will go." 

Unexpectedly yet unmistakably her face brightened — " Oh, Jerusha Cowles 
was telling me the other day that soldier boys had fine clothes and looked, oh, so 

" Well, if it isn't like thee, Merab Lewis, to think only of their clothes," said 
Josiah indignantly. 

But she was too young to think of the horrors of war or to carry the burdens 
of the colonists on her pretty shoulders. 

" Lack-a-day, thou'lt be giving. up thy herbs and bleeding then and instead be 
cracking a blunderbuss for thy brain work. I'll beg thou'lt take aim direct at me 
lest I be shot in thy practice." 

"Why no, Merab, I shall take my lancet and herbs instead of powder and 
bullet pouch if I go. Surgeons must go to war, and Dr. Todd says it's the greatest 
field for usefulness as well as learning." 

" May it all be so, but if I were a man I should like better to fight and come 
home a general. Fie, you'll repent, doctor, when you see how it will be the soldier 
boys that the girls will dance with after the war." 

"I have no thought of the dancing, lass, it's only of war I now can think or 
talk, neither am I going to please the girls," he added, not without a half suggestive 
glance toward the one before him. 

His hand was on the latch and feeling the need of no more of her sympathetic 
conversation he said a gentle " Good even " and was gone. If we questioned his 
musings upon the success of the visit we should find that his principal thought was 
that he would show her that even a doctor might amount to something if war came. 

The young docter had failed to surprise Merab into showing any concern 
about his going to war, but in spite of her stinging words she seemed dearer to him 
than ever before, and his ambition was doubly quickened by the thoughts of pleas- 
ing her and serving his country. 

That she should have so little faith in his ability to amount to anything was a 
spur in his side that goaded him on when a placid satisfaction would have held him 

It was late into the night and his tallow dip had burned out when he laid aside 
the old manuscripts of Dr. Todd which he had been reading. 

All his reading had been done on a very few pages ; at the top of the first you 
might read " Cuncernin The dressing of Woonds " (original spelling). When his con- 
fused head lay upon the pillow there floated before him visions of bright eyes and 
bleeding wounds. Small wonder that the next morning Keziah should have said, "If 
I read not Merab's mind better I should have said, thou'rt courting late, Josiah." 

"I'm glad thou knowest her mind so well, mother, and it was truly late when 
I slept last night," replied the dutiful son. 

That evening about the Lewis fireside there was talk of the prospects of war. 
Lemuel Lewis assured his wife that he should be on hand to " whip the red-coats 
if there was need of the Connecticut colonists helping out," and turning to Merab 
he said : " Daughter, if I were a comely lass like thee I'd give Josiah Root more 


"Well, father, he talked with me this day of war, and I did encourage him to 
fight and not to take a garden full of herbs along instead of a blunderbuss." 

"I was not meaning encouragement to fight, but since you mention it, is't not 
as worthy and needful to bind up the wounds of comrades as to inflict them ? " 

" I know not about that, but I know I like not his old pills and lancet and 
bleeding and I have set my heart on marrying a general, and have no use for a 
doctor one way nor another." 

" Tut, tut, daughter, thou'rt none too good for a plain doctor, and it's a bad 
thing to have thy feelin's finer than the linen thou spinnest." 


" That can't be said," quickly spoke up Martha, his wife. And turning to a 
bag which hung on the wall upon a large wooden peg, she passed him a beautiful 
linen handkerchief woven in red and white with Merab's name marked in cross- 
stitch in one corner. 

Her father pretended to examine it critically, but when he had done so, with- 
out comment he turned to his wife and said : " Martha, fill up the flip glass and I'll 
be off to bed." 

Drs. Root and Wadsworth did not have long to wait for their country's call. 
The next year about one hundred men marched from that parish to New York, and 
although the record of their names has been lost, it is most probable that these 
two men were among the number. 

It is supposed that Lemuel Lewis was one who went to Boston in response to 
a call for men after the battles of Lexington and Concord. After six months' ser- 
vice he was home again, but after a short stay he returned to the army. 

Different soldiers from the parish brought word that Dr. Root was doing won- 
derfully well, and one soldier from Col. Douglass' regiment reported that his Colo- 
nel had said "Root is a born surgeon." 

After two years of service Dr. Wadsworth returned, to remain, and Dr. Root 
was appointed his successor. 

In June, 1781, the French army, under command of Count Rochambeau, 
encamped in the town. They were on their way to take part in the siege of York- 
town. Marshall Bertier was the Count's aide, and the army numbered about three 
thousand men. 

Every family in the town assisted in furnishing them the best of food, and 
Parson Robinson in his memoirs tells how some officers took tea with him. 



The greatest event of their encampment, to the young women, at least, was a 
ball given by Landlord Barnes, at his tavern. 

The question of dress created as much excitement among those belles as a ball 
with only a day's warning would to-day. 

Merab, like the others, was obliged to fashion her costume in great haste. 
" Mother, if I could only wear your wedding dress, 'twould become me well, and 
there's no time to send away for aught I would like." Her black eyes pleaded 
with her voice and her mother said : "Well I did mind, lass, that the last doll-baby 
I saw dressed from Old England was not far fashioned from my blue silk, and it's 
welcome you are to wear it." Her gold beads circled her neck, and not the least 
admired by the Frenchmen were the high-heeled and pointed-toed slippers which 


she wore. Uniforms ever did and will appeal to the feminine heart, and who could 
describe or make account of the flutterings occasioned by that ball. Merab 
showed sufficient interest in her old-time friend to inquire of one of her partners in 
the cotillion if he had ever heard of Surgeon Root. " Oui, oui, madamoiselle, dis 
life he do gife me, Oui, mon Dieu voir ! " And pushing a lock of his hair off from 
his forehead he showed the fresh healed scar where had been an ugly wound. 

Their conversation was quite limited on account of the difficulties of the lan- 
guage to each, but young people can never utterly fail to understand one another. 

That night as she lay on her pillow she fell to wondering how the doctor would 
look in a French uniform — but what nonsense, she reasoned, what honors or gay 
uniforms could there be for a plain doctor ! 

Still, it must be confessed, she took some satisfaction in thinking that in his 
position he did not stand the chance of others of being killed. The second time 


her father came home he had seen Josiah and said that he seemed much worn with 
his constant attention upon the sick and wounded. " Why don't you send him 
some word, Merab ? " said her father. 

" I have had no message from him and I do not intend to court his favor." 

Lemuel Lewis dared say no more. 

When the glad news of the surrender of Cornwallis reached Southington (for 
the Panthorn parish was now a town so named), all the soldiers were expected 
home, but Dr. Root did not appear. 

He had enough to do to keep him busy and little to call him home, and it was 
a year later before his friends greeted his home coming. 

After peace had been declared, the officers of the army were called together 
" to form a society to commemorate the success of the American Revolution and 
to perpetuate sentiments of patriotism, benevolence, and brotherly love and the 
memory of hardships experienced in common." 

The meeting was called at Baron Steuben's, on the Hudson, the Baron pre- 
siding as senior officer. 

We have no proof that the Apothecary General (to which position Dr. Root 
had been promoted) was there, but he was one of the Council of War, and, as such, 
was undoubtedly there with the other officers. 

He became a member of the Society of the Cincinnati, and so brought home 
honors which even a proud girl bearing the name of Lewis could not overlook. 

We should have liked to have been able to have listened to her condescending 
" Yea," but as that pleasure was denied her grandchildren we must be content with 
the marriage record of good Parson Robinson, who records : 

"April 8th, 1786. Josiah Root and Merab Lewis." 



Long years ago for fame I sighed, 

To reach its topmost height I tried, 

And sought the world's acclaim. 

Alas ! one moment quenched, my thirst 

Returned again as at the first ; 

Unsatisfying aim. 

A shadow o'er my pathway fell, 

I looked around, but could not tell 

Nor see from whence it came. 

A touch of hand, a presence near — 

I turned, attent with listening ear — 

"Fear not my child, for Love is here 

And Love is more than Fame." 

Yes, Love is more because complete. 

And Love is more because so sweet, 

But it is not the same ; 

No striving now, I rest content, 

The soul's deep inner strength unspent. 

The bow all day remains unbent, 

Quite useless, since Love came. 




To Jacob Heminway of East Haven belongs the unique distinction of having 
been the first student of Yale College. It was reserved, however, for John Hart of 
Farmington, whose family have borne an honored record in the Annals of Connecti- 
cut, to be the first graduate student, but he entered the institution some six months 
later than Jacob Heminway. 

In March, 1702, Jacob Heminway, then eighteen years old, began to study 
under Rector Pierson in Killingworth (now Clinton) and he " solus was all the col- 
lege the first half-year," as President Stiles quaintly records it. In those early 
days of its feeble existence, it was not the vigorous institution known by the name 
Yale College, but it was simply the "Collegiate School of Connecticut." Yet even 
the term " Collegiate School" could not have seemed exactly appropriate to young 
Mr. Heminway when he went over some twenty miles or more to Killingworth to 
study with Rector Pierson at the parsonage. 

It must have seemed more like studying with a tutor, and in fact such was 
really the case.* 

Probably the solitary student had days of feeling very lonesome during those 
first six months in Killingworth ; but Rector Pierson from all accounts was an 
uncommonly agreeable gentleman to study under. In 1694, he had succeeded to 
the pastorate of the Rev. John Woodbridge, whose dismission from Killingworth 
fifteen years earlier had caused some very unpleasant divisions in that little place. 
But under the kindly ministrations of Mr. Pierson, the divisions melted away and 
the church became happily united. He was still preaching in his church, greatly 
beloved by his people, when Jacob Heminway began his studies with him, and he 
did not relinquish his charge for the few remaining years of his life.f Killingworth, 
originally called " Kenilworth" from the place by that name in Warwickshire, Eng- 
land, from which tradition states that some of the first settlers came, was plentifully 
supplied with Indians, who lived in the southern part of the town, and on the banks 
of the Hammonasset and Indian rivers. Perhaps the young student whiled away some 
of his leisure hours in visiting them and observing their curious customs. It would 
be interesting to ascertain what the studies were that Jacob Heminway pursued. 
Roughly speaking, they were in the main theological, for the trustees, upon the 
election of Mr. Pierson to the rectorship, passed the following rules for governing 
the school : " 1st, That the Rector take special care, as of the moral behavior of 
the students at all times, so with industry to instruct and ground them well in 
theoretical divinity ; and to that end, shall neither by himself, nor by any other 
person whomsoever, allow them to be instructed and grounded in any other system 
or synopsis of divinity, than such as the trustees do order and appoint ; but shall 

* In the fall of 1702, Rector Pierson had Daniel Hooker of Farmington to assist him as Tutor. 

f While the question of his removal to Saybfook was still being agitated, Rector Pierson died, to the 
great grief of all who knew him, March 5, 1707. 


take effectual care that the said students be weekly (at such seasons as he shall 
see cause to appoint) caused memoriter to recite the Assembly's Catechism in Latin, 
and Ames' Theological Theses of which, as also Ames' Cases of Conscience, he 
shall make or cause to be made, from time to time, such explanations as may 
(through the blessing of God) be most conducive to their establishment in the 
principles of the Christian Protestant religion." 

"2d, The Rector shall also cause the Scriptures daily (except on the Sabbath) 
morning and evening to be read by the students at the times of prayer in the 
school according to the laudable order and usage of Harvard College, making 
expositions upon the same ; and upon the Sabbath shall either expound practical 
theology or cause the non-graduated students to repeat sermons ; and in all other 
ways, according to his best discretion, shall at all times studiously endeavor in the 
education of the students, to promote the power and purity of religion and the best 
edification of these New England churches." 

But it must be distinctly borne in mind that the college was not founded to be 
merely a theological school, even if in its beginnings it was more that, than any- 
thing else. The clear-sighted clergymen who drew up the petition for a charter, 
expressly stated that the Collegiate School be one " wherein youth may be instructed 
in the Arts and Sciences, who through the blessing of Almighty God may be fitted 
for Public Employment both in Church and Civil State." In those days the laity 
were supposed to need a solid grounding in divinity, and the more so if liberally 

It is doubtful whether Master Heminway had access to the small college 
library which at the start consisted of about forty volumes in folio. The Rev. Mr. 
Russell of Branford had been appointed librarian, and the books were kept with 
him for nearly three years after the founding of the college. 

So young Mr, Heminway had to turn to the book-shelves of the Rector for his 
reading, and it is likely that he fared on a soundly theological diet during all his 
student days, and as he was fitting for the ministry, this arrangement could not 
have been very displeasing to him. 

The first commencement, according to Clap's Annals, was held Sept. 13, 1702,* 
in Saybrook, at which the degree of Master of Arts w T as bestowed upon five young 
men, one of whom had been privately educated, and the other four had been 
graduated from Harvard College. This and several of the succeeding commence- 
ments, were held privately at the house of the Rev. Mr. Buckingham, because the 
trustees had forbidden all public commencements, to avoid the expense and "some 
other inconveniences attending them," whatever those may have been. It is an old 
tradition, kept alive by President Stiles, that the length of the curriculum until about 
1 7 10 was three years, the classes being styled "Senior Sophisters," "Sophomores," 
and "Freshmen." In the middle of September, 1704, Jacob Heminway was quietly 
graduated from the Collegiate School with two others, Phineas Fiske and John 

The exercises, no doubt, took place at the house of Mr. Buckingham in Say- 
brook, and were private as had been the custom. Meanwhile the villagers of East 
Haven were beginning to consider the advisability of asking the young graduate to 
settle in his native place, and to become their first minister. In Dodd's East Haven 
Register we learn that "at a meeting of the village 20th Nov., 1704, it was voted 
to look out for a minister to carry on the publick worship of God amongst us ; 
and it was voted, 1, To seek to Sir Heminway that he would give them a taste of 

Prof. Dexter puts it, Sept. 16, 1707. 


his gifts in order to settlement in the worke of the ministry," " and, 2, Voted to 
desire John Potter, Sen., Caleb Chedsey, and Ebenezer Chedsey to treat with Sir 
Heminway, to get him if they could, to give them a taste of his gifts in preaching 
the word." A month later on, the 19th of December, at a meeting of the village, 
the following action was taken : "They having had some taste of Sir Heminway in 
preaching the Word, did declare their desire to have him go on in the worke of the 
Ministry amongst us in order to settlement; and toward his encouragement they 
engage to allow him after the rate of ,-£40 by the year to pay. And, voted that 
George Pardee and Caleb Chedsey signify our desires and propositions to Sir Hem- 
inway and take his answer and make returne." The committee at once conferred 
with Mr. Heminway, and reported the same evening " that Sir Heminway does 
comply with their motion, God's grace assisting, and does accept the proposition, 
and desires some consideration with respect to wood." They agreed in January, 

1705, to pay him ^50 a year, and thus matters went on until the close of the year 

1706, when a committee consisting of William Luddington and John Potter was 
appointed "to treat with Sir Jacob Heminway to see whether he will goe on in the 
worke of the Ministry amongst us." Mr. Heminway with commendable prompt- 
ness replied in writing that same day as follows : 

" Gentlemen, whereas you have given me notice by two men that you desire 
me to carry on the work of the ministry in order to settlement among you, I do, 
therefore, hereby give you notice that so far as God shall enable me thereunto, I 
am heartily ready and willing to gratify these your desires upon these conditions: 
1. That you give me ^50 yearly and my wood. 2. That you build me a good and 
convenient dwelling-house within two years time, or give me money sufficient to do 
the same, one half this year ensuing and one half the next. 3. That when it is in 
your power, you give me a good and sufficient portion of land. 

" From my study, 2d Deer., 1706, yours to serve, 

Jacob Heminway." 

These terms were accepted by the village in a meeting held that same month 
and a tax of four pence farthing was laid to carry them out. 

The next year, 1707, the village built the dwelling-house on a five-acre 
lot at the southeast corner of the green. It was 40 feet long, 20 feet wide 
and half an acre was allowed for the site. It is interesting, by the way, 
to note the wages paid in building the house, which were 3 shillings a day for a 
man and 6 shillings - for a team. Surely, the ministers of that period in New Eng- 
land were favored above all other classes. In wordly goods they were not stinted, 
if their parishioners could possibly help it. Lands were freely set out to the min- 
ister as soon as he settled among them. The case of Mr. Heminway was no 
exception to the rule. The village gave him, in 1709, the house and lot it stood on, 
12 acres on the cove road, 12 acres in the bridge swamp, 30 acres in the half-mile, 
^£50 per annum and sufficient wood, "if he performs the worke of the Ministry so 
long as he is able; or if it be our fault that he is forced to leave us, it shall be his. 
But if it be his fault, or he leaves the place, or is hindered in the worke, then the 
property is to return to the village." It is not so very strange that a minister 
preferred to spend all his days in one parish. 

On the 8th of October, 17 11, the church was gathered, and on the same day 
Mr. Heminway was ordained its first pastor. In the meantime, a temporary 
meeting-house had been built which was set across the east end of the school- 
house, thus visibly testifying to the indissoluble union of church and school as 
earnestly believed in by the people of that day. 



But this small structure was superseded in 17 19 by a more commodious building 
40 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 20 feet high, "jutted one foot at each end with a 
strait roof." 

On the 19th of October that year, the village met and voted, "that the new 
meeting-house should be seated." And so, at last, Mr. Heminway was fairly 
launched on his long pastorate of fifty years. 

Almost nothing is recorded of these years of faithful service in this quiet 
parish. That the work inaugurated by the young man of twenty-one prospered with 
the progress of the years, there can be no question. We can imagine him performing 
his duties with the fidelity and gravity common to those times. We know, how- 
ever, that he took some part in affairs outside of his parish. 

On May 8, 1740, he preached at Hartford the annual election sermon which 
was published, with the title, " The Favor of God the Best Security of a People, 
and a Concern to Please Him Urged," from the text, "When a man's ways please 
the Lord, he maketh even his enemies to be at peace with him." Proverbs xvi, 7. 

Professor Dexter* says of it, that "it is plain, solid and practical without any 
attempt at striking effect," which gives one the impression of a man of strong 
common sense, and of sound penetrating judgment, worth listening to in those days 
of practical questions both in church and state. 

Three years later, in 1743, we find him moderator of the general association at 
its annual meeting. 

He was opposed to the revival methods of the Rev. George White- 
field, then arousing the land with his fiery zeal, and was one of those 
among the members of the New Haven County Association that printed a 
" declaration concerning the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield." 

He was twice married; 
first in 17 12 to Lydia, 
daughter of Captain Ailing 
Ball, Jr., of East Haven, by 
whom he had his only child, 
Lydia ; his second wife, 
Sarah, survived him. 

Mr. Heminway at his 
death left a large estate, 
amounting to ,£6,556, much 
of which he probably inheri- 
ted from his father, who 
was one of the wealthiest 
and most influential men in 
the place. Among his be- 
quests was one of 
^20 to the church 
in East Haven, 
"for the sup- 
port of the Lord's 
table among them," 

but this fund seems no 
longer to exist. 

Strangely enough, 
no books are men- 
tioned in his inven- 
tory. That he possessed 
some seems certain; that 
he was a good student 
of human nature seems 
quite as certain. 

His remains were buried 
in the old graveyard 
at East Haven near the 
house in which he passed 
his uneventful life, and 
the curious stranger 
may still see his 
plain tombstone with 
the brief inscription 
apparently so char- 
acteristic of the man. 

* For many of the facts relating to the life of Jacob Heminway. the writer is indebted to Prof. Dex- 
ter's sketch of Jacob Heminway in his " Yale Biographies and Annals." 


In this department we shall aim to give interesting extracts from old papers and books, worthy 
for one reason or another to bring to the attention of our readers. 

Well authenticated incidents of general interest, especially if they have never been printed, 
will be welcomed from our readers. 


The pages of the Connecticut Quar- 
terly furnish a continuous history of 
our State. This is just the place to 
publish well-illustrated articles on his- 
torical subjects hitherto neglected. 
The field is wide and full of most inter- 
esting subjects. Much valuable histori- 
cal matter lies hidden away in old 
documents and journals, and many of 
the old family traditions so full of inter- 
est are passing out of the minds of the 
present generation. 

If you have any treasures of this 
nature hidden away in the dark, bring 
them to light and let our readers share 
the pleasure of hitherto unpublished 

Leading events of the American 
Revolution taking place in Connecticut 
during April and June : 

April 25, 1777. — Danbury raid April 
25th to 27th. 

April 27, 1777. — Battle of Ridgefield. 

April 28, 1777. — Skirmish at Crompo 

June 14, 1776. — Connecticut instructs 
her delegates for independence. 

June 19, 1779. — Battle at Greenwich. 


A meeting for the purpose of organ- 
izing the Putnam Wolf Den Association 
was held at the office of Judge Warner, 
February 21st. The organization was 
effected with the following officers : 
President, W. Grosvenor ; treasurer, 
J. H. Carpenter ; secretary, Judge E. M. 
Warner ; executive committee, John 
Addison Porter and Timothy E. Hop- 

It was voted to raise a fund of $2,500 
by popular subscription. Eighty acres 
of land containing the historic wolf den 
will be purchased and cared for by the 


For many years the people of Canton, 
Connecticut, have expressed a desire for 
the erection of a monument dedicated to 
the memory of the men who in days 
past have gone out from the town and 
borne arms in behalf of the nation. 

To enable that sentiment to crystal- 
ize into practical shape and in order to 
form the nucleus of a voluntary organiza- 
tion — which all past and present inhabi- 
tants of the town, all kinsmen of our sol- 
diers, and all friends of the enterprise 
everywhere are earnestly asked to join — 
whose purpose it is to aid and promote 
the erection of such a monument. 

A few citizens met together and 
formed a society known as " The Canton 
Soldiers' Memorial Association." 

The ideal way to build a memorial is, 
that every one interested in the plan 
should contribute something, and feel a 
personal interest and ownership not 
otherwise possible. Every little helps, 
and no one should hesitate because 
their gift is small. 

It is the earnest desire of the Associa- 
tion that the list of soldiers shall be as 
complete as possible. 

Send all applications for membership 
to E. A. Hough, Collinsville, Conn. 

Send all subscriptions to J. H. Bidwell, 
Collinsville, or B. F. Case, Canton Center. 

Send all information about lists of 
soldiers in the War of the Revolution, 
War of 181 2, War with Mexico, or War 
of the Rebellion to W. E. Simonds, 
Collinsville, Conn. 

Richard Lord Jones, a lad of Col- 
chester, Conn., enlisted in the Revo- 
lutionary Army when he was only ten 
years of age. He was in Samuel B. 
Webb's regiment, and was taught to play 
the fife by the bandmaster. He was 
sent for at one time by Mrs. Washington 
to sing for her at a dinner party. She 
gave him a continental three-dollar bill, 
which is still in possession of his de- 




Thomas Fitch was the first American- 
born Governor. He was born at Nor- 
walk, Connecticut, graduated at Yale in 
1 721, and settled in his native town. 
He was chosen an assistant the first 
time in 1734, and held the office for 
twelve years. From 1750 to 1754 he 
was Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony, 
and from 1754 to 1766 he held the office 
of Governor. He was also chief Judge 
of the Colony for four years. 

In October, 1742, Mr. Fitch was ap- 
pointed by the legislature, in connection 
with Roger Wolcott, Jonathan Trumbull, 
and John Bulkley, to make a revision of 
all the laws of the Colony. 

The following is from the inscription 
on the monument of Governor Fitch, in 
Norwalk : 

"The Hon'ble Thomas Fitch, Esq. 
Gov 'r of the colony of Connecticut. 
Eminent and distinguished among mor- 
tals for great abilities, large acquire- 
ments and a virtuous character ; a clear, 
strong, sedate mind ; an accurate, exten- 
sive acquaintance with law, and civil 
government ; a happy talent of presid- 
ing ; close application, and strict fidelity 
in the discharge of important truths ; 
no less than for his employments, by the 
voice of the people in the chief offices 
of state, and at the head of the colony. 
Having served his generation, by will of 
God, fell asleep, July 18th, Ann. Domini, 
1774, in the 75th year of his age." 


In New London, February 26th, at 
St. James' Church, religious services 
were celebrated commemorative of the 
death of the Right Rev. Samuel Seabury, 
the first Episcopal Bishop of the United 
States. Samuel Seabury was born in 
Groton, he was one time rector of St. 
James church, New London, and was 
Bishop of Rhode Island and Connecticut 
several years. Many clergymen were 
present at this celebration, and among 
the sermons preached was one by Rev. 
W. J. Seabury of the General Theologi- 
cal Seminary of New T York — a great 
grandson of Bishop Seabury. A choir 
of eighty voices furnished music. The 
vessels used in the Holy Communion 
were those in use during Bishop Sea- 
bury's incumbency of the parish. 

On the north side of the chancel is 
the tomb of Bishop Seabury, made of 
Nova Scotia stone, and bearing the 
arms of the diocese and an inscription 
from the felicitous pen of Rev. Samuel 
Jarvis, D.D. 


The new Theatre in this city was 
opened on Monday evening last, with a 
celebrated comedy, entitled the Dram- 
atist, preceded by a handsome and per- 
tinent address by Mr. Hodgkinson. 
From the specimen that has been given 
of the abilities of the performers, and 
the assurance of the managers, that 
they will so conduct the Theatre, that it 
may be justly styled a school of moral- 
ity ; it is presumed that it will be a 
great source of instruction and amuse- 
ment to those who visit it ; and we will 
hazard the assertion, notwithstanding 
the prejudices that have entertained 
against it, that as an amusement, it is 
the most innocent, and, as a source of 
instruction, it is the most amusing of 
any that we have ever yet experienced. 
While the theatre is well conducted, on 
chaste principles — when vice is drawn 
in colors that will disgust, and virtue 
painted with all its alluring charms, it 
is hoped that it will meet the approba- 
tion and encouragement of the citizens, 
and of the neighboring towns. 
— Connecticut Courant, Aug. loth, 1793. 

Prologue on the establishment of a new Theatre 
in Hartford. Written and spoken by Mr. 
Hodgkinson, iygj. 

Here, while fair peace spreads her protecting wing. 
Science and Art, secure from danger spring, 
Guarded by freedom — strengthened by the laws, 
Their progress must command the world's applause. 

While through all Europe horrid discord reigns, 
And the destructive sword crimsons her plains : 
O ! be it ours to shelter the opprest, 
Here let them find peace, liberty, and rest ; 
Upheld by Washington, at whose dread name 
Proud Anarchy* retires with fear and shame. 

Among the liberal arts behold the Stage, 

Rise, tho' oppos'd by stern fanatic rage ! 

Prejudice shrinks, and as the cloud gives way. 

Reason and candor brighten up the day. 

No immorality now stains our page, 

No vile obscenity — in this blest age, 

Where mild Religion takes her heavenly reign. 

The Stage the purest precepts must maintain : 

If from this rule it swerv'd at any time. 

It was the People's, not the Stage's crime. 

Pet them spurn aught that's out of virtue's rule. 

The Stage will ever be a virtuous school. 

And though 'mong players some there may be found. 

Whose conduct is not altogether sound. 

The Stage is not alone in this to blame, 

Ev'ry profession will have still the same : 

A virtuous sentiment from vice may come ! 

The libertine may praise a happy home ; 

Your remedy is good with such a teacher ; 

Imbibe the precept, but condemn the preacher. 

— Barber s Connecticut Historical Collections. 


* The Western insurrection. 


We should like to have reports from the patriotic and historical societies of Connecticut for 
this department so we can represent the state as completely as possible. 


There should be some kind of a his- 
torical society in every town in Con- 
necticut, to study the history of the 
locality, and carefully preserve historical 
and genealogical records, and the many 
manuscripts and relics that can be 
brought to light by diligent workers in 
almost any section of our state. 

There are many things of general 
interest that should be placed in the 
keeping of the Connecticut Historical 
Society and many that properly belong 
to the County Historical Societies in 
different sections of the state, but there 
are many relics and papers that should 
be kept in the towns where they have 
been hidden away so many years — 
treasures that should be brought to 
light and placed where they may be 
appreciated and enjoyed, and still be 
safely kept. 

We hear of rare and valuable histor- 
ical relics being sent out of our state, 
as in the recent "event, when a most 
unique collection had been in one Con- 
necticut family for two hundred years, 
and the owner presented the entire valu- 
able collection to the National Museum, 
at Washington, D. C. 

In this collection are handsome home- 
made quilts of linen and wool, heavy 
brown linen curtains, beautifully de- 
signed in raised figures ; hats, bonnets, 
shoes, and elegant dresses and shawls 
of the Colonial period. 

There are also many articles of domes- 
tic use and many other interesting relics, 
but most valuable of all a large collec- 
tion of religious books that are exceed- 
ingly rare. 

This is not only a great loss to New 
London County, upon the eve of the 
celebration of the two hundred and 
fiftieth anniversary of the founding of 
New London, but lovers of the antique 
throughout the state must feel a sense 
of personal loss, mingled with our pride 
in Connecticut being able to so enrich 
the National Museum. 


The Fairfield County Historical Soci- 
ety, located at Bridgeport, Conn., re- 
cently issued their ninth publication, a 
very creditable volume of nearly two 
hundred pages, well illustrated. The 
principal matter comprises an account 
of the opening exercises when the fine 
new building, now known as the Barnum 
Institute of Science and History, the 
gift of the late P. T. Barnum, was dedi- 
cated to its present uses. The title to 
one-half of this property is in the Fair- 
field County Historical Society. 

Other valuable papers consist of in- 
scriptions in the oldest cemetery in Nor- 
walk, Conn., with illustrations and a good 
index. There is also a valuable paper 
on the Rev. James Beebe, 1747-1785, of 
North Stratford. 

At present the Society is making a 
copy, by the courtesy of the Clerk of the 
Church of Easton, Conn., of the records 
of the Church of Christ in North Fair- 
field — which was the ancient name of 
this church. These records contain the 
account of the action of the General 
Association of the ministers of Connec- 
ticut in 1774 at Mansfield, Conn., which 
action was completed a year later at 
New Haven. This will add another to 
the valuable copies already obtained by 
this Society of the records and registers 
of the churches of Fairfield County. 
Already the Society has obtained com- 
plete copies of Stratfield and North 
Stratford (now Trumbull). 

The Society has held interesting meet- 
ings during the winter, and its Museum 
and Library, which are open three after- 
noons in the week, are well attended. 
Its rooms are freely granted to the use 
of the Daughters of the Revolution, 
Mary Silliman Chapter, the members of 
which find inspiration in the patriotic 
surroundings of the Society. 

Edward Deacon, Curator. 




At the January meeting of the society 
Mr. Homer W. Brainard read a paper 
on David Brainard, the missionary, 
which showed a close and careful study 
of the life of this interesting and worthy 

Judge Sherman W. Adams read a 
paper at the February meeting on the 
** Native Wild Mammals of Connecticut," 
giving a full list of all species now or 
formerly found within the limits of the 
state, interspersed with many interest- 
ing historical notes. 

At this meeting an oil painting of 
Bear Mountain, Salisbury, the highest 
land in the state, was presented by Mr. 
and Mrs. Carl Stoeckel, son-in-law and 
daughter of the society's former presi- 
dent, the late Hon. Robbins Battell. 
On the top of this mountain Mr. Battell 
had caused the erection of a granite 
monument, bearing a suitable inscrip- 
tion showing the height of the spot. 

Mr. Thomas S. Weaver presented the 
manuscript genealogies of early Wind- 
ham families, prepared many years 
since by his father, the late William L. 

Dr. Thomas Knowlton Marcy pre- 
sented a manuscript account book of 
his great grandfather, the honored 
Col. Thomas Knowlton, containing, 
among other matters, a full roll of Col., 
then Captain, Knowlton's company in 
1775. Permission was granted the 
Society of Colonial Dames to hold a 
colonial exhibition in one of this soci- 
ety's rooms, the object of the exhibition 
being to obtain money for the purchase 
of needed historical books. 

At the March meeting remarks were 
made by Mr. P. H. Woodward upon the 
recent decease of the society's former 
president, Hon. John W. Stedman, and 
a committee was appointed to prepare 
and report suitable resolutions respect- 
ing the society's loss in his death. 

The paper of the evening was by Mr. 
Edward D. Robbins on a " Tory View 
of the Declaration of Independence." 
The paper closely followed its title, 
showing the view that a tory might 
have taken of that document, with his 
reasons for such view. It was listened 
to with much interest by all present. 

Preparations are now being made to 
dispose of the society's duplicate books 
and pamphlets by an auction sale, to 
take place, probably, in May next. 

Albert C. Bates, Librarian. 


The Entertainment Committee ap- 
pointed at the annual meeting of the 
Connecticut Society of the Colonial 
Dames of America, held Nov. 19, 1895, 
has arranged to hold a Loan Collection 
Exhibition, and has issued the following 
circular to members of the Society: — 

"At the annual meeting of the Con- 
necticut Society of the Colonial Dames 
of America, it was resolved that there 
be held a loan exhibit for the purpose 
of raising therefrom a sufficient amount 
of money for the purchase of books of 
reference, historical and genealogical, to 
be by said Society placed as special de- 
posits in the libraries of the New Haven 
and Connecticut Historical Societies. 
In pursuance of this resolution there 
was appointed a committee on entertain- 
ments and meetings. This committee, 
having had several conferences, has de- 
termined upon holding the loan exhibit 
in Hartford the third week in April, and 
in New Haven the first week in May. 
With this end in view, the committee 
desires that all members of the Society 
shall interest themselves in the collec- 
tion of old colonial treasures belonging 
to that period prior to the year 1783. 
Old furniture, unless associated with 
some historic personage or possessing 
value from its unique shape, is not de- 
sired for this collection. Laces, silver, 
wearing apparel, fans, jewelry, china, 
fire-arms, books, prints, portraits, minia- 
tures, and articles of that ilk are solic- 
ited. It is requested that all loans be 
made for three weeks. All expenses of 
transportation will be defrayed by the 
Society, and those making such loans 
may be assured of every safeguard being 
placed about them while in its posses- 
sion. Watchmen will be on service night 
and day, and as far as is possible all 
articles will be placed in cases or behind 

"This being the first exhibit of the 
kind in Connecticut, it is earnestly 
hoped that a generous contribution will 
be offered, and the collection do honor 
to one of the first ' Colonial States.' 

" By order of the committee: — 
"Mrs. Morgan G. Bulkeley, Chairman, 136 
Washington Street, Hartford ; Mrs. Thomas 
Brownell Chapman, Secretary, 10 Park Terrace, 
Hartford ; Miss Rebecca Gibbons Beach, 76 Wall 
Street, New Haven ; Mrs. William Beebe, New 
Haven ; Mrs. Franklin B. Glazier, South Glaston- 
bury ; Miss E. Griswold, Lyme ; Miss Florence 
T. Gay, Farmington ; Miss Hamersley, 155 
Washington Street, Hartforcf; Mrs. Henry L. 
Hotchkiss, 55 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven." 




A meeting of the Sons of the Revolu- 
tion in the State of Connecticut was held 
in January, when six persons were ad- 
mitted to membership. A number have 
since made application and their claims 
will be considered at the approaching 

The General Society will meet in 
Savannah, Ga., on April 19th, and the 
delegates appointed from Connecticut 
are: Hon. Morgan G. Bulkeley of Hart- 
ford, Mr. Satterlee Swartwout of Stam- 
ford, Mr. A. Floyd Delafield of Noroton, 
Col. G. B. Sanford, U. S. N., of Litch- 
field, Mr. Henry Lincoln Rowland of 

Rev. H. N. Wayne, Secretary. 


The meeting of the Connecticut Sons 
of the American Revolution held in 
Waterbury on February 2 2d, was one of 
the largest and most enthusiastic ever 
held by the Society. Four of the six 
members of the state's delegation in 
Washington were present, and many 
other prominent citizens. 

General S. W. Kellogg of Waterbury 
was toast-master, and shortly after his 
address introduced the other speakers. 

Jonathan Trumbull of Norwich, Presi- 
dent of the Society, spoke in response to 
the toast, " Sons of the American Revo- 

Hon. Lynde Harrison spoke of " Wash- 
ington's Farewell Address." 

Hon. John A. Porter made a " Plea for 
Old Put." 

Senator Orville H. Piatt and General 
Kellogg made a plea for a better history 
of Connecticut. Surely there is no more 
attractive field anywhere for the intelli- 
gent historian, and few where he has so 
far worked to less purpose. 

Senator Piatt paid an eloquent tribute 
to Roger Sherman, the statesman who 
shed so much luster on Connecticut by 
his services in establishing our system 
of government. Not enough prominence 
has been given to the work of Connec- 
ticut men in the construction of our 
governmental system, and it is, indeed, 
singular that no adequate history of 
Roger Sherman's life and achievements 
has been written. " Connecticut stands 
almost criminally negligent in its lack 
of historical writing," said Senator Piatt. 

Able addresses were made by other 
prominent members. There can be no 
question of the educational as truly as 
the social value of these gatherings. 


On October 12, 1895, this article ap- 
peared in the New London Day, calling 
the eligible " Sons " in the vicinity to 
come forward for organizing: — 
U A Fa trio fie Revival" etc. 

The plea for a local branch society 
called forth the most encouraging ex- 
pressions of approval. Many not mem- 
bers of the State Society but eligible for 
membership, expressed a strong desire 
to join the State Society and the local 
branch when organized; it being neces- 
sary to first become a member of the 
State Society before affiliating with a 
local branch. 

Notices were sent to the members of 
the State Society residing in the south- 
ern section of New London County to 
assemble in the rooms of the New Lon- 
don County Historical Society, Wednes- 
day afternoon, Nov. 6th, at 5 o'clock. 
At this meeting officers pro tem. were 
elected: Walter Larned, Chairman, Ern- 
est E. Rogers, Secretary. Sixteen signa- 
tures were signed to the petition to the 
State Board of Managers asking author- 
ity to associate as a branch society; and 
a committee consisting of Ernest E. 
Rogers, Dr. F. N. Braman, and Dr. F. W. 
Farnsworth, to obtain nine more signa- 

Thirty charter members were obtained, 
and after authority had been granted by 
the State Board of Managers for the 
branch to be formed, and the constitu- 
tion approved, the permanent organiza- 
tion was held, and officers elected: — 
Walter Learned, President ; John G. 
Stanton, Vice-President; Ernest E. Rog- 
ers, Secretary; W. Saltonstall Chappell, 
Treasurer; J. Lawrence Chew, Historian. 

The annual meetings will be held on 
Sept. 6th, which date commemorates 
the burning of New London and the 
battle of Groton Heights. 

Although there were many worthy 
names from which to choose a name for 
the local branch, the branch made a 
happy choice in choosing Nathan Hale, 
for surely the New London Society is 
entitled to it. It was there that Nathan 
Hale sustained the office of preceptor of 
the Union Grammar School, and from 
whence he marched forth to his immor- 
tal fate. Those who knew Capt. Hale 
in New London described him as a man 
of many agreeable qualities. He was 
often the guest at the mansion of that 
most patriotic man, Nathaniel Shaw, Jr., 



the naval agent of the Colony. Miss 
Caulkins, in her history of New London, 
records: "As a teacher, Capt. Hale is said 
to have been a firm disciplinarian, but 
happy in his mode of conveying instruc- 
tion, and highly respected by his pupils. 
The parting scene made a strong im- 
pression on their minds. He addressed 
them in a style almost parental; gave 
them earnest counsel, prayed with them, 
and shaking each by the hand, bade 
them individually farewell." How dif- 
ferent from the bold manners of the 
traitor Benedict Arnold, born only a few 
miles from the birthplace of Nathan 
Hale, and who burned the ancient town 
of New London ! Happily, the Union 
schoolhouse escaped the conflagration, 
and is standing to-day in a well-pre- 
served condition on Union Street. 

Special meetings will be called by the 
President as occasion may demand; but 
the annual meetings on September 6th 
will be the grand rallying-days of the 
Society. In addition to the charter mem- 
bers, between 30 and 40 persons have 
applied for membership. 

Mr. Walter Learned, the president of 
this branch, which, it is hoped, is des- 
tined to act a prominent part in the 
patriotism of the state, will deliver the 
historical oration at the celebration, on 
May 6th, of the 250th anniversary of the 
founding of New London by the illus- 
trious John Winthrop the younger. The 
extensive plans for the celebration have 
been laid on a large scale, and the occa- 
sion promises to be the largest celebra- 
tion of the kind ever held in eastern 


The Connecticut Commandery of the 
Military Order of Foreign Wars was 
organized on February 13th by the 
adoption of a constitution and by-laws, 
and the election of the following offi- 
cers: — 

Commander, Hon. Morgan G. Bulke- 
ley ; Vice-Commander, Mr. A. Floyd 
Delafield; Secretary and Registrar, Rev. 
Henry N. Wayne; Treasurer, Hon. Eras- 
tus Gay; Chaplain, Rev. Alex. Hamilton; 
Members of the Council: Col. Henry C. 
Morgan, Col. William A. E. Bulkeley, Mr. 
Frederick J. Huntington. 

The object of the Order is to perpetu- 
ate the records of men who fought in 
the War of the Revolution, the War of 
1812, Tripoli and Mexican Wars. 

Membership depends upon descent 
from a commissioned officer and in the 
male line only. 

The Order is now organized in Con- 
necticut, New York, and Pennsylvania, 
and very shortly there will be a meeting 
in New York to organize a National 

Rev. Henrv N. Wayne, Secretary. 


From the annual report of Mrs. Sara 
T. Kinney, State Regent for the D. A. 
R., we learn that there are in Connecti- 
cut thirty fully organized working Chap- 
ters with a membership of 1,800. The 
gain since February, 1895, has been 615, 
which speaks well for the interest in this 

Connecticut is the " banner state," 
New York standing second on the list, 
and Pennsylvania third. The, Ruth Wyllys 
Chapter of Hartford has a larger mem- 
bership than any other. The Mary Clap 
Wooster Chapter of New Haven has 
made larger gains during the year than 
any other, forty-five new members hav- 
ing joined since February, 1895. 

Two hundred and forty copies of the 
American Magazine (the national organ 
for the D. A. R.) are taken in this state. 
Connecticut will this year pay into the 
national treasury fully $2,000. 

Sixteen honorary members of the 
society are reported, all of them daugh- 
ters of revolutionary soldiers. In New 
London County several societies of 
Children of the American Revolution 
have been organized. 

With a total membership of 112, the 
Ruth Hart Chapter of Meriden is spon- 
sor for a Society of C. A. R., which calls 
itself the Lyma?i Hall Society, and on 
the 22d of February they celebrated 
Washington's birthday in grand style. 

The following telegram was sent to the 
meeting of the National Society of the 
C. A. R., which was in session Saturday 
the 22d of February, in All Soul's Church, 

" Mrs. Daniel Lothrop, President of the 
National Society, C. A. R. — 

" Lyman Hall Society, C. A. R., assem- 
bled in Meriden, Conn., to celebrate the 
day, sends patriotic greetings to Na- 
tional Society, C. A. R. Deut. 32:7." 

The quotation from the scriptures is 
a very apt one, and is as follows : 

" Remember the days of old, consider the years 
of many generations ; ask thy father and he will 
show thee ; thy elders and they will tell thee." 




During the year there have been six 
meetings. At the annual meeting held 
October 9, 1894, the following officers 
were unanimously elected : Regent, Miss 
Gerry ; vice-regent, Mrs. M. F. Tyler ; 
registrar, Mrs. G. F. Newcomb ; record- 
ing secretary, Mrs. E. C. Beecher ; cor- 
responding secretary, Mrs. E. H. Jen- 
kins ; treasurer, Mrs. William Beebe ; 
historian, Mrs. F. G. Curtis ; board of 
management, Mrs. Kinney, Mrs. Salis- 
bury, Mrs. Foote. 

A programme committee was ap- 
pointed whose duties are to provide 
papers or other suitable entertainment 
for each meeting. It was voted that 
the registrar be empowered to provide 
application cards, which each applicant 
should sign, and which should also be 
signed by a member as voucher before 
application papers were furnished. 

The December meeting was held at 
the New Haven House. After several 
minor points of business were attended 
to, Mrs. De Bussy and Mrs. Champion 
were chosen delegates to a state con- 
ference in Meriden, and Mrs. Sperry and 
Mrs. Kinney to the Continental Con- 
gress at Washington. Then we listened 
to a very interesting paper by Mrs. 
Luzon B. Morris, on Benedict Arnold. 

Mrs. Tyler in behalf of the Chapter 
presented Mrs. Newcomb with a jeweled 
badge of the society as a token of appre- 
ciation of her interest and service as 
registrar. An hour of social talk fol- 
lowed. Tea was served. 

The third meeting was held February 
13th, at the house of Mrs. Sperry. The 
death of our nominal regent, Miss 
Gerry, was formally announced. Owing 
to her advanced age (ninety-two) she 
had never been able to attend the 

Mrs. Tyler was unanimously appointed 
regent and Mrs. Morris vice-regent. 
Owing to the resignation of Mrs. 
Beecher, Mrs. Miller was chosen record- 
ing secretary. The gift to the Chapter 
of several articles belonging to the 
Gerry estate was reported. Included 
among these was a steel engraving of 
Elbridge Gerry, a portrait of his eldest 
daughter, and a soup tureen used in his 
early housekeeping days. 

The report of the state conference 
was given, followed by an able and inter- 
esting paper on Revolutionary Music by 

Mrs. Newcomb, which was illustrated 
by recitations by Mrs. Bradley, and the 
singing of songs by a chorus of six 

On March 23d an extra meeting was 
held at Mrs. Tyler's house to listen to 
the report of the delegates to the Con- 
tinental Congress. A very compre- 
hensive resume of each day's doings 
was given by Mrs. Kinney. Miss Hitch- 
cock gave a sketch of the social side. 
Mrs. Tyler spoke of changes in the 
constitution and the efforts being made 
to build a Continental Hall. 

Our regular April meeting was held 
on the 19th, and the historic date was 
duly honored. A large collection of 
colonial and revolutionary relics belong- 
ing exclusively to the members of this 
Chapter was exhibited in the parlor of 
the Church of the Redeemer, and papers 
were read describing many of the 
articles. Miss Clark, our State Regent, 
and Mrs. Coffin, wife of our Governor, 
honored us with their presence. A 
gavel made from a baluster-rail in the 
house to which Mary Clap Wooster went 
as a bride one hundred and fifty years 
ago was used for the first time. It was 
presented to the Chapter by Mr. 
Horace Day. Tea was afterward served 
by ladies dressed in continental style. 

At the urgent request of the Chapter 
Mrs. Newcomb repeated her paper on 
Revolutionary Music in Warner Hall 
before a large invited audience. 

The state convention was held June 
6th at New London, and twenty of our 
Chapter attended it. 

On June 14th, Flag Day, a meeting 
was held at Connecticut cottage, Wood- 
mont, by invitation of Mr. J. D. Dewell. 
The literary exercises began with a very 
able paper by Mrs. Champion on the 
" History of Our Flag from the Settle- 
ment of the Country to 185Q." 

It was clearly illustrated by copies of 
the various flags used previous to the 
adoption of the United States flag in 
1777, and the changes made afterwards 
were also shown. The next paper " Our 
Flag from 1850 to the Present Day," by 
Mrs. Jenkins, was followed by the 
" Army and Navy Flags and the Signal 
Corps," by Mrs. Galpin. 

April 22d we were invited to the ded- 
icatory exercises of the new armory of 
the Second Company Governor's Foot 
Guards. This company has shown us 
the greatest kindness possible in giving 
us the use of their handsome parlor for 
our meetings. 



July 5th we had the pleasure of wit- 
nessing the exercises held by the Sons 
of the American Revolution at Beacon 
Hill, where a tablet was unveiled in 
honor of those who fought one hundred 
and sixteen years ago at this spot. 

At the annual meeting of October 8, 
1895, the officers who had served the 
previous year were unanimously re- 
elected. The regent and several mem- 
bers attended Miss Clark's funeral at 

A special meeting was held November 
4th to elect delegates to a state conven- 
tion to be held for the election of a new 
State Regent. 

A regular meeting was held December 
16th, the anniversary of the Boston tea- 
party. Mrs. Jenkins read a note from 
Miss Clark's family acknowledging the 
receipt of the resolutions of sympathy 
sent by the Chapter. Mrs. Champion 
read the report of the state convention 
at which one of our members, Mrs. 
Kinney, was unanimously elected State 
Regent. Mrs. Holt was elected libra- 
rian. It was decided after careful con- 
sideration that the Chapter should pub- 
lish Mrs. Champion's paper " Our Flag" 
in book form. 

Miss Hitchcock read an excellent 
paper upon Miss Clark, showing some- 
thing of our loss and appreciation of 
her. Mrs. Tyler introduced the new 
State Regent, Mrs. Kinney, who gave a 
delightful resume of the D. A. R. and 
Connecticut days at the Atlanta Expo- 
sition. Miss McAlister followed with a 
full account of the Boston Tea Party. 

The next meeting was held February 
nth. "Our Flag" was on sale. The 
programme for the afternoon began 
with a recitation by Miss Grace Salis- 
bury of the " Ballad of the Liberty 
Tree " and " The Battle of the Keys." 
Short papers on family traditions were 
read by Mrs. Garfield, Mrs. Bradley, 
Miss Darrow for Mrs. Curtis, Mrs. 
Perkins, Mrs. Durham for Miss Stowe, 
Miss Merwin for Miss Hughes, Mrs. 
Herbert Barnes, Mrs. C. Deming, Miss 
Day, Miss Morse, Mrs. Street, Mrs. 
Crane. Singing was interspersed. 

There are one hundred and thirty-one 
members of this Chapter. The meet- 
ings have a high average attendance, 
and we feel that the object of the 
association is carried out. 

H. S. Miller, [ <-, , 
E. F. Jenkins, \ * ' 


Ruth Wyllys Chapter, D. A. R., of 
Hartford, is the largest in the state, and 
has a membership of one hundred and 
sixty-five. Eight of our members have 
resigned during the past year to join 
other Chapters ; three joined the Abi- 
gail Wolcott Ellsworth Chapter of Wind- 
sor, one becoming its registrar, and two 
members of the local board. Mrs. A. 
Willard Case is regent of the Oxford 
Parish Chapter in South Manchester. 

One of our members is a descendant 
of Jeremiah Wadsworth, the friend of 
Washington, who did so much to aid 
the cause of independence by his finan- 
cial wisdom and careful management of 
the supplies of the troops. The ances- 
tor of another member was Judge Ad- 
vocate on General Washington's staff, 
Col. William Tudor of Boston. We 
have one daughter of a Revolutionary 
soldier, Miss Tirzah M. Parsons, who 
is one of our most interested and patri- 
otic members. 

At our annual meeting in October, our 
regent, Mrs. Holcomb, presented the 
Chapter with a beautiful gavel made 
from the Charter Oak, handsomely 
mounted and engraved. 

The trend of the society has thus far 
been in a literary direction, and some 
fine papers have been prepared by mem- 
bers of the society and others. 

Miss Talcott told us all about Ruth 
Wyllys, our "patron saint." Mrs. John 
H. Brocklesby wrote a very able and 
admirable paper on the " Boston Tea 
Party." Miss Julia Burbank, one enti- 
tled " Washington and Rochambeau." 
Miss Mary L. Bartlett, one on the 
" American Colonies and the Idea of 
Independence." Mrs. Charles F. John- 
son wrote of the " Wadsworth Family 
from 17 19 to T790." Dr. G. L. Walker 
read a very interesting paper before the 
society, entitled " Old Hartford Burying 
Ground," and the Rev. Frank S. Child 
of Fairfield presented a paper entitled 
" The Colonial Parson," which was fol- 
lowed with one by Mrs. A. H. Pitkin, 
entitled the " Revolutionary Parson." 

As yet, nothing has been done in the 
way of commemorative work, and we are 
anticipating the time when we can show 
some such work in memory of our patri- 
otic ancestors. 

Mrs. Albert Hastings Pitkin, 

Recordi?isr Secretary. 




A meeting preliminary to the third 
annual meeting was held at the Conn. 
Historical Room, October 17th, to hear 
reports of committees respecting 
changes in the constitution. 

The question at issue related to the 
system of succession in office. These 
were so divided that half should go out 
each year. 

The recommendations were accepted 
after careful consideration, and the mat- 
ter was left for formal acceptance at the 
annual meeting. 

The third annual meeting of the D. 
A. R M Ruth Wyllys Chapter, was largely 
attended October 31st. 

The society accepted the recommend- 
ations of the preliminary meeting. The 
new method made a few changes in the 
board of officers. Mrs. Holcombe con- 
tinues to be regent to the general satis- 
faction of the Chapter. 

After business was dispatched Hon. 
Jonathan Trumbull of Norwich ad- 
dressed the company. His subject was 
" The Defamation of Revolutionary 
Patriots." He had small sympathy with 
tories, or with those who would qualify 
their condemnation in that it had a 
reactionary effect upon the reputation of 
the patriots. 

His paper was apparently an answer 
to one presented during the past year 
to the Conn. Historical Society, which 
defended the tories from many asper- 
sions cast upon them, and which sug- 
gested some needless severity and even 
wrong-doing on the part of the patriot 
party. These latter statements he 
indignantly repelled. 

The sixteenth general meeting of the 
Ruth Wyllys Chapter was held at the 
usual place Dec. 30, 1895. 

After routine business, attention of 
the meeting was called to Rev. F. S. 
Child of Fairfield, who spoke upon the 
"Colonial Parson of New England." 
This was very interesting, and was 
typical of the work which has followed 
the present interest in historical study. 

The seventeenth general meeting was 
held at the Historical Room, Feb. 10th. 

Delegates to the congress of D. A. R. 
at Washington, Feb. 18, 19, 20, were 
elected, and later Mrs. A. H. Pitkin read 
a paper on "The Churches in New 
England in the Revolutionary Period." 
It had a local flavor, describing religious 

societies in Hartford and the towns in 
its immediate vicinity in all directions. 
Some long pastorates were mentioned, 
and the power of the church through its 
minister was delineated in an interesting 

Julia Brattle Burbank, 

Cor. Secy. 


The Anna Warner Bailey Chapter, 
D. A. R., of Groton and Stonington, has 
added seven honorary members during 
the past year, who are daughters of rev- 
olutionary soldiers ; each of these hon- 
orary members receiving a souvenir 
spoon from the National Society. 

Our Chapter has distributed one hun- 
dred petitions throughout Connecticut, 
with which we have memorialized Con- 
gress for the purchase of part of Groton 
Heights not enclosed within the boun- 
daries of Fort Griswold. Our regent, 
Mrs. Cuthbert H. Slocomb, consummated 
the purchase of the most of it on Memo- 
rial Day, 1894, by forming a patriotic 
syndicate for the prevention of further 
desecration of this ground, until the 
United States should be authorized to 
redeem the land. 

We have many valuable revolutionary 
relics, and some very interesting docu- 
ments. We are custodians of the Groton 
Monument House, keeping it open from 
May 15th to November 15th. Last sum- 
mer our visitors' book received 4,096 
names, fully one-third more going away 
without registering. Here we have 
started the sale of historical and com- 
memorative china. 

An excellent portrait of Mother Bai- 
ley was prepared for the Atlanta Exhibi- 

In May, 1895, our Chapter undertook 
the forming of societies of "The Chil- 
dren of the American Revolution." Our 
regent nominated a committee of six 
ladies, with Cora Vincent Avery, chair- 
man, and before the first of September, 
six flourishing societies had been started. 

Finding our state, though rich in 
flags, was without a legalized emblem, 
we memorialized the state legislature, 
and received the assurance that a state 
flag should be adopted, and that the 
Anna Warner Bailey Chapter should 
have the honor of presenting the first 
legalized banner to the state. 

Cora Vincent Avery, Secretary. 




On February the 14th the Chapter 
met to celebrate the ninety-first birth- 
day of its oldest " true daughter," Mrs. 
Mary Todd Hall, and to present her 
with the beautiful spoon which the 
National Society gives to every daugh- 
ter of a revolutionary soldier. 

Mrs. Hall is bright and active both 
mentally and physically. Receiving 
with her was Mrs. Betsy Parker Geralds, 
another "true daughter," who will be 
eighty-nine years old the first day of 

The exercises of the afternoon were 
opened by the regent, Mrs. Davis, who 
presented the spoon to Mrs. Hall. The 
response of the latter was an original 
poem written by her daughter and 
recited by her granddaughter. This 
referred to the spinning-wheel and flag 
represented on the spoon and to the 
linen which had been spun and woven 
by Mrs. Hall. After the poem an 
appropriate song called "The Old 
Church " was sung. 

As peculiarly fitting on that day, an 
outline of the origin of St. Valentine's 
Day was read, and this was followed by 
an old love letter dated 1807, which 
was very bright and pleasing. 

The carved mahogany dining-table 
and set of dishes used by Mrs. Hall 
when she went to housekeeping were 
shown, as well as piles of linen spun 
and woven by her. Some pieces of 
exquisite needlework, too, and most 
wonderful of all, a bedspread embroid- 
ered at the age of eighty-six ! While 
refreshments were served an opportu- 
nity was given for social chat and of 
meeting the "true daughters" of whom 
we may be justly proud. 

Two weeks later an informal talk was 
made before this Chapter and its friends 
on " The State and Development of 
Music in Colonial and Revolutionary 
Times," by Baroness Anna von Rydings- 
vard, State Regent of Massachusetts, 
and former regent of the " Boston Tea- 
party Chapter." The Baroness was 
formerly Miss Anna M. Davis, descend- 
ant of Captain William Davis, one of the 
earliest settlers of Boston. 

The lecture was very instructive, as 
well as interesting. Madame von 
Rydingsvard regretted that we had no 
distinctly national music. She described 
briefly the state of feeling in England 

and other parts of Europe, particularly 
Spain, regarding music at the time the 
Pilgrims came to this country, telling 
how it had well-nigh been driven from 
the churches. The animosity was such 
that finally the music of the early set- 
tlers dwindled down to five tunes, and 
as an example of these " Windsor" was 
sung by a quartette. 

Attempts were made by a few en- 
lightened souls to improve upon this old 
style, but they apologized for their 
temerity in introducing their composi- 
tions. Several examples of these were 
sung and were very dirge-like. 

The music written by Dr. Thomas 
Symmes, Wm. Billings, and others, was 
then briefly outlined with the effect 
these writers had upon the period. 
Many psalms were paraphrased by Bil- 
lings and sung as martial music during 
the Revolutionary War. He also intro- 
duced pitch-pipe and musical exhibi- 
tions. Connecticut was mentioned as 
having a number of musical writers. 
The clergy did more towards improving 
and keeping alive music for us than any 
one else, and endeavored strenuously to 
bring about a better state of church 

To illustrate Revolutionary War 
music two boys played "Yankee 
Doodle " on fife and drum, and as a 
contrast that favorite of the late war 
" Marching Thro' Georgia." 

Madame von Rydingsvard had a 
charming voice and sang very delight- 
fully several selections illustrating dif- 
ferent parts of her talk. At its close, a 
member of the Chapter recited " The 
Girls of '76," in a most pleasing way and 
then the audience sang "America." 

Refreshments were served and an 
informal reception held, giving all pres- 
ent an opportunity to meet the Baroness 
and officers of Ruth Hart Chapter. 
Edith Love Stockder, 



The Milicent Porter Chapter, D. A. 
R., of Waterbury, met at the home of 
the Misses Spencer, on the anniversary 
of the Boston tea party. The event 
was commemorated by a paper by Miss 
Katherine Spencer. Dainty refresh- 
ments were served, and " tea " was very 
properly excluded upon this occasion. 
The house was decorated in Colonial 
style, and olden time costumes worn. 


The Chapter was fortunate in having 
with them the Rev. F. S. Child of Fair- 
field, who gave an interesting and 
instructive account of the " Colonial 

The Chapter has now seventy-six 
members, five of which, including three 
delegates, attended the February Con- 
gress at Washington, D. C. This Chap- 
ter has a living daughter. 

Emily G. Smith, Registrar. 


The February meeting of the Chapter 
convened at the home of Miss Alice 
Stanley on Friday afternoon, the 7th. 

An interesting paper was read by 
Mrs. John B. Talcott on " Farmington 
during the Revolution." The events 
of the month were given by Mrs. E. H. 

A short article was read by Mrs. F. 
H. Allis, entitled " A Revolutionary 
Traveling Library." 

Mrs. Charles J. Parker read to us a 
poem taken from the American Monthly, 
called "The D. A. R. of To-day." 

Thirty ladies were present at the 
meeting of the Esther Stanley Chapter, 
on March 6th. at the home of Mrs. A. 
H. Stanley. A communication was read 
from the librarian general regarding 
resolutions passed at Continental Con- 
gress. Mrs. Charles Parsons gave the 
events of the month. A most delight- 
fully written paper by Mrs. J. A. Pickett 
was heartily enjoyed by all present. A 
pleasant social hour passed, and the 
meeting adjourned to meet the second 
Friday in April. 

Mrs. C. E. Wetmore, Secy. 


The Anne Wood Elderkin Chapter, 
D. A. R., of Willimantic, recently gave a 
very successful Colonial Loan exhibi- 
tion. A remarkable display of interest- 
ing relics were shown. Among them 
was a watch loaned by Mr. H. R. Lin- 
coln, owned by his great-great-grand- 
father, Judge Jesse Root, who was born 
in Coventry, 1736, and died in 1822. 
Judge Root was lieutenant-colonel in 
the continental army, a member of the 
continental congress, and chief justice 
of Connecticut. 

The oldest document in the exhibit 
was a deed, loaned by Mrs. A. G. Turner, 
which was given Josiah Dewey by an 
American Indian, two hundred and 
seventy-two years ago. Mrs. J. W. Hill- 
house showed a volume of "The Spec- 
tator," published in 17 13, and a wash- 
bowl and pitcher owned by Lorenzo 
Dow, the famous preacher, who was 
born in Coventry, October 16, 1777. 

The six members of this Chapter, who 
are all granddaughters of revolutionary 
patriots, gave a reception to the Chapter 
late in December in honor of Mrs. A. 
Loring Avery, the daughter of a Revo- 
lutionary patriot. The regent, in behalf 
of the National Society, presented a beau- 
tiful souvenir spoon to Mrs. Avery. 
The ladies were dressed in colonial 
style, and many antique jewels and laces 
were worn. 


The Katherine Gaylord Chapter, D. 
A. R., of Bristol, held their annual 
reception on the evening of January 
31st. The parlors of the Methodist 
Church had been hospitably offered for 
the occasion, and the beautiful rooms 
were decorated with palms and the 
national and society colors. About 
three hundred invitations had been 
issued and the scene was a brilliant one. 

The special interest of the occasion 
was the presence of Mrs. S. T. Kinney, 
State Regent of Connecticut, and Mrs. 

0. V. Coffin of Middletown, who assisted 
the regent in receiving the guests. 

Short literary exercises followed, 
which consisted of a welcome from Rev. 
Mr. Buck, pastor of the church; a 
graceful address by the State Regent ; 
a sketch of the life of Patrick Henry by 
one of his direct descendants, Miss Alice 
Caldwell, and a paper upOn " The Old 
Bristol Green," by the Chapter historian, 
Miss Root. 

. The Chapter now consists of eighty- 
nine members, and therefore was enti- 
tled to three delegates to the Conti- 
nental Congress held in Washington, 
February 18th to 22d. Mrs. A. J. Muzzy, 
regent, Miss M. J. Atwood and Mrs. C„ 

1. Allen of Terryville represented the 
Chapter, and all gave interesting ac- 
counts of the Congress at the regular 
February meeting. 

Clara Lee Bowman, Secretary. 



Those having queries they desire to have answered are advised to send them to us; it may be the 
means of settling- many doubtful and unknown points. Every querist is requested to enclose with que- 
ries ten cents in postage for replies and enquiries. All queries and notes for this department should be 
sent to Wm. A. Eardeley Thomas, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 

" He who is not proud of his ancestors, either shows that he has no ancestors to be 
proud op, or else that he is a degenerate son" — Grosvenor. 


i. Merwin. — Deborah Merwin was the 
dau. of Samuel and Sarah (Woodin) 
Merwin of Milford. 

2. Roberts. — Jonathan Roberts married 

Bridget, dau. of John and Elizabeth 
(Harris) Hunnewell. Elizabeth was 
dau. of Capt. Daniel and Mary 
(Weld) Harris of Middletown, Ct. 

3. Pierson. — Sarah was the 

wife of Serjt. Abraham Pierson. 


1. Fountain — Perry — Chase: Aaron 1 
Fountain, New London, Ct., 1680; 
m., 1st, about 1678, Mary Beebe, 
dau. of Samuel (John) and Agnes 
(Keeney) Beebe; m., 2d, about 1689, 
Susannah, dau. of Samuel (John) 
and Mary (Keeney) Beebe. Agnes 
and Mary (b. 1640) were daus. of 
William (b. 1601) and Agnes (b. 
1599) Keeney. Aaron 1 appears in 
Fairfield, Ct., about 1695, and had 
Aaron 2 bapt. there June 5, 1698, m., 

about 1720, Elizabeth . Was 

she the daughter of Rev. Pierre and 
Margaret (La Tour) Pieret (Peiret, 
Peyret, Perit, Perret), who was b. 
Dec. 22, 1700? Aaron 2 settled in 
Green's Farms, Ct., and had Han- 
nah 3 b. there Apr. 2, 1729; m. there 
1st, Jan. 1, 1749-50, Abel Sherwood; 
they had Molly 4 , b. 1759, m., 1783, 
Phineas Taylor, and thus became 
the grandmother of Phineas Taylor 
Barnum, the great showman. Han- 
nah 3 m., 2d, before Feb. 12, 1762, 
probably in New Fairfield, Ct., 
Elisha 4 (b. June 25, 1731, in Sand- 
wich, Cape Cod), son of Elisha 3 
(John 2 , Ezra 1 ) and Ann (Saunders) 
Perry; and had Ruhamah, b. New 
Fairfield, Ct., June 6, 1773, m., 
about 1802, Obadiah (b. about 177 1), 
son of Isaac (Isaac) Chase, and had 
Betsey Goldsmith, b. Oct. — , 1805, 
m., June 9, 1830, Joseph, son of 
John Maltby, had Harriet Eliza- 
beth, b. May 23, 1832. j. w. e. 

1. Saunders. — Richard Saunders mar., 

Jan. 6, 1695, in Sandwich, Sarah 
Freeman. What was their issue and 
her parentage? Robert Saunders 
m., Apr. 6, 1701, in Jamestown, R. 
I., Elizabeth Howland. What was 
their issue? Henry Saunders m. 
Ann . Who were her par- 
ents ? They had Anna, b. Oct. 20, 
1 701, in Plymouth, Mass. Did she 
m., 1725, Elisha Perry? Estate of 
Henry Sanders of Sandwich, June 
2, 1685; left a widow, 2 sons, and 4 
daus. — Ply. Rec. What was his 
wife's name and the names of his 
children ? The above instrument 
did not give their names. 

2. Hall. — Gershom Hall (son of John) 

m. Bethia Bangs and had Bethia, m. 
Mr. Chess (Chase). Was this Wil- 
liam 2 Chase, son of William, or 
Jacob 3 Chase, son of William 2 ? 

J. W. E. 

i. Hamlin. — John Hamlin, b. Nov. 16, 
1736, d. Nov. 26, 1821, lived in 
Farmington, now Plainville, Ct., in 
what is called White Oak District. 
He m., 1st, Eleanor Orvis. Who were 
her ancestors and from whence did 
they come? M., 2d, Abby Phinney; 
m., 3d, Hannah Page. Who were the 
ancestors of John and from whence 
did they come? His children were 
Timothy, Oliver, Phineas, Lemuel, 
John, William, Luke, Huldah, Lucy, 
and Abigail by first wife; Adna and 
Julia by second wife. s. w. f. 

1. Richardson. — Martin Richardson of 
Coventry, b. June 13, 1773, mar. 
Lavinia Taylor; he d' Jan. 28, 1827; 
interred Grove St. Cemetery, New 
Haven. He had brothers Lathrop, 
Charles, Ezekiel, Mason, and prob- 
ably others. Amos, of Coventry, 
had Nathan, Samuel, Lemuel, Jona- 
than, Capt. Amos, Humphrey, Zeb- 
ulon, Louis, and Justin. Which 
of these was Martin's father and 
who were the parents of Lavinia 
Taylor? f. h. 

i 9 4 


i. Pier son. — Stephen and Thomas Pier- 
son, Sen., (who witnessed the will 
of Rev. Abraham, 1668, and was 
ultimately associated with him) 
were early in Derby. What was 
their relationship? Rev. Abraham 
Pierson came to America in 1639. 

L. B. p. 

1. Skinner. — Jonathan and Joanna Skin- 
ner united, in 1736, with the Cong 1 
Church in Bolton, Ct., and had 
Asahel m. Sarah (b. July 11, 1742), 
dau. of Benjamin Trumbull, Sen., 
son of Benoni; she was sister of 
Dea. Asaph, of Gilead, and Rev. 
Dr. Benjamin, historian and first 
cousin of " Bro. Jonathan " Trum- 
bull. Desired the ancestry, birth^ 
and m. of Jonathan and Joanna; 
names, birth, marriage, and death of 
their children; birth, marriage, and 
death of Sarah (Trumbull) Skinner. 

N. G. H. 

1. Colt. — John 1 Colt, b. in Colchester, 

Eng., came to Dorchester, set. 11; 
went to Hartford about 1638; may 
have m. a dau. of Joseph Fitch; 
went to Podunk and died in 1713; 
this is from Hinman; information 
is desired concerning the birth, m., 
and death of John 2 ; John 3 , b. 1658, 
d. 175 1 ; m. Mary, dau. of Thomas 
Lord of Lyme or Saybrook. Did the 
11 yr. old boy come with his father 
or alone, as the record would imply? 
I would leave his record blank and 
give his present record to his son 
John. Then it would be John 3 that 
went to Lyme and m. Mary Lord. 
I think Hinman or Savage says 
John 2 went to Lyme. In the 
Colonial Records Sept. 1, 1675, there 
is mention of a John Coalt being 
shot at by the Indians. Hist, of 
Windsor, p. 552, under date of Apr. 
1694, John Colt, Sen., signs a peti- 
tion. This would imply a John, Jr. 
May 12, 1709, p. 95, Colonial Rec- 
ords, John Colt was confirmed as 
Ensign of the train-band in Lyme 
and he was deputy from 1712 to 1729. 
He was appointed Lieut, in 17 17, and 
Capt. in 1723. Now was this John 2 
or John 3 ? 

2. Woodward. — Submit Woodward, b. 

about 1703, d. Apr. 1, 1788, probably 
in Haddam, Ct. She m., in 1726-7, 
John Marsh, of Braintree, a gr.-son 
of Alexander Marsh. Who were her 
father and mother ? w. h. c. 

1. Ely. — Daniel Ely, father of the 
famous Conn. Rev'y officer "Col. 
John Ely" had four wives. Who 
were they or any one of them ? 
His children are known. 

1. Green. — Esther or Hester Green, of 
Millington, Ct., b. Dec. 25, 1753, 
and m. William Abbott (his 2d wife), 
of Union, Ct.,Sept. 24, 1778. They 
moved to N. Y. state 1792; she d. 
Dec. 23, 1839, in Clinton, Oneida 
Co., N. Y. Who were her parents 
and ancestors ? w. e. a. , 

1. Pulling. — Boston records say Abra- 
ham Pulling m., 1703-5, Mary Ward. 
Who were his parents; from whence 
and where did he come ? Fairfield, 
Ct., records say Abraham Pulling, 
b. 1703, m. 1743, Abigail Beers. 
Who were his parents? The name 
is spelt Pullen and Pullin. 

H. p. 

1. Patten. — Mary Patten, of Conn., — 
who were her parents ? She was b. 
March or May, 1742, and m., 1st, 
Daniel Pratt, of Bridgewater, Mass. 
He was a soldier in the Revolution 
and died June, 1778, "in camp." 
In 1779, Mary Patten Pratt m. 
Capt. John Shaw, of Raynham, 
Mass. a. w. p. 

1. Lewis. — Who were the parents of the 

wife of N. Lewis, of Goshen, Ct. 
His dau. m. Abraham Parmelee, of 
Goshen. After his death she m., 
about 1778, Dr. Titus Hull. 

2. Farnham. — Wanted, the ancestry of 

Capt. John Farnham and Elizabeth 
Chapman, his wife. They had John, 
James, Charles, Russell, Elizabeth 
(m. 1st, D. Caulkins; m. 2d, John S. 
Peters, of Hartford), and Sarah. 

w. L. M. 

1. Edwards. — Richard Edwards (son of 

William the immigrant), m. Eliza- 
beth Tuthill, of New Haven, Ct. 
What were the names of their child- 
ren ? 

2. Grisivold. — Elias Griswold, of 

Wethersfield, Ct., b. June 4, 1775, 
m., Nov. 28, 1801, his cousin, Welthy 
(b. Apr. 5, 1775, Ashfield, Mass.), 
dau. of a Colonel Flowers. The 
names of the parents of Elias are. 
desired; also the first name of 
Colonel Flowers. Did he serve in 
the Revolution ? a. e. v. 



Bulklcy. — Dr. Charles Bulkley, eldest 
son of Rev. Gershom, b. 1663, set- 
tled, 1687, in New London. In the 
Conn. Colonial Records is found, 
"This court being informed of the 
ability, skill, and knowledge of Mr. 
Charles Bulkley, in Physic and Che- 
rugery, do grant him full and free 
liberty to practice physic." The 
name of his wife is desired. He 
died leaving one child, Hannah, b. 
1690, m., May 18, 1709, Richard 
Goodrich; settled first in Glaston- 
bury, afterward Middletown, Ct., 
probably " Upper Houses." She d. 
Sept. 23, 1720. g. p. d. 

Bulkley. — Who were the parents of 
Edward Bulkley of Revolutionary 
fame? He was of Wethersfield. 
When was he born and when did he 
die ? Was he the Edward who m. 
for his 2d wife Prudence, dau. of 
Elias and Prudence (Robbins) 
Williams ? Was Edward son of 
Charles or Jonathan ? Was Charles 
a Revolutionary soldier? 

Wilcox. — The dates of the birth and 
death of Josiah Wilcox, Jr., of Avon 
are desired. He was the father of 
Salome (d. 1807) who m. David (d. 
1 831) Worth of Berlin. Was Josiah, 
Jr., a Revolutionary soldier ? 

G. R. H. 

Blakesley. — Who was the first wife 
of John Blakesley of New Haven ? 
He was b. July 15, 1676; m., 1st, 

about 1697, ; m., 2d, Aug. 

6, 1724, Elizabeth, dau. of Nathaniel 
Potter; m., 3d, after 1736, Mrs. 
Susanna Hotchkiss. 

Culver. — Ephraim Culver, m., June 
27, 1802, Rhoda Gale of Bristol, Ct. 
Who were his parents? 

Jennings. — Sarah Jennings m., 1st, 
Apr. 3, 1704, Nathaniel Hitchcock 
of Wallingford, Ct.; m., 2d, July 12, 
1711, John Johnson. Who were her 

Spencer. — Joseph Spencer of East 
Haddam, Ct., bought land, 1753, in 
Farmington; lived there and in 
Bristol, Burlington, and Harwinton, 
Ct., from 1754 to 1819. Who were 
his parents and where did they 
move to from Harwinton ? j. s. 
White. — Daniel White (son of Daniel, 
of Nathaniel) m. Alice Cook. The 
names of their children are desired. 
Elisha Savage settled in Berlin, m. 
Thankful, dau. of Thomas and Su- 
sanna (White) Johnson. Whose 
daughter was Susanna? e. c. s. 

1. Clark. — Ann, dau. of Nathaniel and 

Mary (Vrenne) Clark of Saybrook, 
Ct., m., 1st, Daniel Clark of Killing- 
worth; he d. Nov. 25, 1778; m., 2d, 
June 25, t 781 , Stephen Atwater of 
Cheshire, and resided there, as is 
supposed. When did she die and 
what was her age ? Think she was 
b. not far from 1740. 

2. Clark. — Asahel, son of Christopher 
» and Penina (Nott) Clark of Say- 
brook, Ct., bapt. Apr. 14, 1776, m., 
it is thought, in Cheshire and had a 
family. He started with his family 
to go West, but on reaching N. Y. 
shipped as mate for the West Indies, 
where he died from yellow fever. 
His family, meanwhile, as is sup- 
posed, returned to Cheshire. Who 
was his wife, what were the names 
of the children, and what became of 
them? j. e. b. 

1. Churchill. — John Churchill, son of 

Josias the settler, b. 1649, is said to 
have m., May 13, 1674, Mary 
Toucey or Touzey. Wanted proof 
of this. 

2. Curtis. — Capt. Josias Curtis of Strat- 

ford, b. Aug. 30, 1662, m. Mary 

. Was her father Abraham 


3. Mason. — John Mason (not Capt. 

John) of Hartford, m. Hannah 

. Who were her parents ? 

Their dau. Lydia, bapt. Aug. 2, 
1696, m. John 3 Seymour of Hartford. 
Was Hannah's name Arnold ? 

4. Merrill. — Joseph Merrill, Sr., m., 1st, 

Mary . Who were her 

parents ? He moved from Hartford 
to New Hartford, and m., 2d, Abi- 
gail Stone; m., 3d, wid. Martha 
Chapins. Mary d. probably before 
1743; he d. Oct. 13, 1788. His dau. 
Clemence m. Noah Kellogg of West 
Hartford. What was the name and 
who were the parents of the wife of 
Noah Merrill of Hartford (of Isaac, 
of John the settler). He was first 
town clerk of New Hartford and 
was b. May 28, 1707; d. 1739. His 
dau. Mehitable, b. May 25, 1734, m. 
Wm. Seymour of New Hartford. 

5. Wells. — Who were the parents of 

Hannah Wells who m., Jan. 8, 1736, 
Joseph Hurlburt, Jr., of Wethers- 
field. Their dau., Abigail, m. Capt. 
Robert 4 Wells of "Ten Rod," New- 
ington. g. d. s. 




Contributed by Joseph Forsyth Swords, Hartford, Conn. 

John and Elinor Whitney, of Watertown, Mass., progenitors of the Whitney family of 


John Whitney was born in England 
about the year 1589, but the place of 
his birth and his parentage are yet 
unknown, and no connection has yet 
been traced between him and any other 
of the name who came to this country. 
Of his place of residence in England, it 
is only known that he and Ellen, Ellin, 
or Elinor, his wife, had three children, 
baptized 23 of May, 1619, 14 September, 
162 1, and 6 of January, 1623-24, in the 
parish of Isleworth on the bank of the 
Thames opposite Richmond, about nine 
miles west of London. 

Their history or dwelling place from 
the beginning of 1624 to their embarka- 
tion for New England, is not known. 
They embarked with their five sons on 
the ship " Elizabeth and Ann," in April, 
1635, at London, and in June, 1635, 
were inhabitants of Watertown, Mass., 
where she died nth May, 1659, called 
"54 years old," but was probably 59 or 
60 years old. He married 2d at Water- 
town, 29th September, 1659, with Judith 
Clement, who died before 3d of April, 
1673, at which date he made his will. 
He died at Watertown, and his death is 
thus registered in the church records : 

" Mr. Whetney, Widdower, deceased first of 
June, 1673, aged abought eighty-four years." 

This would prove that he was born 
about 1589, and that when he left Eng- 
land he was forty-five years old rather 
than thirty-five, as shown by the custom- 
house record of embarkation. 

Children of John and Elinor ( ) 

Whitney : 

i. Mary, baptized 23d May, 1619, at 
Isleworth, Middlesex, England. 
Died young, before April, 1635. 
ii. John, baptized at Isleworth, Middle- 
sex, 14th September, 1621, embarked 
with his parents in the ship " Eliza- 
beth and Ann" in April, 1635, and 
was called by the custom-house 
record eleven years old, but was at 
least three years older. (Whitney, 
pp. 6 and 7, says, " John Whitney, 
Jr., of Watertown.") He married, 
probably in 1642, Ruth Reynolds, 
daughter of Robert Reynolds, suc- 
cessively of Watertown, Wethers- 
field, and Boston. Admitted free- 
man May 26, 1647, was selectman 

from 1673 t0 J 679 inclusive. He 
died October 12, 1692. His will, 
informal and not proved, was written 
Feb. 27, 1685, subscribed in the 
year 1690, lodged for probate March, 
1693. March 1, 1692-3, the heirs 
agreed that the will should be the 
rule of division with some few alter- 
ations. This will, evidently writ- 
ten by Mr. Whitney himself, is very 
curious, and although not on record, 
it may be found in the files in the 
Middlesex Probate office. One of 
the last clauses is as follows : " If 
any of my sonnes or sone in laws 
or daughters be quarelsom by going 
to Law or troublesom to thr breth- 
ren I say they shall lose the share 
of what I have bequeathed them. 
I desir they should live in love to 
God and one toward another." 
His inventory, dated Oct. 26, 1692, 
contained 18 lots of land amounting 
to 210 acres. Mr. Whitney first 
settled (1643) and always resided 
on a three-acre lot on the east side 
of Lexington street, on land granted 
to E. How, and the next lot south 
of the residence of the Phillips 
family and is probably the same lot 
now occupied by his great-great- 
grandson, Bradshaw Whitney. The 
ground is somewhat elevated and 
there is little doubt that it is the 
Whitney Hill sometimes mentioned 
in the records, Dr. Bond thinking it 
very probable that his supposition, 
p. 1031, respecting this hill is cor- 
rect. His wife Ruth survived him, 
and administration was granted to 
her and her sons John and Benjamin. 
The land belonging to the estate 
was valued at ^"197 15. 

iii. Richard, bapt. 6th January, 1623- 
24, at Isleworth, Middlesex, Eng- 
land. Married 19th March, 1650-51, 
at Watertown, Mass., to Martha 

iv. Nathaniel, born about 1626 in 
England. Died probably young or 
without issue. 

v. Thomas, born about 1629 in England, 
died 20th September, 17 19, aged 
90. Married nth January, 1654- 
55, in Watertown, Mass., with Mary 
Kedall or Kettle. 



vi; Jonathan, born about 1634, in Eng- 
land, died in 1679 in Sherburne, 
Mass. Married 30th Oct., 1656, in 
Watertown, Mass., with Lydia Janes, 
daughter of Lewis and Anna (Stone) 

vii. Joshua, born at Watertown, Mass., 
July, 1635 (Bond, p. 964, probably 
old style) or probably 15th July, 
1635 (Whitney, p. 6, probably new 
style). He married with Lydia 

, of whom no records have 

been found. His second wife was 

Mary , who died at Groton, 

Mass., March 17th, 1671-72. He 
married 3d at Watertown, Mass., 
30th September, 1672, with Abigail 
Tarball, daughter of Thomas and 
Mary ( ) Tarball of Water- 
town. He settled early in Groton, 
where the births of three of his 
children were recorded, and on the 
breaking out of King Philip's War 
in 1675, returned to Watertown. 
His will, dated 17th April, 1713, 
and proved 6th October, 17 19, men- 
tions several children whose birth 
records have not been found, and it 
is difficult to decide with certainty 
their proper order. 

viii. Caleb, born July 12, 1640, at 
Watertown, Mass. Died probably 
at Watertown, young, " Buried 12th 
July, 1640," says Whitney. 

ix. Benjamin, born 6th June, 1643, at 

Watertown. Married Jane 

probably in York. Died in Sher- 
burne, Nov. 14, 1690. 
Children of John and Ruth (Reynolds) 

Whitney : 

i. John, born 17th September, 1643, at 
Watertown, Mass. Married with 
Elizabeth Harris, daughter of Rob- 
ert Harris and Elizabeth Boughey. 
She died 4th March, 1726-27, aged 


ii. Ruth, born 15th April, 1645, at Water- 
town, Mass. Married at Watertown 
with John Shattuck, who was born 
nth February, 1646-47, and drowned 
14th September, 1675, at Parsina 
Ferry, Mass. He was the son of 
William and Susanna Shattuck, of 
Watertown. His widow 2 married 
6th March, 1676, Enoch Lawrence, 
son of John and Elizabeth Lawrence, 
born March 5, 1648-49. 

iii. Nathaniel, born at Watertown, 
Mass., 1st February, 1646-47. Mar- 
ried there 12th March, 1673-74, 

with Sarah Hagar, daughter of Wil- 
liam and Mary (Bemis) Hagar, of 
Watertown, where she was born 3d 
September, 165 1. They settled in 
Weston, Mass., where she died 7th 
May, 1746, in her 95th year. He 
died in Weston, 7th January, 1732- 
7,7,, aged about 86 years. 

iv. Samuel, born 28th July, 1648, at 
Watertown, Mass. Married 16th 
February, 1683-4, at Watertown, 
with Mary Bemis, daughter of Joseph 
and Sarah ( ) Bemis of Water- 
town, where she was born 10th Sep- 
tember, 1644. 

v. Mary, born 29th April, 1650, at Water- 
town, Mass. Died unmarried; was 
living in 1693. 

vi. Joseph, born 15th January, 165 1-2, 
" at Watertown. Died 4th November, 
1702, at Watertown. Married 24th 
January, 1674-5 at Watertown, with 
Martha Beach, daughter of Richard 
and Martha ( ) Beach of Water- 
town, born 10th March, 1649-50, at 

vii. Sarah, born 17th March, 1653-4, at 
Watertown, Mass., died 8th June, 
1720, at Watertown, Mass., married 
18th October, 1681, at Watertown, 
Mass., with Daniel Harrington, son 
of Robert and Susanna Harrington, 
of Watertown, born there 1st No- 
vember, 1657, and died 19th April, 
1728. He married again after her 

viii. Elizabeth, born 9th June, 1656, at 
Watertown, Mass., died before 17 12, 
married 19th December, 1678, at 
Watertown, with Daniel Warren, 
son of Daniel and Mary (Barron) 
Warren, of Watertown. He was 
born 6th October, 1653. 

ix. Hannah, record of birth not found. 

x. Benjamin, born at Watertown, 28th 
June, 1660, married there 30th 
March, 1687, with Abigail Hagar, 
daughter of William and Mary 
(Bemis) Hagar of Watertown, where 
she was probably born about 1663. 
Said to have had second wife, 
Children of Nathaniel and Sarah 

(Hagar) Whitney : 

i. Nathaniel, born 5th March, 1674-5, 
at Watertown, Mass., died 23d Sep- 
tember, 1730, at Weston, Mass., 
married there 7th November, 1695, 
with Mary Robinson, who died at 
Weston, 31st December, 1740. 


ii. Sarah, born 12th February, .1678-9, 
at Watertown, married nth April, 
1699, with Charles Chadwick, Jr., 

son of Charles and Sarah ( ) 

Chadwick of Watertown, where he 
was born 19th November, 1674. 

iii. William, born at Watertown, Mass., 
6th May, 1683, settled at Weston, 
Mass., died 24th January, 1720-1, 
married 17th May, 1706, with 
Martha Pierce, daughter of Joseph 
and Martha Pierce of Watertown, 
Mass., where she was born 24th 
December, 1681. 

iv. Samuel, bapt. 17th July, 1687, at 
Watertown, Mass., was called at 
Stratford in the administration of 
his father's estate, 1733. 

v. Hannah, bapt. March, 1688-89, at 
Watertown, Mass., married a Bil- 

vi. Elizabeth, born 15th December, 
1692, at Watertown. 

vii. Grace, born about 1700, at Water- 
town, Mass., where she was bapt. 
3d December, 17 10, aged 10 years. 
Died 23d March, 1719-20, at Water- 
town, unmarried. 

viii. Mercy, birth not found, married a 

Children of William and Martha 

(Pierce) Whitney : 

i. William, born nth January, 1706-7, 
at Watertown, Mass., married 10th 
September, 1735, at Sudbury, Mass., 
with Hannah Harrington, daughter 
of George and Hephzibah (Fiske) 
Harrington of Watertown, where 
she was born 31st July, 1716. He 
second married 30th March, 1742, 
with Mary Chadwick, widow 7 of 
Jacob Pierce, and daughter of 

Joseph and Hannah (Bartow) Chad- 
wick of Watertown, where she was 
born 16th October, 17 13, and died 
23d February, 1756. 

ii. Judith, born 15th November, 1708, at 
Watertown, Mass. 

iii. Amity, born 6th October, 17 12, at 
Watertown, Mass., married 14th 
October, 1730, with Lebbeus Graves 
of Sudbury, Mass., removed to 
South Killingly, Windham county, 
Conn. " Received in full com- 
munion" at First church of Kil- 
lingly, Conn., by Rev. John Fisk, 
pastor, July 6, 1735. She died 
about March, 1760. He died about 
April, 1758. He was descendant in 
the fourth generation from Rear 
Admiral Thomas Graves of Rat- 
cliffe, England, and Charlestown, 
Mass., who was born 6th July, 1605, 
came to the New England colonies 
about 1637, and died at Charles- 
town, July 31, 1653. 

iv. Martha, born 4th April, 17 16, at 
Watertown, Mass., marriage with 
Timothy Mossman of Sudbury, 
Mass., published 6th January, 1734. 

v. Samuel, born 23d May, 17 19, at 
Watertown, Mass., married with 
Abigail Fletcher, probably 20th 
October, 1741. 

John and Elinor Whitney i. 

John and Ruth (Reynolds) Whitney ii. 

Nathaniel and Sarah (Hagar) Whit- 
ney iii. 

William and Martha (Pierce) Whit- 
ney iv. 

. Amity* (Whitney) Graves v. Mother 
of Amity (Graves) Swords. 

* Probably Amata ( " Beloved "). 


" Praise to whom praise is due, justice to every one." 

"Dumb in June" is a volume of verse by 
Richard Burton. The book proclaims Mr. Burton 
to be a lover of Nature and a careful student of 
human nature. To fully enjoy " Dumb in June," 
one should be a poet himself, and he who has the 
greater knowledge of poetry will find the more 
harmony in Mr. Burton's verse. For this reason, 
perhaps, the average reader will not appreciate the 
poem which gives name to the volume and from 
which we quote the first verse. 

Ah, the thought hurts at my heart, 
Ah, the thought is death to singing, 
Dumb in June ! to lack the art, 
The divine deep impulse bringing 
Power and passion in their train ; 
To perceive the subtle wane 
Of the waters erstwhile springing 
Buoyant, brimful on the shore ; 
Ebb-tide now forevermore ! 
Song-tide o'er, no mounting moon 
With her white lures to the sea 
Surging once from depths of me, 
Till the earth and sky seemed ringing 
With the wild waves' melody, 
With their large, unfettered tune ; 
Dumb in June ! 

Mr. Burton's book contains about fifty poems, 
showing great range of thought. We give one 
verse of " A Song of Life," which poem has about 
it much of the Bliss Carman spirit. 

A song, boys, a song ! 

Death is here soon, 

Death will cheer soon, 

Death is nigh, and Love is strong ; 

So, boys, a song ! 

This book is now in its third edition, in which 
the typographical errors of former editions are 

The poems are published by Copeland & Day, 
Boston, in their Oaten Stop series. Price 75 cents. 

" Our Flag" is an address delivered before the 
Mary Clap Wooster Chapter, D. A. R., of New 
Haven, published in pamphlet form by that organi- 
zation. The pamphlet treats of the history and 
changes of the flag from 162© to 1896, and con- 
tains ten colored illustrations. An appendix, 
which has three illustrations, contains much useful 
information on the English flag and its alteration 
in 1 80 1. This instructive work is for sale by Belk- 
nap & Warfield, Hartford. Paper, 50 cents ; 
cloth, 75 cents. 

"Skipped Stitches" is a neat little volume of 
verse, written by Anna J. Granniss of Plainville. 
The poems are of a quality well calculated to 
please, and have that happy faculty of holding the 
reader's attention. Miss Granniss depicts the 
every day scenes of life in this work-a-day world in 
a manner appealing to the sympathetic feelings 
toward home and work common to all. "The 
Old Red Cradle," which has been sung with such 
tender pathos in Denman Thompson's "Old 
Homestead," was written by Miss Granniss and is 
included in the contents of " Skipped Stitches." 
Darling & Co., of Keene, N. H., are the publish- 
ers of the poems, and the press work is of the very 
highest quality. 

Richard Burton was evidently in a happy humor 
when he penned his lecture on " Dogs and Dog 
Literature." At any rate, the composition bristles 
with such a humor. Mr. Burton delivered the 
lecture to the students of Trinity College, Hart- 
ford, last year, and now The Connecticut Humane 
Society of Hartford offers it to the public in 
pamphlet form. Price 25 cents. 

" The Captured Cunarder," by Wm. H. Ride- 
ing, is a clever little story telling in a novel and 
interesting way of the daring capture of a great 
ocean steamship and of the damage done before 
her recapture. The audacity of the plot is equaled 
by the style of telling about it, giving to the whole 
transaction a plausible and not at all improbable 
color. It forcibly illustrates the truth of the oppo- 
site of "Forewarned is forearmed." Price 75 
cents. Copeland & Day, Boston. 

The pictures of Colonial and Revolutionary 
times drawn by the Rev. F. S. Child in his " An 
Old New England Town " are exceedingly inter- 
esting. The book shows much careful research 
and the author has a happy style in his narration 
of events. It impresses us with the important 
part played by Fairfield in the Revolution and is 
dedicated to the Eunice Dennie Burr Chapter, 
D. A. R., of that town. A special feature is the 
many splendid illustrations in the book from photo- 
gravure plates admirably executed. The book is 
just what it purports to be, sketches of life, 
scenery, character, — but they are so admirably 
drawn, and contain so much reliable historical ma- 
terial that it makes it a valuable book to have. 
Price in cloth $2.00 ; edition de luxe, limited to 
300 copies, $5 00. Charles Scribner's Sons, 

" The Record of My Ancestry," is a book in 
album form which every person who takes pride in 
his ancestors ought to have. We know of no other 
book which leaves blanks for photographs. There 
certainly is "no branch of ancestral study more 
fascinating." It is adapted in every respect to its 
purpose. The book can be had of Rev. Frederic 
W. Bailey, New Haven, Conn. 

"Ancestral Charts," is a book for recording an- 
cestry in a compact form. Space is provided for 
coat armor. The price of the book ($1.50) is 
within the reach of all those who can afford to 
hunt up their ancestry. Some work of its kind 
ought to be in the possession of every genealogist 
who aims at facts. The work is for sale by Eben 
Putnam, Salem, Mass. 

By far the finest work of its kind that we have 
ever seen is " Old Houses of the Antient Town of 
Norwich," by Mary E. Perkins, a book of over 
600 pages, containing over one hundred fine half- 
tone illustrations and thirty-four portraits repro- 
duced by gravure plates from paintings and minia- 
tures. It is printed throughout on heavy coated 


book paper and is a splendid specimen of typo- 
graphical work. It is bound in cloth with title 
printed in antique letters and border, forming an 
artistic covering quite in harmony with the spirit 
of the work. As its name implies, it is devoted 
to the history of some of the historic homes of 
Norwich, being one of a projected series of vol- 
umes, as the author explains in the preface, '* which 
will give an account of the old houses of Norwich, 
their owners and occupants from the settlement of 
the town to the year 1800. This first volume in- 
cludes all the buildings on the main roads, from 
the corner of Mill Lane (or Lafayette St.) to the 
Bean Hill road, at the west end of the Meeting- 
house Green." 

The book is enlivened by numerous reminisences 
and anecdotes, making it most entertaining reading, 
and containing, as it does, such a vast amount of 
valuable historical material, we feel that too much 
cannot be said in praise of it. There are eighty- 
eight genealogical records which must have entailed 
almost limitless labor and expense. Not the least 
interesting feature is the frontispiece, a colored 
map of Norwich in 1830 entitled "A Boyish 
Remembrance," drawn by Donald G. Mitchell. 
Other maps of value in the book is one of Norwich 
in 1705 giving streets, land divisions, houses, and 
owners' names, and one of 1795. 

But whatever might be said, the book needs to 
be seen to be appreciated, and when the wealth of 
its illustrations and the immense amount of work 
and expense required in its preparation are taken 
into consideration, we think all will agree that it is 
worth every cent of its price, and every one inter- 
ested in Norwich would be glad to procure one. 

Copies may be procured of Noyes & Davis, Nor- 
wich, Conn.; Cranston & Co., Norwich, Conn.; 
and of Miss Mary L. Perkins, care Henry R. 
Bond, Williams Park, New London, Conn. Price 

" Uncle Zenos, or Before and After the War," 
is a serio comedy in six acts, written by A. L. 
Thayer of Collinsville. The cast consists of 
twelve male and three female characters, with a 
chorus of male and female voices, and is well 
adapted to amateur work. The play has at times 
the true pathos, and yet a delightful humor sparkles 
throughout it. The scene of the play is an ideal 
farmer's home, of which Uncle Zenos, a good- 
hearted old farmer, is the head, and through many 
vicissitudes and romantic adventures the plot inge- 
niously takes the characters Sample copy of the 
play will be mailed by the author on receipt of 20 

In the current literature of this year it is a sig- 
nificant fact that there is so much attention paid to 
historical detail regarding the lives of some emi- 
nent Americans. The Ladies' Home Journal for 
March and April have articles on Washington. 
In the April number are the portraits of George 
and Martha Washington, repn duced from the 
Sharpless pastels in the Athenaeum here at Hart- 
ford. Lippincott 's for April has an article on 
" The Washingtons " and among the illustrations 
are reproductions of pastels of General and Mrs. 
Washington by Sharpless, this pair being owned 
by General Curtis Lee of Lexington, Va. All of 
these articles are of interest and are written to get 
at true facts, that we may see the character of 
Washington without bias. The Peterson Maga- 
zine has taken up Lincoln and brings out some 
entertaining facts concerning him, with many new 
pictures. It is a revelation surprising to many 
people that Lincoln ever had so many pictures 
taken as have been brought out by the magazines 
recently, notably McClure's. Peterson's also has 
taken up Robert E. Lee, and in a series of Ameri- 
can Naval Heroes, John Paul Jones, an attractive 
character we all like to know more about, and to 
whom too little attention has been paid. 

In " What a Great City Might Be " in the New 
England Magazine for March there is the strong, 
earnest plea for the hastening of the ideal municipal 
government shown to be entirely possible by its 
existence at the White City. The article is replete 
with contrasts of what we saw there and what we 
see in our own cities in every-day life, things that 
could and should be carried out in all cities, but, 
more's the pity, that are not. From the lesson it 

taught in architecture, cleanliness, beauty, and 
order, the author elaborates upon the sense of 
security, freedom, and independence one felt there, 
as nowhere else. To quote from the article : 
" There was not another place in America where 
the American citizen could feel so much the pride 
of popular sovereignty as he could after he had 
paid his half dollar and become a naturalized resi- 
dent of this municipality. Once within those 
grounds he was monarch of all he surveyed. He 
could go anywhere. He could see everything. 
He was welcome to all that he found inside those 
gates. He could feel for once in his life that he 
was not liable to be snubbed by the police, nor 
bullied by car conductors, nor brow-beaten by 
salesmen. His temporary citizenship entitled him 
to the same large privileges which are his by right 
in any permanent city, with this difference, that 
for once in his life his title was recognized, and his 
rights respected. It was a great experience for the 
patient, submissive, long-suffering American," — 
and after speaking of things which the long-suf- 
fering American is accustomed to put up with, as 
follows: "If he attempts to cross a street the 
swift and death-dealing trolley or cable car will 
soon teach him that the public thoroughfare does 
not belong to him, but to some corporation. If he 
enters these or any other public vehicle, he realizes 
that they are run not to accommodate him, but to 
make money for somebody else. The sidewalks 
are not his, but the grocer's, the furniture dealer's, 
the house-builder's, and the street contractor's," 
the author closes with — "In the day in which the 
better, the best, American city shall become a com- 
mon spectacle, we shall perceive how much sooner 
it came by reason of the vision of the White City, 
which we all beheld upon the shores of the great 

Write to The Cudahy Pharmaceutical Co., So. Omaha, 
Neb., for free copy of "Ranch Book," and enclose 4-cents 
in stamps for sample of T^l 

Rex Brand Extract of Beef, |h 1 *\ "\7r>t* 

which gives to soups, stews, etc . extra ■*■ IdVUl 

Designed erA€ Dickinson.^ 


Its Discoverer and Its Wonderful 

Prof. Dixi Crosby, M. D., LL.D., 
who for thirty-two years was at the 
head of Dartmouth Medical College, 
belonged to the famous Crosby family 
of physicians, which for several gen- 
erations has furnished more distin- 
guished medical men than any other 
family in America. His father was 
Dr. Asa Crosby of Dartmouth, who 
procured the charter of the State 
medical society, of which he was for 
thirty years a conspicuous member; 
one brother, Dr. Josiah Crosby, in- 
vented the invalid bed and the method 
of making extensions of fractured 
limbs by adhesive strips; another 
brother, Dr. Thos. R. Crosby, was 
chief surgeon in Columbian College 
Hospital during the war, and later 
professor of animal and vegetable 
physiology at Dartmouth College; 
while Dr. Dixi Crosby himself was 
the inventor and discoverer of various 
important improvements in medicine 
and surgery, including a new and 
unique mode of reducing metacar- 
pophalangeal dislocation, opening of 
at hip- 
etc., etc. 

At the early age of twenty-four his 
extraordinary skill and success in 
overcoming disease had already at- 
tracted the attention of medical men 
throughout the world, and won for 
him the highest honors. His greatest 
achievement was the discovery of an 
original method for perfecting and 
compounding in permanent form what 
has become known as his " prize for- 
mula," and which, under the name of 
Puritana, is legally protected. 

The foundation of this remarkable 
medical discovery consists of simple 
New England roots and herbs, and 
the original family recipe for it has 
descended to the long line of Crosby 
physicians from their Puritan ances 
tors. Its peculiar composition ren 
dered it necessary to brew it when- 
ever needed in the early days of its 
history, and after the scattering of 
the Puritan families to remote lo- 
the nec- 

ingredients were not to be found, 
many attempts were made to put it up 
in permanent form, all of which failed 
until Dr. Dixi Crosby discovered 
means and methods, the result of 
which is: Nature's Cure compounded 
in the laboratory of Common Sense. 

It Cures 

From Head 

Trade Mark 


To Foot ! 


Differs from all other medicines as 
day differs from night. It cures 
disease by naturalizing and vitaliz- 
ing the Power Producer of" the 
human system, the stomach. 

Puritana makes the 

Heart Right, 
Lungs Right, 
liiver Right, 
Blood Right, 
Kidneys Right, 
Nerves Right, 
Health Right. 

Because it makes the 



(Jet of your druggist this great disease-conquering dis- 
covery (the price is $1 lor the complete treatment, one 
bottle of Puritana one bottleof Puritana Pills, and one 
bottle of Puritana Tablets, all in one package), and you 
will bless the day when you heard of ruritaua. The 
Puritana Compound Co., Concord, N. II. 


i i A T the present time when nearly every 
'^ L American is more or less interested 
in the record his ancestors have made, tJiere is 
constant enquiry for some series of forms suitable 
for preserving one s line of ancestry in all its 
ramifications. Several "tablets," 'forms" etc., 
etc., are on the market designed to meet that de- 
mand, but none please so well, or are as cheap as 
"ANCESTRAL CHARTS," a series of ped- 
igree forms, simple and concise, capable of regis- 
tering nearly 600 ancestors of one person, besides 
allowing opportunity to record dates, events, etc., 
etc. There are specially arranged pages for coat- 
armor, list of heir-looms, portraits, etc., etc. 
These " Charts " are bound hi cloth or leather, and 
were designed and published by Eben Putnam of 
Salem, Mass., a genealogist of reputation, the 
editor and publisher of Putnam's Monthly His- 
torical Magazine." 

The "Ancestral Charts" may be had, bound 
in cloth, for $1.30 ; half leather, $j.oo. 

EBEN PUTNAM, Box 301, Salem, Mass, 

Genealogical Investigations conducted at home or 

Send TEN CENTS for sample copy of PUTNAM'S 

A few copies of the Treat Genealog-y left, $7,50, 

Try * Tower * Tariff ville 


will take you (parties of three or more 
for 50 cents extra, each person,) over to 
Old Newgate and back in time to spend the 
afternoon at the Tower. 

At the Tower you get Magnificent Views, 
Cool Breezes, Pure Spring Water Iced, fine 
Dancing Pavilion, Powerful Te escope, good 
Bowling Alley. Ample accommodations for 
those bringing their own baskets. Light 
Refreshments served, also Coffee, Tea, Lem- 
onade, Ice Cream, Confectionery, etc. A 
clean, quiet, restful place. 

Excursion Tickets sold daily at Hartford 
station, P. R. & X. E. R. R., for 75 cents, 
children, 50 cents, including Tower; Wednes- 
days and Saturdays for 50 cents. Tickets 
entitle holder to stop at Tower Station on all 
passenger trains. 

Not open Sundays, and no intoxicants sold. 

Remember now, the old towers are gone; 
this is the only place where one can see so much 
of Connecticut and Massachusetts. Special 
rates and special days for Sunday Schools. 

H. H. BARTLETT, Proprietor, 

Box 44, Tariffville, Ct. 

Decorated W E hav . e a large 

y y vanety^ man y 

Dinner Sets. " f , ^ h „ are °* e " 

Stock Pattern, sold 
in sets or single pieces. 

We have never had as 
large an assortment 
as we are showing- this 
Season. Such a range of 
Prices .' 


e might mention 

Wedding W Rich Cut Glass 
PfP^Pnt^ Handsome Lamps. 

Beautiful Bric-a-Brac. 

\A/e invite inspec- 
tion of the larg- 
est and most complete 
"Crockery Shop" in 
the State. 




255 Main Street, 
Biding. Hartford, Conn, 


of the illustrations found 
this issue are selected from 
the territory traversed by the Phila- 
delphia, Reading 8z Xew England 

If you contemplate summering in 
the country you will find that for 
health, pleasure, and convenience, 
Litchfield County and the Southern 
Berkshire has no equal. 

For a list of hotels, boarding houses, 
etc., procure a copy of our summer 
home book, containing upwards of 60 
illustrations giving all information. 
The summer home books are now 
ready for free distribution at city 
ticket offices, of W. W. Jacobs, 311 
Main St., and L. H. Colton, 18 State 
St., or will be mailed on recept of 4 
cents postage to 


GerTl Passenger Agent, Hartford, Conn. 

Times indeed do great . ly change, In a lapse of three score years. 



Case, Tiffany & Company 

Case, Tiffany & Burnham 
Case, Lockwood & Company 

Case, Lockwood & Brainard 
The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co. 





Gectrotpping Papermaking 

I aper-l \ulina 






for Manufacturers 

Commercial, Law 

and Miscellaneous.^ AND POETICAL WORKS 

Business Printing 

*$jm, Cockwood * Brainard Co. 


the Connecticut Quarterly 

Pearl and Trumbull Streets 




PLANT Shrubs 



Rhododendrons, Hardy Perennials 

In addition to the stock that nurseries usually have, we grow in 
quantity, on our 300 acres, every new hardy tree and plant of real value. 
We have furnished, without cost, planting plans, where the proper land- 
scape effect is studied, for hundreds of estates — large and small — in all 
parts of the country. We will do this for you if desired. 

In our catalogue you will find rare trees and shrubs and plants you 
probably never heard of ; hardy and suitable for our climate, grown out 
of doors in our nurseries, and not expensive because rare. 

The Shady Hill Nursery Co*, 102 State St v Boston ^ 





The Farm known as the Carrington Place, situated on South Chippen's Hill, Bristol, Conn., one and one- 
half miles from Post-office and R. R. Station, on main road from Bristol to Plymouth. 

Sixty Acres of Land conveniently situated, suitable for any kind of farming and having one of the best 
apple orchards in western Connecticut. 

Buildings consist of Two-story House with Ell. 16 rooms, 7 fire-places, 2 brick ovens. Split granite 
cellar wall and cemented cellar bottom. A Large Barn and Shed with basement of split granite. 

A Trout Pond with a never-failing supply of pure spring water coming to barn and house - stocked with 
pink and white lilies. 

Shade and ornamental trees, etc., of nearly every kind that will grow in New England. 

Half the purchase money can remain on mortgage if desired and paid in yearly payments. 

For full information, Address, S. H. CARRINGTON, Braidentown, Fla. 

the/P I New Combination 

/CTNA LIFE'S A n y lA ^ p„iw . . 

/yV C45£ OF 



[For Death 

Sight of Both Eye 
Both Feet 
] For Loss of Both Hands 
f For Loss of One Hand and One Foot 

I rui i/r;un 

$5,000^ Fo^Lossof 

Accident Policy : : 

Guarantees the following 

In case of Accidental Injury while riding as a 
Passenger in any Passenger Conveyance using 
Steam, Electricity, or Cable as a Motive Power : 
f For Death 

^k i /s rtAA I For Loss of Sight of Both Eves 

$10,000 iK orLOSS 

or Loss of Both Hands 
For Loss of One Hand and One Foot 

Y\(\(\ \ For LoSS of Rig:ht Hand 

For Loss of Either Leg 

For Permanent Total Disability 

f\ AAA f For Loss of Right Hand 


650 For Loss of One Eye 

For Loss of Left Hand 
For Loss of Either Foot 

For Loss of Left Hand 
For Loss of Either Foot 


Weekly Indemnity for 
I Disabling Injnrv 
[ Limit 52 Weeks 

J For Loss of Either Leg 
J I For Permanent Total Disability 


1 ,300 For I oss of One Eye 

PA | Weekly Indemnity for 
iJll ; Disabling Injnrv, 
vv I Limit 52 Weeks. 

Costs $25 a Year to Professional and Business Men, including Commercial Travelers 

Policies from $1,000 to $10,000 at Proportionate Pates 

The /Etna Life is the Largest Company in the World writing Life and Accident Insurance 



Drawer 55, HARTFORD, CONN. 






Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Co*, 

January 1, 18%. 


Loans on First Mortgages of Real Estate, 
Premium Notes and Loans on Policies in Force. . 
Loans on Collateral, ..... 

Cost Value of Real Estate owned by the Company, 
City and Municipal and Railroad Bonds and Stocks, 
Bank Stocks, ...... 

Cash in Office. ...... 

Cash deposited in Banks, .... 

Add : 
Market Value of Stocks and Bonds over cost, 
Interest accrued and due, . . 

Net Deferred and Outstanding Premiums, 

Gross Assets, January 1, 1896, . 

Reserve on Policies in force at 4 per cent, interest (Conn, and N. Y. standard) 
Claims by death outstanding. 
Premiums paid in Advance, 
Special Policy and Investment Reserves, . 

Surplus at 4 per cent., 

Policies issued, 
Insurance written, 
New Premiums received, 
Total Premiums received, 
Policies in force, 
Insurance in force. 











202.997. 30 



$10,455,538. l'J 






. $5 



1 S94. 


. 4,769 









1 ,027.092 









This Company has 2>f<i(t since organisation for DEATH LOSSES, MATURED ENDOW- 
than $35,000,000.00. 

JONATHAN B. BUNCE. President. 
JOHN M. HOLCOMBE, Vice-President. 
WILLIAM T). MORGAN, M.D., Medical Director. 

CxEORGE S. MILLER. Supt. of Agencies. 


Insurance Company, 


Capital Stock, all cash, . 

Funds reserved to meet all liabilities, . 

Net surplus over capital and all liabilities 

Total Assets. January i, 1896, 

;i, 000,000.00 




^ DIKi 



Homer Blanchard, 
James Bolter, 
Ebenezer Roberts, 
William B. Franklin, 
James Nichols, 
Frank W. Cheney, 

t^ z^ «*5^ 

John R. Buck, 
Jonathan F. Morris, 
John L. Houston, 
Henry C. Judd, 
Francis T. Maxwell 
Ellis G. Richards. 

Jarr>es Nichols, President. E. G. Richards, Secretary 

B. R. Stillman, Assistar>t Secretary. 

W. T. PRICE & CO., Sole Agents for Hartford and Vicinity, Office 95 Pearl St. 

The Connecticut Building £nd Loan Association, 




Hon. GEORGE E. KEENEY, President. 
E. C. LINN, Secretary. Hon. GEORGE W. HODGE, Treasurer. 

SHAREHOLDERS Guaranteed against loss of Capital. Maturity of Shares in Classes "A" 
and "B" in event of death. Cancellation of Borrower's Mortgage in event of death. 
Definite contract to both Investors and Borrowers. No Membership, Admission or 
Entrance Fee. Limited Expenses. Monthly Payment on Installment Shares, 50 cents. 
Par Value of Shares, $100. 

50 cents a year; 15 cents a copy. Payable in advance. 
Remittances by check, express, money order, P. O. order or 

registered letter. Money by mail at sender's risk. 
When change of address is desired, give both old and new 

Numbers 1, 2, and 3, of Volume I, out of print. 
f* A TJ'T'TO r^ * ?° not pay P lone y io persons unknown to you. 





Our authorized agents have full credentials. 

Whenever you wish to place an order for Fruit 
and Ornamental Trees, Flowering Shrubs, Hardy 
Roses, Climbing Vines, Rhododendrons, Azaleas, 
Clematis, Small Fruits, Grape Vines, etc., and be 
sure of getting nice, clean, well-grown stock, true 
to name, for about one-half agents' prices, write 


Pomfret Stock Farm. 

*r r 

240 Acres Rich (2& <* <* WITH s J. 
Upland Pasture. ^ ^^ULATION 

H3^) 650 Feet above 
Tide Water. 

^e ^ .j* ««* j» £ .jt jt .jt .j* HALF MILE TRACK. & .jt .j* j* .jt .jt jt .j* & j* 

Premier Stallion 

2:14 1=2 BRIQNOLI WILKES 2:14 1-2 


Mares that have produced 2 or more foals with 

records of 2:30 or better, or mares with records of 

2:20 or better, served FREE during 1S96, and no 0~ 

. charge made for 30 days' keep at the « 3 .J 


qj O 

Service $100.00 with return privilege, or money refunded. 


No. 9750. 

Trial on y 2 mile track 2.23)4; sire 
Leland, No. 1,300; 1st dam Miranda; 
26. dam Green-Mountain Maid, dam 
of " Electioneer." 


(Formerly Blue Brig, No. 25441). 

Record 2.21-^. 

5^* C^* •*?* 

Colts Broken, 

Horses Trained and Boarded, 

Stock Wintered. 




••The Travelers •• 



NoTi-foTfeitabZe,, ~Woi^(Z-Tvzcle , 
JjO^rest CclsTl Rate 

ASS6tS 9 $19,425,220 Largest Accident Company in the 

Liabilities, 1 6,763,974 w0rld : n o ;rcc e ; s n f d u, O o n l y e ,arse 

7 ' and successful one 

SurplUS, 2,661,245 in America. 




Paid Policyholders, $29,140,939. 

$2,244,588 in i8gs alone. 

JAS. 6, BATTERSON, President, 

JOHN E, MORRIS, Ass't Sec'y. 






IF you are going- to use any. . ♦ . 


Wall Paper 


Send us size and number of openings in rooms, and 
we will send you, free of charge, samples of suitable 
papers for same >j* We guarantee to save you about 
50% from the regular prices charged by your local 
dealer -j* -J- We also have a fine line of Capitol City 
Enamel Paints, for Domestic use, to match colorings 
of papers. *j£ .J> *£ .J- *J> -J> >J- -J- >j* <& 

Ox Bonner-Preston Company 

329 Main Street HARTFORD. CONN. 

*v ^v -^v 

Our Constant Aim 




a$f^ ufokj J$«j 



Absolutely Pure, 

A cream of tartar baking powder. Highest 
of all in leavening strength. — Latest United States 
Government Food Report. 

Royal Baking Powder Co., 106 Wall St., N. Y. 

SHO0t p 


§ lllNTH 



|l Cures 
|| Colds 
I Croup 
f Coughs 
i Cholera 
'% Cramps 
§ Chills 
I colic 

•*&• Pleasant to take dropped on sugar. Suffering 35 

rjs children love it to soothe and cure the many com- ijjp 

^jl mon ailments which will occur in every family as %& 

iyfe long as life has woes. Used Internal and External. 5$S 

| Johnson's Anodyne Liniment. | 

jH Originated in 1810, by an old Family Physician ; ^ 
» it still has the confidence of the public to the iji 
5g fullest extent. Think op it! The above means 35 

The St. Denis 

Broadway and Eleventh Street 

(Opposite Grace Church) 

Rooms, $1.00 per Day and Upward. 

j^5 that generation after generation have used it and 51£ 

♦2» handed down a knowledge of its virtue to their <£< 

jjjK children and childrens' children for almost a sv{ 

3? century. You c an trust what tim e has endorsed, sfe 

gjg Our Book on INFLAMMATION Mailed Free. ~ 

<B I. S. JOHNSON & CO., Box 2118, Boston, Mass. 

The great popularity the 
St. Denis has acquired can 
readily be traced to its 
unique location, its home= 
like atmosphere, the peculiar 
excellence of its cuisine and 
service, and its very mod= 
erate prices 


The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co., Printers, Hartford. 

July, August, September, 1896. No. 3 

50 cts. a Year. 


15 cts. a Copy 

The 19th Century Marvel. 


lies in providing something new and attractive to 
make it an everlasting pleasure. 

is a musical educator and entertainer for the whole 
family. A child four years old can operate it and 
produce an endless variety of music to suit all 
classes and ages. The latest popular airs of the 
day, the works of the great masters, all can be ren- 
dered without the slightest knowledge of music. 

New York Parlors, 

123 5th Ave. 
Philadelphia, Pa.. 

1308 Cnestnut St. 




Chicago. 111., 

W. W. Kimball. 
Boston. Mass., 
Oliver Ditson Co. 

Try * Tower * Tarif fville 


will take you (parties of three or more 
for 50 cents extra, each person,) over to 
Old Newgate and back in time to spend the 
afternoon at the Tower. 

At the Tower you get Magnificent Views, 
Cool Breezes, Pure Spring Water Iced, fine 
Dancing Pavilion, Powerful Te escope, good 
Bowling Alley. Ample accommodations for 
those bringing their own baskets. Light 
Refreshments served, also Coffee, Tea, Lem- 
onade, Ice Cream, Confectionery, etc. A 
clean, quiet, restful place. 

Excursion Tickets sold daily at Hartford 
station, P. R. & N. E. R. R., for 75 cents, 
children, 50 cents, including Tower; Wednes- 
days and Saturdays for 50 cents. Tickets 
entitle holder to stop at Tower Station on all 
passenger trains. 

Not open Sundays, and no intoxicants sold. 

Remember, now the old towers are gone, 
this is the only place where one can see so much 
of Connecticut and Massachusetts. Special 
rates and special days for Sunday Schools. 

H. H. BARTLETT, Proprietor, 

Box 44, Tariffville, Ct. 



JOHN A. McCALL, = President. 

ASSETS, January 1, 1896, $174,791,990.54 
LIABILITIES, " " 150,753,312.65 

SURPLUS, " " 24,038,677.89 

I want to hire an active agent in every 
town in Hartford County, that has not 
already an agent, for this old and reliable 

The liberal policies and square dealing 
of this well-known company make it an 
easy company to represent. 

I would be glad to show any of our 
many policies to any one who is thinking 
of taking insurance. 


333 Main St., Room 4, 

General Agent, 
New York Life Insurance Co. 

(§WE have made ma- 

Mclean teriaI changes in our courses f study. 

^Pmifl^irV ^ e c ^ ass ^ ca ^ course 
- : now fills every require- 

ment for admission to 

GirlS. the colle § es - 

Our Academic 

course is broadened, 

including several elec- 

The Next 

tives each year. It is 

School Year intended to give a 

Opens common sense practi- 

q i". « cal education, study- 

22, '96. 

ing carefully the world 
of to-day as well as the 

Special Literary, Historical Course, Music, Art. 

Descriptive Catalogue sent to any address upon 
application. Apply to 

J. B. McLEAN, Simsbury, Ct. 


CDe Connecticut Quartcrlp. 

An Illustrated Magazine. 

Devoted to the Literature, History, and Picturesque 
Features oe Connecticut. 


66 State Street, Courant Building, 

Hartford, Conn. 

Geo. C. Atwell, Managing Editor. 


Vol. II. July, August, September, 1896. No. 


Sappho. ...... 



From a statue by E. S. Bartholomew. 

Edward Sheffield Bartholomew, Illustrated. 

Susan Underwood Crane. 


Yearnings. Poem. .... 

Elizabeth Alden Curtis. 


Litchfield. Illustrated. 

Dwight C. Kilbourne. 


From the Grass. Poem. 

Anna /. Granniss. 


In Satan's Kingdom. Serial I. Illustrated. 

Mrs. Win. Edgar Simonds. 


The Sunset Hour. Poem. . 

Sophia B. Eaton. 


Notes by an Ohio Pioneer. 17SS-89. 

Edited by Ellen D. Lamed. 


Early Lebanon. Illustrated. 

Mary Clarke Huntington. 


Glastonbury Sketches. Illustrated. 

Henry Storrs Goslee. 


A Forest Walk. Poem. 

Alfred B. Street. 


Illustrated by D. F. Went worth. 

The Grove Street Cemetery. New Haven. 

Ellen Strong Bartlett. 



Departments. — Historical Notes, 


Genealogical Department, 


From the Societies, 


Literary Notes, . 


Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn., as mail matter of the second class. 
Copyright 1896, by Geo. C Atwell. 
{Editors are at liberty to use parts of articles if proper credit is given.) 


FOR YOUNG WOMEN, Auburndale, Mass., 
(ten miles from Boston). Boston standards of schol- 
arship and conduct of life, with advantages of health- 
ful and beautiful suburban residence, the best Musical 
and Literary entertainments in Boston, and conven- 
ient access to places of historic interest. Rowing and 
skating on Charles River; Out-door games; Gymna- 
sium and swimming tank under careful hygenic 
supervision. Lectures on topics adapted to the ideal 
administration of Home. Illustrated Catalogue free. 
Address C. C. Bragdon, Principal. 



The most practical instruction in Music, Elocution, 
Modern Languages, from the elementary grades to the 
highest artistic requirements, taught by recognized 
masters in each department. Students received at any 
time. Prospectus and calendar free. 



Franklin Square, BOSTON, MASS. 




Enlarged and Improved for i8qb. 
A monthly illustrated magazine of the outdoor world, of 
interest to people of refinement, education, and good taste, 
with a love of the true and beautiful especially in the won- 
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The IMPERIAL GRANUM is sold by DRUGGISTS everywhere. John Carle & Sons, New York. 

(From a Statue by E. S. Bartholomew in the Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, Conn.) 

The Connecticut Quarterly. 

" Leave not your native land behind." — Thoreau. 

Vol. II. July, August, September, 1896. No. 



Many strangers and even residents of Hartford visiting the art gallery of the 
Wadsworth Athenaeum are attracted to the piece of statuary in the center 
of the rooms called " Eve Repentant," to whom the name of the sculptor is 
entirely unknown. In this swiftly moving world, thirty-eight years consigns to 
oblivion most artistic reputations ; which reminds us that an entirely new genera- 
tion tread the streets of Hartford to-day, whose ideas of art have been acquired by 
travel and observation of the best that wealth and culture can give, but who 
have little comprehension of the trials and difficulties attending an art student's 
education fifty years ago. If any poor young artist is encouraged to further 
endeavors by reading about Bartholomew's struggles for an artistic education, 
this little sketch of one of Connecticut's most promising young sculptors will not 
have been written in vain. Edward Sheffield Bartholomew, the sculptor, was born 
in Colchester July 8, 1822. He received his education at the Bacon Academy, a 
generously endowed institution in his native town, which he entered at an early 
age. It was then under the co-operative superintendence of Mr. Charles P. Otis 
and Mr. Samuel Fox, the latter being the principal instructor, who discovered the 
tendency of his pupil's mind towards the fine arts and encouraged it by the liberal 
use of the blackboard and chalk. At the age of fifteen years, he removed with his 
father, Abial L. Bartholomew, to Hartford, but the change was not altogether 
favorable to him, for he was extremely sensitive and reticent, and the necessity of 
meeting strangers was most irksome. He found the boys of his own age to have 
little in common with himself. His naturally sensitive nature was repelled by their 
peculiarities which made him misanthropic and tended to cultivate in him an 
unsympathizing individuality. He never overcame his repugnance to meeting 
strangers, occasioned, as he said, by his " first impressions of the world in Hart- 
ford." Soon after settling here he was apprenticed to a bookbinder, but the busi- 
ness was so utterly distasteful that he could not remain in it; he was, therefore, 
indentured to the late Dr. W. S. Crane for five years to learn the profession of 



dentistry. This employment he found no more congenial, but he continued in it, 
at the urgent solicitation of his father, doing his duty manfully, with more or less 
unhappiness. About this time the life of Benvenuto Cellini fell into Bartholomew's 
hands. To most persons this autobiography is useful only as a Vivid picture of 
the life of the middle ages, but to the young Connecticut enthusiast, it was an 
inspiration, proving what courage and self-reliance can accomplish. To use his own 
expression, Cellini's life "put the devil in him." In the meanwhile he developed a 
propensity to stare at all the pictures within his reach and drawing with chalk or 
pencil whatever struck his fancy, and liking nothing so well, he said, as being what 
a few of his friends thought him, " a regular vagabond," the prejudice against art and 
artists not having been wholly eradicated from the Yankee character at that time. 
There were no "princely Lorenzos" in Hartford — and his honored parents were too 



(From pictures in the collection of his sister, Mrs. C. S. Davidson of Hartford, Conn.) 

poor, with the care of a large and growing family, to give him the advantages he 
should have had to develop his undoubted talent. The necessity of earning his daily 
bread was his first duty. After serving his time with Dr. Crane he went to New 
York, and by doing mechanical dentistry for his support, studied at the " Antique 
and Life School of the Academy of Design " for one year. This seems to have 
settled his career in life and given his friends the key to his tastes and inclinations. 
When he returned to Hartford in 1845 ne received the appointment as curator of 
the Wadsworth Gallery of Paintings, now the Art Gallery, — as congenial a position 
as an art student could wish. He made careful studies of figures on Etruscan 
vases and of the engravings from Raphael's cartoons, originally presented by the 
first Napoleon to the New York Academy of Fine Arts, and at that time deposited 
in the Wadsworth collection. He also took lessons in drawing and painting of 
Mr. A. H. Emmons, formerly of Norwich. It was during this time that he made 
the sad discovery of his color blindness, — his inability to distinguish between 
the various shades of blue and green. His former employer, Dr. Crane, had 
naturally artistic tastes and was constantly trying to assist struggling artists and 
musicians. He felt sure, if given an opportunity, Bartholomew would make a 
name for himself; accordingly he fitted up a corner of his dental laboratory for -a 






studio, bought canvas and framing for his benefit, and encouraged him to cultivate 
his talent for painting. There are two pictures in the possession of Dr. Crane's 
family, which, tradition says, were painted at this time, one by Bartholomew which 
bears witness to his defective eyesight, the other by Mr. F. E. Church, a friend of 
Bartholomew, and a constant visitor at the primitive studio. Mr. Church was at 
that time a pupil of Thomas Cole, the celebrated painter, who was completing his 

"Mt. ^Etna" in Hartford, now in the 
Art Gallery. Church and Bartholo- 
mew were always friends, and they 
might often be seen sitting on some 
church steps in the summer evenings 
or wandering in the country talking 
of their art. It was while he was 
painting a landscape, a friend re- 
marked that he was filling out the 
trees and shrubbery with anything 
but the proper colors, — that Barthol- 
omew was finally convinced of his 
defective eyesight, — a fact his friends 
had long been aware of. When the 
full significance of the defective vision 
came upon him, — the loss of all his 
cherished hopes, with characteristic 
vehemence and energy he gathered 
the painting, easel, palette, and 
brushes together and threw them 
into the farthest corner of the room. 
It was only another disappointment 
to be borne in the long struggle he 
had been making to become an artist. 
After days and weeks of deep de- 
pression of spirits he determined to 
try his hand at plastic art and began 
with a bas-relief of Mrs. Sigourney, 
to whose sympathy he was greatly 
indebted. He made very little pro- 
gress, however, as his tools were 
entirely unsuitable for the work, and 
only such as he had in his dental 
outfit, the principal one. being made 
by himself from a rat-tail file. Mr. 
J. G. Batterson had become interested in him, urging him to persevere, and 
presented him with a block of marble and a complete set of graver's tools with 
which he labored incessantly, and produced a creditable bust of Flora. 

It was his most earnest desire now to go to Italy, the mecca of all artists then 
even more than now, when so many opportunities of study for art students are to 
be obtained in our own country. 

There seemed no way open for the gratification of his washes, nowever, — but 
he lost no opportunity to gain all the knowledge requisite to his profession that 
this country then afforded. 

He eagerly read everything pertaining to art and artists, and, having a reten- 

(From a Bust owned by Mrs. C. S. Davidson.) 



2 o8 



tive memory, he was at this 
time a remarkably well-read 
man, for one whose oppor- 
tunities had been so limited. 
After three years at the 
Wadsworth Gallery, or in 
1848, he went to New York 
to attend the anatomical 
lectures of Dr. Watt. 

Here he met with the 
greatest misfortune of his 
life, one that would have 
utterly crushed an ordi- 
nary man. His laundress 
brought him his linen which 
in some way he learned 
had accidentally been left in 
the smallpox ward of the 
hospital, where he attended 
lectures. He requested her 
to take them away and wash 
them again, which she neg- 
lected to do. The result 
was he had the disease, 
which left him almost a 
physical wreck. He had 
been a handsome athletic 
young man, with large flash- 
ing black eyes, a nose in- 
dicative of character, a 
countenance full of expres- 
sion, and an air and manner 
born of a consciousness of 
mental strength and talent. 
He rose from his bed fear- 
fully marked and lame for 
life, the disease having 
settled in his hip. This 
misfortune naturally deep- 
ened the sadness and sen- 
sitiveness of his nature and 
rendered his life more and 
more unhappy. 

Seeking to regain his 
health, he placed himself 
under the care of Dr. 
Weselhoft at the cold water 
sanitarium at Brattleboro, 
Vt., for seven months, but 
with no relief. He then 
went to Boston for the 
winter for treatment under 



Dr. Hewitt and returned to 
Brattleboro for the summer 
with Dr. Weselhoft, who 
took a deep interest in his 
welfare. Here he worked 
at drawing and modeling 
with a devotion character- 
istic of him. 

He returned to Hart- 
ford late in the autumn of 
1850, gathered together his 
effects, a small sum of 
money, and, with the prom- 
ise of a few orders from 
his Hartford friends (which 
were afterwards canceled), 
he sailed from New York 
on a fruit vessel of only 
three hundred tons burden, 
returning empty to Italy. 
" The Pegasus " must have 
been a most disagreeable 
craft, and what he suffered 
with the dirt and discomfort, 
the strange cooking where 
" everything was fried in 
oil," no one born and bred 
in New England can under- 
stand, unless they have ex- 
perienced it. 

After forty-six sea-sick 
days, during which he had 
not heard a word of English 
spoken, he begged to be 
set on shore. The Italians 
were certain he would die, 
and this seemed to them 
the quickest way out of a 
dilemma. Landing on the 
coast of Fxance in the Medi- 
terranean, he was immedi- 
ately seized as a suspicious 
person, taken in a cart to 
Hyeres, his person searched, 
his baggage overhauled, his 
mattress ripped to pieces 
to furnish evidence of his 
being a smuggler, or some- 
thing worse, and finally he 
was sent forward to Toulon 
for further questioning. 
Liberated from surveillance 




at Toulon, he made his way on foot to Marseilles, a distance of thirty miles, 
went on board a steamer bound for Civita Vecchia, and in four days was in 
the Viccolo di Grici, in Rome, at work on his bas-relief " Homer led by the 
Genius of Poetry." The first year of his life in Rome was one of unremitting toil 
and privation, under the instruction of Signor Giorgio Ferrero, a celebrated 
instructor of sculpture who had published a series of illustrations of the statuary 
in the Vatican. Bartholomew was giving his principal attention to bas-relief, in 
which he excelled. The second year Ferrero sent him to Athens to study the 

friezes of the Parth- 
enon. He set out in 
the summer, visited 
Greece and nearly all 
the cities of the East, 
was entertained by the 
Carmelite Monks at 
Jerusalem, went to 
Egypt, and returned 
after an absence of four 
months with a great 
quantity of sketches of 
what he had seen. He 
had a very reliable 
memory for dates, inci- 
dents, and localities, 
which enabled him to 
retain valuable impres- 
sions of all objects of 
interest in the line of 
his travels. " He was 
an agreeable narrator," 
says George Wright, 
the artist, who had 
known him in Rome, 
" and gifted with the 
faculty of presenting 
the prominent charac- 
teristics of things in 
few words. Few ex- 
celled him in the 
strength and brevity of his speech, and on his return from the Holy Land, he 
nightly delighted the frequenters of the old Cafe Greco in the Via Fratina 
with his adventures and travels." The re-establishment of his studio, on 
his return, was distinguished by manifest evidences of increased powers. His 
execution was more happy, his designs broader and more sympathetic. His hand 
was becoming swift and strong, but he was rather too impatient of what he 
considered ignorant criticism, and his morbid feelings sometimes caused him to 
think he was neglected. He began his technical education so late in life, that he 
felt he had not time enough to accomplish all he sought to do, and was therefore 
too ambitious to take the place he felt sure belonged to him, in the front rank of 
American sculptors. After the second year, he was never in want of funds 
to carry on his studies, and if his Hartford orders had not been withdrawn 



he would never have been troubled for money. Bartholomew was always sensitive 
in regard to the indifference manifested toward him in the earlier days of his 
struggle for an education, by Hartford people, though there were many (principally 
those who were unable to help him financially) who had the utmost faith in his 
brilliant future. Mrs. Sigourney was especially his friend, also Mr. Batterson and 
some others, but the fact remained that he did not receive the recognition 
he deserved in his own city until his career was assured and he had been endorsed 
by strangers. In a letter written from Rome by a friend of the Hon. Henry C. 
Deming is given an account of his industry and versatility. " I was astonished," the 
writer says, " at the variety I found in Bartholomew's studio, but when I came to look 
over his portfolios I found the key to the knowledge he shows. There were sketches 
of scenery and figures from all countries, crayon portraits of crowned heads of 
a dozen different nations, elaborate, anatomical, and beautiful architectural 
drawings, temples of Paestium, Athens, Asia Minor, Holy Land, and Egypt, and 
these are but a few items stored in the artist's brain and portfolios." 

All this was the preparation for work which Bartholomew had the utmost 
confidence he could do in time. During the first year in Rome he met with 
no encouragement; but he asked no sympathy and he sought no friendships. 
Restricting himself to the smallest possible outlay, living in his studio to save the 
expense of lodgings, it is said his money had entirely given out and he did 
not know where to look for assistance, when relief came as suddenly as he 
had confidently believed it would. William George Read, a Baltimorean traveling 
in Italy for pleasure and instruction, saw the name "Bartholomeo " chalked upon an 
obscure basement door and chose to learn what was buried there. He was 
delighted with the evidences of talent he saw in the work, and it took but little 
time to buy what Bartholomew had finished and to order more. He also interested 
his rich friends in him and sent Mr. Enoch Pratt of Philadelphia to assure him- 
self of the merit of his productions. Mr. Pratt most generously advanced money on 
work promised, which immediately put him at ease in regard to his financial affairs, 
besides paying in one instance double the price agreed upon for a piece of work. 

As he became more prosperous he established a studio in the Via Barbuino, 
which was the resort of artists and travelers from England and America. He 
lived in the Casa Nuova on the Piazza di Trinita da Monte. Next below on the 
Spanish stairs stands the house of Keats, — his sleeping-room overlooked the win- 
dow of the chamber where the poet suffered and died. Mr. Bartholomew came to 
this country twice in the seven years he was in Italy. The first time to super- 
intend the erection of a monument he had made for Charles Carroll, and the 
last time he visited the many friends he had made abroad from New York, Phila- 
delphia, and Baltimore. It is needless to say that to his mother these visits were 
most delightful. In the Evening Press of November 7, 1857, was published a letter 
written by Mr. Bartholomew in Hartford to the directors of the Wadsworth Athe- 
naeum, asking them to open the gallery free to the public, and recounting the ad- 
vantages of such a course in educating the people to a higher appreciation of art. 
He gave an account of galleries in Europe, the liberality of whose management 
had been the cause of the growth of art, and the means of attracting to them stu- 
dents from all parts of the world. He ended his letter by offering to defray the 
expenses of the gallery while the experiment was being tried. What answer the 
directors made to him does not appear, but it has taken Hartford thirty-five years 
to accomplish what Bartholomew saw was for its best interest. 

Wherever he went on this last visit, he was received with the honor which was 
his due, the long struggle for recognition being over. On the evening of Novem- 


ber 18, 1857, the citizens of Hartford tendered the two artists, Bartholomew and 
Church, the honor of a public dinner at the Allyn House. Plates were laid for 
sixty. The Hon. Henry C. Deming, then mayor of Hartford, presided. Owing to 
the shortness of the notice, Mr. Church was unable to be present. Mr. Bartholo- 
mew sat upon the right of the presiding officer. The Rev. Prof. Jackson asked the 
blessing. Mayor Deming closed his speech as follows: "We are honored to-night 
by the presence of one, who, like Thorwaldsen, left his native country alone, poor, 
and comparatively friendless, with nothing to animate and encourage him but his 
confidence in his own genius and faith in God. He returns to us this day vic- 
torious, in the zenith of his fame, rich in the consciousness of inexhaustible creative 
power, rich in the appreciation of his townsmen. If they are charged with insen- 
sibility to the charms of painting and sculpture, they are not insensible to true and 
genuine manliness, in whatever field it is manifested. We paid no tardy or reluc- 
tant tribute to him who led to the heights of Chapultepec; but 'Peace hath her 
victories as well as War.' There is a moral heroism in surmounting obstacles in 
the way of poor and friendless genius, quite as noble as the glories of the battle- 
field. To the trophies earned in such contests, you, sir," — addressing Mr. B. — 
"are entitled." Mr. Bartholomew assured his friends and feliow-citizens that their 
tribute was deeply felt, though he lacked the powers of oratory. "The medium 
through which I express myself is marble, and I shall be glad to show you in my 
studio at Rome what I have tried to say in the language you will all understand." 
Other speeches were made by Prof. Eliott, the Rev. Walter Clark, the Hon. Henry 
Barnard, and William James Hamersley. Dr. Butler responded for the medical 
profession, Mr. George H. Clark read a poem, and Mr. Erastus Smith, a personal 
friend of Mr. Bartholomew, made a witty and characteristic speech in response 
to the toast on " Woman." 

Mr. Bartholomew returned to Italy December 9, 1857, loaded with orders from 
his many friends in this country, which he was destined never to fill. His health 
had been very delicate since his illness in New York. He had worked incessantly, 
often without proper exercise or ordinary attention to the laws of health. The 
winter before he came home he had suffered with ulcerated sore throat. On his 
return he was taken very ill again, and continued so through January and February. 
His physician, Dr. Frankau, advised him to leave Rome for the milder climate of 
Naples. His friends, S. S. Osgood, the noted artist, and wife, formerly of Hartford, 
were with him, and wrote a detailed account of his sickness and death to his mother, 
then living here. There were deep expressions of love for her, which was stronger 
than any other characteristic except his ambition to become a great artist. During 
the last year he had seen the realization of his dreams of success, but he had no 
time to enjoy it, or to rest from his severe labors. The long voyage home and 
return, taken for rest, had not proved beneficial, as it was too late in the autumn 
for his weak lungs. He went to Naples March 28th, in hopes of relief from the 
disease that was mastering him. During his last illness, when a clergyman called 
upon him to ask if there was anything he could do for him, — " Yes," he said, " pray 
for my poor mother." He continued to sink rapidly, and died on the 3d of May, 
1858. There is a most interesting letter in the Evening Press of May 31st, by Mr. 
George Wright, who had been his friend for many years. He says: " Bartholomew 
possessed an extremely nervous and impatient spirit, that became morbid the in- 
stant he was ill. He was not without faults. He would often do and say things 
of which he would instantly repent and sorely for months, but I never knew a man 
of more spotless purity of motive, or of more sterling rectitude of heart. He was 
ever ready to do a kindness to any person, friend or enemy, who might ask for it. 


True, he was impetuous, and terrible in his passion sometimes, but a kind and 
considerate. word would melt him to tears. Childhood and manhood, simplicity and 
strength, were blended in his composition. His Eve, his Sappho, his Hagar, Homer, 
and Belisarius, show where his heart was, and how it had been influenced by his 
own trials." Mr. Wright speaks of the long walks he took with the artist in and 
about Rome, their conversations about Keats and Shelley. He was especially 
attracted to the character of Keats, and often talked of his sufferings as he leaned 
from his own window overlooking the house of the poet. 

One evening when they were walking in the Protestant cemetery at Rome 
Bartholomew said, " I shall probably be buried in this place if I die here ; but if 
there is one spot of earth that I would choose in preference to another for my last 
resting-place, it is the eminence on which stands the tomb of Virgil, overlooking 
the Bay of Naples." He had his wish, for there in the sight of that marvelous bay 
lies the body of that brave Connecticut boy who dreamed dreams and saw visions 
of beauty which he longed to put into form, and become an honor to his art and 
his country. Mr. Batterson has given many interesting reminiscences of Mr. 
Bartholomew as he remembers him both in this country and in Rome. He said 
he had more courage and persistence than almost any artist he ever knew. If he 
had a piece of work that required deep study and thought, he would lock his door, 
and with a crust of bread and a cup of cold tea, devote many days to incessant 
labor. He was especially fond of the Satires of Horace, and was given to 
wandering in the neighborhood of Tivoli where once was situated Horace's Sabine 
farm. Mr. Bartholomew's mind was stored with much knowledge that pertained 
to his art. It was no mere lumber-room, but well arranged and ready for instant 
use to illustrate the subject of his conversation. 

In the summer of 1858 Mr. Batterson went to Rome and took charge of all 
Mr. Bartholomew's effects, caused some work to be finished, and had his models 
packed and sent to America. His foreman and friend, Pasquale Gezzi, who had 
been in his employ for some years, cut a copy of Eve Repentant for the Hartford 
gallery, the original being in the private gallery of Mr. Joseph Harrison of 
Philadelphia. Mr. Bartholomew had taken great interest in furnishing two copies 
of the celebrated antique statues in the Vatican, Demosthenes and Sophocles for 
Yale College, which were exhibited after his death in Alumni Hall in New Haven, 
June, 1858. 

The London Art Journal gave a complete list of his works in 1859, and 
a fine engraving of his " Hagar and Ishmael," and" in i860 his "Ganymede," 
a plaster copy of which is in the cellar of the library building, it having been 
broken in its removal. In the list not previously mentioned are his " Calypso," 
"Sappho" (in the reading-room of the library), " Campagna Shepherd Boy" 
(owned by Mr. Enoch Pratt of Philadelphia, and a copy by Gov. Aiken of 
South Carolina), "Infant Pan and Wizards," "Belisarius at the Porta Pincio," 
" Evening Star," " Homer," including many others, besides many monumental 
works. His full-length statue of Washington belongs to Mr. Noah Walker of Balti- 
more. The London Art Journal of 1858 contained an obituary notice of Bartholo- 
mew, in which it said, " Had his life been spared there is no doubt he would have 
done honor to the country of his birth." The London Critic said, " His studio in 
Rome had long been among those most attractive to visitors of taste, and during 
late years had been filled by works on subjects very various, but displaying ability 
of treatment." S. S. Osgood, who did much to encourage Bartholomew from his 
first decisive step and who comforted him in his last sickness, says, "As I am an 
artist I can fully appreciate Bartholomew's wonderful genius ; I look upon him as 
having no equal among all our artists, who are great and many." 


Grace Greenwood wrote of him after his death : " Mr. Bartholomew was a 
singularly modest and sensitive man and shrank from general society with a pain- 
ful shyness, caused by his illness, but the manhood of the spirit still stood erect 
and strong. The genius of the artist shone forth bravely above the wreck of 
manly beauty and strength. I knew him in his darkest days in Rome, but I never 
heard him utter an unmanly complaint, never a word of bitter dispraise of a more 
fortunate brother artist. His ambition seemed to me of the noblest character. He 
wished to be a great artist for the sake of art and his country." H. T. Tuckerman 
wrote of him: " Bartholomew was a manly enthusiast. His early life was a 
struggle with narrow means and uncongenial associations ; when he found his 
vocation, all the earnestness of his nature concentrated thereon. With patient 
self-devotion, a generous interest in and appreciation of others, and a versatile 
and constantly enlarging scope and impulse, he possessed all the elements of suc- 
cess and enjoyment as an artist. Though most of his subjects were classical, 
many Scriptural illustrations occupied his mind, and his inventive were fast devel- 
oping with his executive faculties. 

Personally beloved and professionally gaining reputation and work, the early 
death of Bartholomew was deeply mourned in Rome and in Hartford. Of the 
peculiar claims of his genius perhaps the most individual merit has been justly indi- 
cated by the remark of one who knew him well, and recognized in his works and 
prevalent talent " an intuitive perception of the strongest and most statuesque 
aspect of a theme." 



A thousand songs of lyric grace 

Enchained lie within my restless soul, 

I strive in vain to sing their rhapsodies 

Whose rhythm is the throbbing of my heart, 

Tho' I am one with them, and they a part 

Of me, 'tis but a voiceless and a yearning whole. 

When youth is ours, and childish radiance, 
The earth in flower and life aburst with song, 
Our baby hands are reaching ever on 
To grasp the riper years for which we long. 
And when the finger of remorseless time 
Has left its trace upon the furrowed brow, 
We strain our fading eyes to gain one glimpse 
Of child-love and of faith — so precious now. 

And then the incommunicable depths 

Of that great sea which bears away our own, 

Those dear-loved faces which so swiftly speed 

Through doubts and sins into the vast unknown. 

The secrets of the deep-fixed universe, 

We seek to fathom through the sage's mind. 

For toil-bent souls how long is life, 

While those bemarked of death, sweet earth-ties bind. 

They shall not cease, these yearnings manifold, 
Until upon our troubled sight there gleams 
That promise of the after-time, 
The jeweled city of our dreams. 


In 1 7 15, John Marsh, a worthy citizen of Hartford, was appointed a committee 
to view the " Western Lands " and make his report. These western lands were a 
vast unexplored wilderness now known as Litchfield County with only a single 
settlement at Woodbury, which, from causes arising from Andross' usurpations, 
had come into the possession of various towns who refused to reconvey to the 
General Assembly. Rumors of their great fertility, wonderful lakes, grand 
mountains and immense forests came to the ears of the residents of the Connecti- 
cut Valley. So John Marsh, under this commission, left his wife, Elizabeth Pitkin, 
and their seven small children, to spy out this wonderful land, and started on what 
seemed to him a perilous journey, for the Indian lurked behind the forest trees 
ready for his scalp. He had had in his Hadley birthplace too intimate an 
acquaintance with their methods to think lightly of their presence, and then 
there were bears, panthers, and other unpleasant companions' likely to greet him. 
With his horse and flint-lock musket he started, — the first dozen miles through 
Farmington to Unionville was through a settled country, with good farms and 
houses, then crossing the Tunxis and entering the wilderness of Burlington, he 
could only follow over the hills the trails of the hunters and trappers, and wind his 
way from one summit to another as best he could, through the deep valleys and 
gorges of Harwinton. Reaching the Mattatuck he forded it a little below the 
railroad station at East Litchfield at the old fording place and began to climb the 
steep ascents to Chestnut Hill, and arrived there as the sun was beginning to hide 
itself behind the mountains beyond. Before him was as beautiful a panorama as 
mortal eye could rest upon, — the lakes sparkling in the sunset, and the broad 
meadows around them with the newly started grass, a living carpet of emerald 
spreading before him for miles, with here and there a fringe of fresh budding 
trees, all inviting the weary traveler to rest and refresh himself. Descending the 
hill he crossed the river near " South Mill " and pitched his camp for the night 
near the big spring at the southern end of Litchfield Hill, where, a few years later, 
he chose his home lot. 

All of this fair region which he had seen was called by the Indians " Bantam," 
and comprises large portions of the present towns of Litchfield, Morris, Bethlehem, 
Washington, Warren, and Goshen, and for three days he explored the beautiful 



fertile hills and plains. The Indians were friendly, the fish plenty, game abundant, 
and the spicy perfumes of the new opening buds and wild blooming flowers wafted 
to his old Puritan heart a new sense that softened his soul and let him enjoy for 
once these natural blessings, and instead of encountering dangers and tribulations, 



his journey had been one of rest and pleasure. On the fifth day he returned 
to Hartford. What report he made of his trip is not now known except that his 
services and expenses were two pounds, which he received for viewing the " New 

That he made a favorable report is almost certain, for the next January 
Thomas Seymour of Hartford was sent to Woodbury to treat with the Indians 
about these western lands, and was gone six days, and succeeded so well in his 
negotiations that John Minor, the noted magistrate of ancient Woodbury, executed 

a deed of land, substantially that now 
called Litchfield, from Chusquenoag, 
Corkscrew, Quimp, Magnash, Kehow, 
Sepunkum, Poni, Wonposet, Suckqun- 
nokquum, Towecomo, Mansumpaush, 
and Norkgnotonckquy, for fifteen 
pounds. These Indians reserved suf- 
ficient land near Mount Tom for their 
hunting houses. Some other Indian 
names are mentioned in the deed, but 
probably the foregoing are sufficient 
for all genealogical purposes. 

In May of the same year Thomas 
Seymour starts out again for exam- 
ination. He begins by purchasing 
two quarts of rum, and after passing 
through Farmington and Waterbury 
arrives at Woodbury, by which time 
he requires a pilot and protection — 




for which he pays a pound and a half. It does not appear where he went, 
but probably to a small tribe of Indians in the southern part of the conveyed 
territory, among whom the Moravian missionaries had previously labored and con- 


verted to Christianity, and who were called " pheantam " or praying Indians, which 
gave the name Bantam to the larger lake and the adjacent territory, and Seymour 
ever afterwards called it so. 

Having thus bought out the Indians, Marsh began to organize a company of 
settlers, devoting a year or more to this matter, and, in 17 18, the company was 
formed, dividing the territory of 44,800 acres into sixty shares, fifty-seven to be 




sold to actual settlers, the schools to have one share, the minister one, and one for 
the support of the ministry, and John Marsh had two shares without price. The 
fifty-five shares sold for three hundred and sixty pounds, current money, about one 
and three-fourths of a farthing per acre. A " way " was laid out, exactly where 
does not appear, but soon after the new Farmington road was surveyed, which is 

Sift* ■•'':si : *<:''''f:' •': 

■ i . , ■. 






about the same as the- 
present road from Litch- 
field to Hartford. At 
the May session of the 
General Court, 17 19, 
Lieut. John Marsh of 
Hartford and Deacon 
John Buel of Lebanon 
with others were grant- 
ed liberty to settle 
westward of Farming- 
ton at a place called 
Bantam, said town to 
be known as Litchfield 
and to have the figure 
" 9 " as a brand for its 
horse kind. Why the name Litchfield was selected is not known, perhaps for the 
same reason that the Dutchman called his boy Jacob, because that was his name. 
Probably it was in some way suggested from Lichfield, the cathedral town in 
England, and the extra letter "t" put in by some clerk who had been studying up 
the Salem witchcraft trials. 
The great geographical 
feature is the lakes. The 
smaller lying just at the 
foot of the town hill, having 
the euphonic name of "Lit- 
tle Pond," presents no at- 
tractions around it, and, ex- 
cept for good fishing in its 
waters would be little known. 
Just a mile from it the out- 
let of Little Pond enters 
the large lake, " Bantam." 
This charming lake is the 
largest in the state, covering 
over 1,200 acres, and sur- 
rounded on three sides by 
gently sloping hills, on whose 
surfaces are finely cultivated 
farms and small patches of 
woodland. To the north lies 
a low level country extending 
two or three miles to the 
•Goshen foot-hills. This plain 
is sectionally known as Fat 
Swamp, Harris Plain, South 
Plain, and Little Plain. Ex- 
tending into this level coun- 
try is the long, smooth slop- 
ing ridge known as Town 
Hill, on which is the village 
of Litchfield. calhoun elms. 



In 1720, Capt. Jacob Griswold and Ezekiel Buck of Wethersneld, and John Peck 
of Hartford, removed with their families, and began the settlement, and the work 
of laying out the home lots began; for the deed provided that each grantee should 


occupy a house sixteen feet square on his home lot before May 31, 1721, and most 
of the settlers came during the year 1721. The first town-meeting was held in 
December of that year, but earlier than this the town had called Timothy Collins 

DR. buel s. 

to settle as their minister, which call he accepted and labored among the settlers 
for thirty years. 

The building of the meeting-house was a town matter, and a vote was passed 
to build one, — to be 45 feet long, 25 feet broad, and 20 feet between joists, etc. ? 




and to be completed within three years. It was located in the center of the town, 
at the point shown in the cut of the United States Hotel and Park, where the gen- 
tleman is standing in the road east of the park. The frame was of great oak sticks 
hewn and mortised, clapboarded on the outside and ceiled inside. It was raised 
in 1723, and all the 
people in the town 
came to it and sat on 
the sills while Parson 
Collins prayed for 
its success. After 
the raising the peo- 
ple had wrestling 
matches and pitched 
quoits. Whether the 
committee were au- 
thorized to procure 
" rum, rope, and 
grindstone " to raise 
with, as they were 
in South Farms some 
years subsequent, 
does not appear. 

The building progressed slowly, and it was eight years before it was finished, al- 
though used for public worship sooner. On December 27, 1731, it was voted " to 
get a cushion or pillow for the pulpit, to be made with plush and stufft." 

Equally necessary with the minister and the meeting-house was a grist-mill, 
and John Marsh and John Buel were granted thirty acres of land and the use of 

Bantam River for a 
grist-mill. This they 
built on the road half 
a mile east of the 
center, midway of 
Town and Chestnut 
hills. The Echo 
Farm Mill now occu- 
pies the same site, 
with the same old 
dam. Over the pond 
is the iron bridge, 
and upon rebuilding 
the abutments for 
this bridge one of 
the old foundation 
stones, upon being 
old tannery. exposed, presented 

the monograms "J. 
B." "J. M." cut into its face. The grist-mill was an important institution in those 
days. Notices of the town-meetings were to be posted on the gristmill door, and 
while the farmers were waiting for their bag of meal, swaps and trades were going 
on, and hot-headed theological discussions. So numerous and prominent were the 
Buels and Marshes, years ago, that the old miller used to say that whenever a 


stranger came he called him Mr. Marsh; if surprise was manifested he corrected 
by substituting Buel, and seldom made a mistake. 

For a number of years a great contention existed as to whether the town cen- 
ter should be on Chestnut Hill or Town Hill, and after the meeting-house was 
located the Chestnut Hill side demanded the schoolhouse should be located on 

their hill. It was 
voted to " hire a 
J. , scool dame and 

build a scool 
House, " but 
where ? — was the 
question. Meet- 
ings were holden 
almost weekly, 
this one deciding 
it to be on Town 
Hill, and the next 
one at Chestnut 
Hill. A vote was 
passed that no 
vote should be 
passed when it 
was so dark the 
town clerk could 
not record the vote; another, to adjourn to a date when the sun was half an hour 
high. The difficulty was finally compromised by building two schoolhouses, one 
at each place, and hiring a school-dame to teach part of the time in one and 
part in the other, and Town Hill became, by virtue of its more rapid growth, 
the actual center. 

The life of these pioneers was no easy one. The making of the New England 
village was a series of hardships. Log houses were to be built, barns erected to 






protect their cattle from the inclement storms and snows, fences to keep them from 
straying, trees to be cut clown and burned, new fields to be ploughed with wooden 
ploughs, grass to be cut for hay in the Fat Swamp meadows. We can hardly con- 
ceive at this day the toils and privations of our forefathers, and withal the lurking 
savage was ready to kill them at every unguarded moment. The historian says: 
" The Indians, still at war with the English, prowled on the frontiers like ravenous 
wolves eager for their prey. Their yells at the war-dance, an ominous sound, were 
heard on the distant hills, and at midnight their signal-fires on Mount Tom lit up 
the surrounding country with their baleful gleam." The Committee of War at 
Hartford sent military to keep garrison at Litchfield. A fort was built on the 
ground now occupied by the Court House, where these troops were quartered, and 
four more forts were built by the citizens. One of them, called Fort Griswold, was 
just a mile west of the Center, in the meadow lately owned by Mr. E. P. Moulthrop, 
north side of the road; another on Chestnut Hill, west side of the road in the 


- (!) 


■ a ! 1 II I 


meadow north of Holmes O. Morse's barn; another a mile north of the town, and 
the other on the southern end of South street. Mr. Joseph Harris, while at work 
on his farm now called Harris Plain, was killed by the Indians and scalped; his 
body was found near the single elm tree in the lot east of the schoolhouse, and 
placed in the primitive coffin of a hollow log, taken to the West burial ground, and 
there interred. Over his remains in 1830 a small monument was erected by vol- 
untary contributions. 

For a long time scouts were employed by the colony to protect this weak 
band of sixty settlers from the savages, and the following letter of Capt. John 
Marsh, never before published, may be regarded as a contemporary history of 
these events: 

Litchfield, June ye 1, 1725. 
To ye Hoiible John Talcott, Gov't. 

Sir : Knowing full well ye interest that you, our lawful governor, dothe feel 
and hath often exprest about our little settlement in this wilderness, I am moved 
to write you about our affairs once more. Since I was honored by writing to you 
aboute twentie months ago, our four fourts or Garresons have been built, all but 
some mountes for the convenience of Sentinnels. The Garreson at the west our 



townes men have named fourte Griswold, and the north one fourt Kilbourn be- 
cause of the godly men who helped most to bild them. The other fourts one at 
the south end of the town and on Chestnut Hill. These Garresons have done our 
settlers great good in quietting their fears from the wild Ingians that live in the 
great woods. 

But we have been so long preserved by God, from much harm, and we praise 
his nam for it, and take hope for the time to come. Many of our people morne 
for there old home on the Great River, but they are agread not to go back. 

About the moundes at the fourtes. I am enstructed by ye select men to 
make known to you their desires that the Collony shall pay for them. 

With many and true wishes that God will preserve you and his Collony for 
the working out of his good pleasure 

I am yours most truly 

John Marsh, Town Clerk. 

Amid all these dangers and discouragements these hardy men were building 
for the future. They laid out broad streets both on Town Hill and Chestnut Hill. 

The layout was very 
simple, two streets 
crossing at nearly right 
angles. That now 
called East and West 
streets was the meet- 
ing-house street, and 
was twenty rods wide — 
and until after the 
deaths of Hon. Seth 
P. Beers and Geo. C. 
Woodruff this width 
was never allowed to be 
trespassed upon — but 
now the magnanimous 
citizens are annually 
discontinuing narrow 

■..'•■I':...'..'. " ■ ■ ':.-:.:.:.. 


strips for the benefit of 
the adjoining proprie- 
tors, without compensation. North Street was twelve rods wide and called Town 
Street. South Street eight rods wide, called Town Hill Street; this, owing to 
the swamp where the Mansion House corner was, was deflected to the east at the 
northern end so as to get it on hard ground, and is not exactly opposite Town 
Street. The little narrow street now known as Gallows Lane was called Middle 
Street, and is, or should be, twenty-eight rods wide. The wonderful shrinkage of 
highways can only be equaled by the shrinkage in values at the time of the annual 
assessment. No landholder was ever known to straighten a crooked fence by tak- 
ing off his own land. It always comes out of the highway. 

The Center, now the center park, was devoted to the meeting-house on the east, 
and the schoolhouse at the west, about where the load of lumber stands in the cut, 
looking up North Street from the Court House, and in 175 1, when Litchfield County 
was formed, a court house was built between them. The schoolhouse was located 
elsewhere in a few years. The Court House was moved to its present site in 1798. 
The second meeting-house was built near the site of the first one in 1760-2, and is 
the one in which Dr. Beecher preached while in Litchfield. The edifice was 63 
feet long, 42 feet wide, with a steeple and a bell. The third church was built on 


22 S 

another site in 1827-9, ancl tne "Green" was cleared of buildings. The center of 
the broad meeting-house street was unsightly, full of loose stone and brush, and a 
general pasture for cattle, and about 1S20 several of the citizens got permission of 
the town to enclose the ground and set out trees, and thus the East and West 
parks came into existence. At that time everybody pastured their stock in the 
street; the poor man claimed it was his inalienable right, and our streets were full 
-of cows and swine and some horses. Public pounds were established by law, and 
the hayward was a much hated and despised individual — and many ludicrous and 
•stormy scenes and wordy battles oc- 
curred if any one of these officials 
attempted to confine trespassing cat- 
tle. Since then the changes of senti- 
ment and law have rendered the hay- 
ward's position one of honor rather 
than contempt. The park fences have 
disappeared, also many street fences, 
and our parks and lawns, on which 
the children may play, are ornaments 
to the village. 

About the beginning of the cen- 
tury the citizens began to set out elm 
trees along the sides of the streets; 
these elms have now become very 
large, are exceedingly beautiful and 
attractive. Two large ones in West 
Street are shown that were set out by 
John C. Calhoun, the distinguished 
statesman of South Carolina, when 
pursuing his law studies here under 
Judge Reeve in 1805-6. 

The following from Col. L. W. 
Wessells about some of the old trees 
is interesting: 

"The fine elms in front of the residence of J. L. Judd on West Street were un- 
doubtedly planted by John C. Calhoun, who roomed there when studying law with 
Judge Reeve. The tree on the corner of North and West Streets, and the finest 
perhaps in the village, was utilized as a whipping post, and my brother, the late 
Gen. Wessells, has often told of seeing a man tied to that tree and given forty 
lashes save one, as was the custom, probably about 1S15. The immense elm on 
the corner of East and South Streets has, as long as I can remember, been the 
public sign post, where all legal notices are posted and all sheriffs' sales conducted. 

" The large willow standing in the rear of the residence of Mrs. W. C. Noyes 
on North Street was always said to have grown from a riding switch stuck in the 
ground by her grandfather, Col. Benjamin Talmadge, who was a member of Wash- 
ington's staff during the War of the Revolution. When a small boy, I have often 
seen him on horseback, a remarkably handsome figure and splendid horseman. 
He wore small clothes and top boots, with shirt ruffled at bosom and wrists, and 
we urchins looked upon him as something very nearly God-like. He made me a 
present of the first cock and hen of the Poland variety ever brought to Litchfield, 
and I was, of course, inflated with pride and the envy of every boy far and near. 

" The present residence of G. C. Tracy was my birthplace, and as many as 
sixty-five years ago Oliver Wolcott, son of the last governor of that name, and a 
particular friend of my father, brought out, and I assisted him to plant, the apple 
trees still standing: in the yard west of the house. 




" Doctor Gates reminds me of the fact that a primeval oak is still standing on 
the premises of Prof. Hoppin on North Street, formerly the residence of Judge 
Gould, who succeeded Judge Reeve as principal of the law school. I imagine it 
to be a rare thing to find a primeval tree in the center of a large village, and the 
professor is proud of his possession accordingly." 

It is not, however, the early or present history of Litchfield that attracts the 
thousands of visitors to its open doors each year. Its magnificent scenery, its pure 
air, its hospitality and refinement are really the great attractions. 

From the " Hill," or from any of its hills, most charming views are beheld? 
and, varying with every step, are continually interesting. Let us stand over 


on Chestnut Hill, near the old schoolhouse. Before you is the Bantam river, 
with the old mill and the mill pond ; then the old and new cemetery, with 
its ever -increasing population and beautiful monuments; then at the right 
the Goshen Hills, with Ivy Mountain tower; then Dr. Buel's, Spring Hill, — 
Mr. Goddard's summer home, — the Van Winkle houses; and all along the elm- 
embowered North street are the spires and gables of the beautiful homes. The 
new Congregational church, the schoolhouse, the Bissell meadow, the Episcopal 
church, the Catholic church, and the houses on South street; then the lakes, and 
way beyond the two Mounts Tom and the Warren Hills. The artist can not grasp 
them all, but the eye can. 

Or, go to Prospect Hill, a little northwest of the center, and look for many 
miles to the east, south, and west. Almost below you is the lovely village of 
Litchfield, — a jewel, clean and white, in the setting of leafy green. Beyond, and 
higher, is Chestnut Hill, — a picture of highly-cultivated farms in a frame of blue 
sky and sunshine; then Morris hills to the south, beyond the placid lake sparkling 
in the sunbeams; while to the southwest Big Mount Tom lifts his high head as un- 
concernedly as when near two hundred years ago the lurid flames upon his bare 




pate called the Indians to their chieftain's side for a deadly foray. Then, to the 
west, is Bare Hill, the pinnacle overlooking Waramaug Lake, the blue lines of 
Quaker Hill; then Mt. Prospect, with its stores of mineral wealth, copper, nickel, 
iron, and gold: then the misty outlines of the Catskills, Mohawk Mountain, with its 
disabled tower. Such 
is the vista that those 
who are fortunate 
enough to live in 
Capt. Van Winkle's 
new house can see 
each day, — an almost 
boundless view of na- 
ture, everywhere im- 
proved by art. 

On our route to 
.Prospect Hill we shall 
go up North street, 
the fines:, possibly, of 
all the streets, and on 
which are old houses 
that are historic; a 
number of them ante- 
date the Revolutiona- 
ry period, and are many of them now occupied by distinguished people. On this 
street stood the academy building of Miss Pierce's school, one of the early noted 
seminaries for young ladies, while at the head of the street was the residence of 
the late noted Dr. Buel, standing, as seen in the cut, at the junction of the East 
and West Goshen roads. It was once the residence of Theodore Catlin, a captain 
in the Revolutionary war. At the right, embowered in the dense foliage, is the 
Spring Hill Sanitarium, and, partially seen, the front of Dr. John L. Buel's new resi- 
dence. Here, too, are the grounds of H. R. Jones, Esq., once the garden and yard of 

Dr. Lyman Beecher, 
and in the view shown, 
where stands the gen- 
tleman on the lawn, 
|| was the house in which 

the Doctor lived and 
where Henry Ward 
Beecher and Harriet 
Beecher Stowe were 

Returning from 
Prospect Hill by way 
of North Oris wold 
street, we reach West 
street. At the bottom 
of the hill is the Old 
Tannery, a dilapidated old ruin, but once the seat of an important industry. 
When the farmer had his own leather tanned, and hired the cobbler to come to 
his house to make up the family stock of shoes, the tanner was an esteemed work- 
man, so much so that he was obliged to get a license for the pursuit of his avoca- 



tion from the Superior Court, to do which he must present samples of his work, 
and also recommendations from reputable tanners. The archives of the court here 
contain hundreds of such recommendations. On the other side of the street stands 
the pretty depot of the Shepaug Railroad, with the usual accessories of old brick 
sheds, coal-bins, and car-houses. So, grouped within a stone-throw of each other, 
are the relics of an almost forgotten past, — of the age of homespun — and the 
adjuncts of the high-pressure present, steam and electricity. 

The hotels and boarding houses in the village are not numerous and are some- 
what exclusive. The "summer boarder" has been cared for and taken in so long 
that the prices are high for first-class entertainment. Meanwhile the farmers out- 
side open their homes to those willing to accept a farmer's fare and do not care 
for style, at very moderate rates. 

The regular year-round hotel is the " United States," a two-dollar-a-day house. 
The original building was built more than a century ago by John Phelps, the ances- 
tor of the Hon. E. J. Phelps of Vermont, the distinguished lawyer and former Con- 
sul-General to England. By successive additions it has so enlarged that it accom- 
modates about a hundred guests; is heated by steam with modern sanitary im- 
provements. The landlady, Mrs. Campbell, is a great collector of antiques, and 
many of the rooms are furnished with articles more than a century old. The 
Hawkhurst is a summer hotel, and a modern-built house, accommodates about a 
hundred guests, and is the center of the fashionable life in Litchfield. In all the 
various places about a thousand guests are entertained here each year. Two or 
three first-class livery stables are ready to "sell " you a rig for a short period,- and 
the bicycler will find, generally, good solid road-beds to travel on, but he will have 
to lead his "bike " up the hills. The pedestrians will find the roads long enough 
and wide enough for the pursuit of health and happiness. 

Probably the most attractive and useful of all the public buildings is the Fire 
Department building, erected by a prominent citizen and dedicated to the use of 
the Fire Company and its honorary members. It is said to be the best one in the 
United States, and cost nearly a hundred thousand dollars. The exterior can be 
seen by the illustration. It is built of brick and stone as well as it can be done. 
It has practically four stories. The basement or cellar contains the heating and 
lighting apparatus and two fine ten-pin alleys. The ground floor has the fire 
apparatus, — hose, reels, ladders, etc.; also, in rear, a kitchen, furnished with 
twelve dozen of every kind of table ware, and a sufficient amount of cooking uten- 
sils, with a large range. The next floor has in front a large reading-room, supplied 
with all kinds of daily and illustrated newspapers, and the principal domestic and 
foreign magazines. In the rear is a billard and pool room, with two tables. The 
upper story is a hospital for any fireman hurt in the discharge of his duty. This 
is fully supplied with all kinds of articles needed for its purposes. 

Litchfield has, in addition to its other advantages, many of the city improve- 
ments, — telegraph, long distance telephone, railroads and stages, with exceptional 
mail facilities, a club house or casino, with tennis courts, ball ground, billiard table, 
and amusement hall; so the visitor may be as quiet as he pleases or he may have 
all the fun he wants. The religiously inclined can attend the Congregational, 
Episcopal, Methodist, or Catholic services; all have fine edifices and first-class 
ministers. Besides these attractions a first-class jail, which occupies the best cor- 
ner of the town, accommodates a large number of county boarders in the winter 
months, and, while we cannot highly recommend its desirability, it seems to be 
well sustained, and is certainly kept in a perfect state of order and neatness. 

Across the street the court-house bell is striking the hours of the day, and we 


think of the days before the great fire, when the quaint old wooden buildings, with 
the old Mansion House standing on the corner, looked so peacefully to the wan- 
derer, and almost long for the years gone by to return and bring back the forms 
and faces of the loved ones who trod the streets and graced old Litchfield with 
their dignified and holy presence; and the mind wafts off into the dreamy past, 
from which it is rudely awakened by sharp ring of the telephone bell and the call 
of the "hello" girl to the fact of modern Litchfield, — spruce-looking brick fronts, 
steam road-rollers, and Telford roads, with a wild agitation over a proposed 
trolley that may possibly land among us the tired children and feeble mothers of 
an ambitious neighboring city for an hour's outing under these noble elms and in 
the pure air of these everlasting hills. 



Bend low, sweet grasses, in the rain ! 
Bend low, for when ye lift again 
Your little cycle will be run — 
Ye fail beneath to-morrow's sun ! 

Across the field of bending grass, 
A kind of murmur seemed to pass, 
As if each stem still lower bent 
In gentle answer of assent : 

We fall — and with to-morrow's sun, 
Another cycle is begun ; 
Poor mortal, know'st thou not, to give 
The best of life, is how to live ? 

The seed from which we sprung and grew 
Fell, when the keen blade swiftly slew 
The last year's grass. In turn, we yield 
Like seed, to clothe anew the field. 

These ripened stems, what would they here 
Left standing till another year ? 
We are, we shall be, we have been — 
We die not, being gathered in. 

Our life, within the seed concealed, 
Again will burst its shining shield ; 
Preserved, it holds itself in trust, 
And yet again will seek the dust. 

Tell us, and do ye mortals die ? 
These noble forms which pass us by, 
Contain they not some hidden state 
Unclaimed of Death insatiate ? 

Beneath us here, some of your kind 
Are sleeping. Will they never find 
A waking? When they are laid low 
Is nothing left by which to grow ? " 

Sweet grasses bending in the rain, 
We know so little who remain ; 
We hold our lives in sacred trust, 
And with assurance seek the dust ! 



Clara M. Norton. 


It is becoming an exploded theory that there is such a place as Satan's King- 
dom, but if the reader will visit a certain locality in New England he will find that 
it does still exist — at least in name. Why that particular locality was given this 
name, which it has borne for more than a century, I am unable to state with that 
•certainty said to be required in a court of law; probably it was on account of the 
weirdness and wildness of parts of its scenery, which in places is so grand as to be 
worthy the best of names. 

At present one dilapidated, tumbled-down house is about all that remains to 
-show the place was ever inhabited. It is said of the man who last lived there that 
he had never been to church; his neighbors, considering his condition deplorable, 
labored with him until he was induced to once attend ; after his return he in- 
formed his friends he should never go again, and, upon being asked the reason, 
answered that the minister had prayed that Satan's Kingdom might be destroyed, 
when he very well knew all his possessions lay there. 

At the time of the occurrence of the events related in this story, two comfort- 
able farm houses stood here side by side, at a point where scenery lacks all interest 
and attraction, it being that of a low, sandy plain. The highway ran directly past 
these houses, and across it was the river, which so often overflowed its banks in 
heavy rains as to wash out the road and render it nearly impassable much of the 
time. The town authorities paid little heed to this locality; and where sand and 
stone did not prevent, the grass grew in the middle of the street. The fact that 
it was a rarely traveled road rendered it a rendezvous for lovers, and on pleasant 
afternoons in summer it was no uncommon thing to see a carriage containing this 
interesting variety of human folk wending its way along the river-washed, briar- 
grown road to the beautiful scenery " further up the mounting," to use the ver- 



nacular of the inhabitants of these two houses. It is safe to say that many a 
lover's troth has been plighted in Satan's Kingdom. 

The scenery "further up the mounting" is such as to repay the climb which 
is the price of seeing it. You stand upon the crest of a gorge hundreds of feet 
deep, at the dark bottom of which flows the river through a narrow channel which 
it has been making for itself these thousands of years. The drop is so sheer and 
straight that you can toss a pebble into the stream, watch its flight for some sec- 
onds of time, and see it disappear in the dark water with a soundless splash. 

Opposite — across the river — is another high point built up of cliff-like rocks 
with huge boulders standing out and looking as though they might at any instant 
let go their hold and tumble below with a crash and roar. One easily imagines 

that others like them 
have done so in the 
past and been broken 
into millions of frag- 
"'_ C p ments, so rocky is the 

river bed, with sharp 
points jutting above 
the surface and caus- 
ing the water to cleave 
and flow around them 
in swift currents white 
with foam. Ambitious 
little waves form and 
gently dash them- 
selves against the 
shore, bringing to the 
ear, if one be near the 
river's bank, the lull- 
ing sound of the sea. 

To follow with the 
eye the two chains of 
mountains which the river here divides until they are lost in the distance, creates 
a picture of which one's vision never wearies. The odor of the pines, the twitter- 
ing of birds, and the hum of insects blend into a single seductive appeal to the 
senses, and the lover who cannot here tell his love, or the maiden who can find 
it in her heart to here say nay, are yet to be found. At this uplifting point Clara 
Louise Kellogg, America's sweet prima donna, has caroled some of her sweetest 
lays, her notes outswelling the music of the birds and the facile echoes wafting^ 
them in happy reverberations until they softly died on the bosom of the upper air. 
Here Rose Terry has caught the secret of some of her sweetest verse, and here one 
of the great painters of the age has drank in the inspiration which his masterly- 
brush has re-created for the world. 

But this story has to do with the old-time inhabitants of the two houses- 
already mentioned, for whom the soft lowing of the cows was their sweetest music, 
the beat of the flail upon the barn floor the master stroke, and the Connecticut 
Courant their pabulum of literature. Farmers Wiswall and Brown had been neigh- 
bors ever since they could remember; they were born in the houses where they 
now lived, as were their fathers before them; they had married and settled upon 
these farms, content to struggle for the very meager subsistence they were able to 
bring from mother Earth, 






A couple of miles below this settlement of two houses were the " Powder 
Mills," whose history had been punctuated from time to time by thunderous ex- 
plosions which shook the mountains and furnished startling variety for this lonely 
place. They, too, are a thing of the past; near-by lines of railway have been laid; 
along their iron tracks the fiery monsters rush each day back and forth through 
Satan's Kingdom, and sparks from locomotives are too dangerous neighbors for 
gunpowder. The shrieks of the engines come back with mighty echoes from the 
rocks, and the massive boulders are sometimes desecrated by the brush of the 
patent medicine man. 

Two miles below the powder mills, and adown the river, was the village where 
the two farmers carried their produce for sale, the chief periodical event in their 
lives being the weekly visit to 
this place — to them a verit- 
able metropolis, the news they 
absorbed furnishing topics for /~"V_~ > 

conversation until the next 
visit. The two families at- 
tended church at Cherry's 
Brook — "to the Brook," they 
called it. While Cherry's / A,- 

Brook is not the name of this 
pretty hamlet on the map, it 
is the name by which it has / 
been known in the local ver- \ 
nacular since long before it 
ever appeared upon a map, be- W~\ 

ing originally so called from 
an old Indian, dubbed " Cher- > 

ry " by the whites, who made 
his home by the little brook 
which flows through the set- 

By fording the river, usual- 
ly an easy thing to do at a 
point just below the farms of 
Wiswall and Brown, the church 
" to the Brook " was more read- 
ily reached than by any other 

route. The Cherry Brook community was one of farmers, and here our friends 
felt more at home than among the more aristocratic church-goers of the village 
below. Every pleasant Sunday morning these farmer folk could be seen in little 
groups outside the " meeting-house " before service, jack-knives in hand, whit- 
tling little pieces of wood to serve as toothpicks during the preaching. With 
the last stroke of the bell the jack-knives closed with a click, were consigned 
to trousers' pockets, and the whittlers wended their way to join the patient wives 
who had for some time been seated within, nibbling the " dill " brought in plentiful 
supply along with cookies and doughnuts for mid-day refreshment, in large black 
bags hung upon the women's arms. 

Church-going was an all-day affair in those days. 

At the date of the beginning of this story Farmer Brown and wife had a little 
son some three years old. A pair of twins, boy and girl, had just been born to 



Farmer Wiswall and wife; the great, fat, bouncing boy seemed to have appropriated 
all the bone, muscle, and flesh that should have been equally divided between the 
two, and the girl, a puny creature, too feeble to be dressed or even cry, lay upon 
a pillow with her little spirit fluttering as though unable to decide whether to go 
or stay. 

In our day a skilled physician would be called to assist such a spark of life in 
its endeavor to locate in the physical body, but at that time the suggestion would 
have been matter for surprise. No medical attendant had been deemed necessary 
to the coming into the world of this little life, and none was thought of to hinder 
it from going out. Now most careful attention would be paid to diet, temperature, 

> and clothing; then Ann Fuller, who lived " f ur- 

f.{"^~, y ther up the mounting," acted as physician, 

ly ;^ %f nurse, and housekeeper; and she treated the 

^ -.y wee bit of humanity to doses of castor oil and 

catnip tea which would have fatally submerged 

any vital spark not clearly foreordained to en- 

1 '. dure. 

Surely we do not die until our appointed 

time. Otherwise how could this little weak, 

\ t J forlorn specimen of humanity ever have strug- 

I ) \ gled through? But it did, and never was there 

' i\ a greater contrast than between these two 

JJ^*~**~" \ \\ I children, Reuben and Reubena. 

I fZ. \ \vA How a child like Reubena ever dropped 

x \ C \ , \ from the infinite into, the Wiswall household 

x V"r" ''*/■ *S passes common comprehension; may be the the- 

osophists and societies for psychical research 

can decide. Farmer Wiswall and wife were 

commonplace people, good as gold in their way, and Reuben was actually stupid; 

but the sister was a delicate, fairy-like creature, instinct with refinement and 


In their growth to boyhood and girlhood the children of the two houses were 
inseparables. Edward, son of the Browns, was a fine specimen, both physically 
and mentally; but Reuben Wiswall was not only dense in mind but huge in bulk, 
length and breadth nearly equal, a vision often stirring others to laughter, and the 
laughter always waking such resentment as she was capable of feeling in the gentle 
sister's heart. Edward began his education in the school " to the Brook," crossing 
the river each day on a small raft of his own building; and each night he imparted 
as much as he could of his acquirements to Reuben and Reubena. Later, Reuben 
became his companion on the raft and in school, but the walk to be taken after the 
river was crossed proved too much for Reubena on the few occasions when she 
tried it. Edward was only too glad to remain her instructor; he was likewise her 
champion and defender whenever they came in contact with the children " further 
up the mounting," who were rough, strong, and pugnacious. 

It was an event in the lives of these children when their parents decided 
to send them to the village school, after the two farmers had talked the matter 
over and Farmer Wiswall had " allowed that Reubeny had a mighty hankerin' arter 
books," and " Reubeny " was his idol. 

It was agreed that through joint use at home of Farmer Wiswall's colt and 
farmer Brown's horse, the Wiswall mare, " Old Dolly," could be given over to the 
children for a daily educational pilgrimage. The combination which they pre- 


sented as they drove back and forth through Satan's Kingdom was something to 
provoke mirth. The old mare was long, lank, lean, and blind in one eye. The 
wagon was a high boxed affair of ancient construction, apparently once yellow, the 
backboard of which had necessarily been removed to 
accommodate Reuben's breadth of beam as he sat upon 
the wagon floor with his feet hanging down behind, for 
by no possible contrivance was he able to occupy the 
seat with Reubena and Edward. Nevertheless, three 
happier children were nowhere to be found. 

Reubena reveled in her school; her father said she 
" tuk to larnin' jest like a duck to water." An observer 
might have deemed her wholly out of accord with her 
surroundings, but Reubena knew no suggestion of things 
otherwise; she appreciated to the full the love and ten- 
derness hidden under the hard-working lives of her 
father and mother and was thoroughly happy. 

Everything possible was done for her comfort and 
pleasure; no sacrifice was considered too great. 

It was another event when an itinerant dealer 

called at Farmer Wiswall's to sell a " melodeon." The 


proposition called for serious consideration, as the pur- 
chase would badly deplete the little store laid by 
against the rainy day and traditional wolf; but when, 
on next going to church, it was learned that half the 
girls " to the Brook " had them, that settled it. Word 
was sent to the " melodeon man "; he brought the in- 
strument for Reubena, and she found it in the parlor one day on return from 
school. Her joy was so great that the good farmer and his wife felt more than 
repaid for their sacrifice. 

The " melodeon man " followed up his first attack by giving singing lessons, 
one evening in each week over " to the Brook," with instruction on the melodeon 
to those who had bought of him. So one more sacrifice was made and " to the 
Brook " old Dolly had to be driven after the return from school on this particular 
evening of the week. This was a great treat to the children. They were all fond 

of music and even Reuben could take 
part. The parents bubbled over with 
delight when, as soon happened, Reu- 
bena became proficient in " Tranca- 
: dillo," "Bounding Billows," and " Tis 

Midnight Hour." 

Almost the only trial which Reu- 
bena experienced in these days was 
her brother's inability to learn the 
slightest thing at school. She loved 
the great hulking fellow far beyond 
the ordinary and shielded him in every 
possible way from the jibes and taunts 
.of his fellows. It was an odd picture, 
of an evening, to see the frail girl 
seated by this young Falstaff with a 
little four-legged stand between them 
bearing a single, sputtering, home- 


made tallow-dip. With slate and pencil her nimble fingers jotted down the figures, 
and then, with earnest enthusiasm, she sought to make them mean something to 
her brother's meagre understanding. With long-enduring patience she explained 

the simple problem and then explained the expla- 

4 nation, but it was all Greek to poor Reuben; and 

;••- t?' when, after a while, he dropped out of the little 

school group, it was a relief to all. The back- 

/ i c board was put into the wagon again and old Dolly 

/, v ; became quite fleet with only Reubena and Edward 

for passengers. 
<%, i Great delights these drives to the two; if 

Reubena expressed a wish for flower or berry by 
}/'-' the wayside Edward was down from the high 

f .—' wagon in a twinkling and Dolly easily learned this 

signal to stop. Reubena rapidly overtook Edward 
f ! -■} in the school lessons and a pleasant little strife 

grew up between them. They were always on 

opposite sides in the spelling matches, and, as a 
rule, were the only ones left standing at the last, each holding the fort for a long 
time, but Reubena rarely failing in carrying off the honors at last, and Edward 
yielding with grace and good nature. On the home drive he was just as spry in 
jumping out for the flowers and berries as though he had not been beaten in 
the battle of words; he seemed to 
know instinctively that it was wo- 
man's prerogative to conquer on / ' 
that field. f 
Time never stood as a "rolling _ 
year " to the hard-working parents 
of these children; it was hard sled- /. 
ding the whole twelve months, but / t v ; r 
there was a little extra pathos in JL a 
their efforts to get something to f ,/ 
serve as presents at Christmas time, ,,/* : | ? \ , 
a festival they had known very little > 
of in their childhood. On one occa- / 
sion Reubena had expressed a wish 
for a green barege veil which was a 

fashion of the time. So, by selling I 

a little more butter and using a lit- 
tle less, pinching a little more here 
and a little more there, the veil was 
bought, rolled up and put into Reu- 

bena's stocking, which it filled to \l - — * 

goodly proportions. Added to this 

was a little round tin box about the ; 

diameter of an old-fashioned penny, x 

two of which it contained. These ** * - : 

coins were Reubena's presents ; 
rather meagre — the whole collect- 
ion — most girls of to-day would think, but a queen was never happier than 
was Reubena on the day she first tied the green veil around the hood Ann Fuller 


had knit and wore the outfit to school, every little while flirting the veil back from 
her face and then quickly drawing it down again, as she had seen her elders do. 

The veil was not at all a source of pleasure to Edward Brown, who by reason, 
of it, missed the sparkling eyes into which he had been wont to look as they made 
their daily pilgrimage as well the peerless color of cheek and' lip far and away 
beyond the skill of Titian or Rubens. It became a bugbear to Reubena herself, 
shutting off, as it did, the free air of heaven 
to which she had always been used; she grew 
to wear it thrown back, at last discarding it 
entirely except in weather when its protection 
was welcome. 

It was a red-letter day in the families of A 

Wiswall and Brown when they attended the 
exercises at the graduation of Edward and 
Reubena. Although they yielded to summer / . 

somnolence during the first part of the pro- 
gramme, they were wide awake enough later 
on when Reubena, in a new dress, the final 
produce of butter and eggs, read her compo- 
sition, and Edward, dressed in his best suit, 
" spoke his piece." Proud parents they were. 
Farmer Wiswall could talk of nothing else 

for months; he declared " thar wan't none on 'em could hold a candle to Reube- 
ny," and Farmer Brown thought as much if he didn't say it, in regard to his boy. 

The school days were now over. The drives came to be sadly missed by the 
two who had enjoyed them so much and so long. Old Dolly was once more put to 
the cart and made to work as though to make up for all the time she had frittered 
away with nothing to do but swing her tail to keep off the flies. The colt was 
sold and the weekly drives to the village for sale of produce with the Sunday 
journeys to church were all of which the overworked horses were capable. Edward 
Brown began full time work upon his father's farm at once and with a right good 
will. He had been engaged to teach the school " to the Brook " the next term, 

which was considered a great opportunity. He 

bargained with himself to put money aside and, 

- % perhaps, go into a business, in the near future, 

§ I in the village which seemed so large a place to 

these dwellers in Satan's Kingdom. Reubena 

r assisted her mother in light household duties. 

She was too frail to attempt heavy work, but she 

m became famous in cookery, an art in which 

P. / .- # many of those old-fashioned people excelled and 

/Jv, X might well be copied by the present generation. 

_./ * No dinner so well cooked or pudding so delicious 

as the ones concocted by "Reubeny" — Farmer 
Wiswall thought. 

Reuben, in these days, was not much of a 
help to his father on the farm, but as he was a success in catching trout, trapping 
rabbits, and snaring partridges, he was able to contribute not a little to the family 

Young schoolmates from the village sometimes made their way to Satan's 
Kingdom for a picnic in summer or a " molasses candy pull " in winter, but the 


young trio were left a good deal to themselves and were quite content. Never an 
evening they did not spend together; and the days, weeks, and months rapidly 
rolled into the past. 

It was a tradition that his Satanic Majesty had never been seen in the king- 
dom which bears his name, but it now happened that he was fairly represented. 
Returning from " the Brook " one day Edward Brown saw a smart looking "team" 
standing before the gate of his home and a little further on a still smarter 
looking man in earnest conversation with his father, both standing in the shadow 
of the big elm. His father was, as usual, whittling, but Edward knew on the 
instant that something was wrong. The interview was a prolonged one, and when 
it ended Edward saw a look in his father's face that he had never seen before and 
never afterward forgot. In some of his trips to the village Farmer Brown had 
made the acquaintance of the man from whom he just parted, a creature accus- 
tomed to prey on his fellows, who, by flattery and deceit, had interested Farmer 
Brown in a scheme for making money which seemed very attractive at the time, 
but which had proved his ruin. Little by little the ready money, savings of a life- 
time of hard labor, had slipped away, and at last the farm too had been mortgaged. 
It was the foreclosure of this mortgage which had brought to the face of the 
father the look of agony witnessed by his son. 

The blow was as crushing as it was unexpected. Friends sought to help, but 
matters had progressed beyond redress, and there was nothing to do but leave the 
old home. A widowed sister living in Massachusetts urged her brother to take 
charge of her farm, and thither the old couple went. It was an agonizing hour 
when they quitted the old hearthstone for good, and deeply trying to the friends 
left behind, for the two families had always been on terms of closest intimacy. As 
Edward Brown was still teaching " to the Brook," he stayed behind and was 
received into Farmer Wiswall's family, who were only too glad to have him with 
them; nevertheless it was a sorry time for them all. 

About two months later Edward came home one night with a countenance 
more than usually thoughtful. Reubena noted it, being ever in touch with his 
moods, and when, after tea and in the deepening shadows, he asked her to take a 
walk to their favorite nook by the little waterfall, she readily consented; there, 
seated under the dome of a great boulder, he told her he had made up his mind to 
go to California. Reubena's heart stopped beating at this, for it flashed over her 
in an instant what life would mean without Edward. He told her that a Mr. Mor- 
rill, who had formerly lived at Cherry's Brook, but had been for many years in 
California, was making a visit to his old home and had visited the school on several 
occasions; on that afternoon he had offered him quite a lucrative position, if he 
would return with him to California. Edward told Reubena that he had conceived 
the hope of thus being able to buy back the old home and of giving his father and 
mother the happiness of ending their days in the home they loved so well, and he 
had decided to go. 

This was not ail he told her, and when they left the little nook the rocks and 
hills of Satan's Kingdom had added one more to their long list of plighted lovers. 
Edward's decision was a great blow to his parents, but he drew, in his letter, so 
vivid a picture of life renewed in the old home that a reluctant consent was given, 
and in a few days he was on his way to the Pacific coast with Mr. Morrill. 

Reubena was lonely enough. She had not known or realized what a part of 
her life Edward Brown had become, because she had always had him, and she 
hugged close to her happy heart the thought that she was his promised wife. How 
pleased she was when his first letter came ! It did not take her long to burst the 




envelope and read the tender words that brought bright blushes to her cheek and 
glad looks to her eyes. She could hardly realize the new situation. Edward her 
lover — such playmates, boys and girls, as they had always been, with never a 
thought beyond, — but it was a happy sensation, and in the receipt of these letters 
she was content to wait. 

As time passed, the letters became filled with the glories and beauties of the 
country to which her lover had gone, and Reubena, with a shade of dismay, de- 
tected a desire to always live in that beautiful land. In each missive, however, he 
wrote, " the goal is near- 
er," for he was succeeding 
beyond his dreams, but r 

just as it was reached, / |, 

after a wait which seemed - I 

an age to these young 

hearts, although it was vf s < 

wonderfully short in view / | 

of the results attained, gf % ■ 

good old Farmer Brown s - 1. \u. 

and his wife both died, 
he first, and she within - - 

a week after. Old peo- 
ple cannot bear transplant- 
ing, especially if the roots 
are as tenderly twined 
about early association as 
theirs had been; the 
double separation from 
their old home and their 
only child proved too 

Meanwhile Edward 
Brown was on his way 
home. How different a —-?? ^^' 

home-coming it was from v -^ ^*" 

the one he had anticipated 
while planning to again 

settle his parents in their old home. He did not know until he arrived that they had 
passed on to a better land, and he was utterly dazed by the unexpected blow. It was 
the greatest trial which had ever befallen him; its pain, and the reason why such a 
thing could be permitted to happen, grapple with them as he would, and as for 
days and nights he did, remained to him an insoluble mystery. It was fortunate 
for his future that in these hours of suffering and fierce questioning, Reubena was 
his constant companion; and one day, as they were sitting near the little waterfall 
where he had first told his love, he gave up the struggle for present comprehension 
and asked Reubena to marry him and go back with him to California. She trem- 
bled from head to foot at the suddenness of his action, and the greatness of the 
change in her life thus opened to her gaze. That Edward had thought of return- 
ing to California had not entered her mind; to leave her parents seemed, for the 
moment, impossible. But Edward, now that he had resolutely turned his face to 
the future, pleaded his cause so eloquently that Reubena was won over to the plan. 
Straightway they went home to tell it, and although the mother's tears fell and 
the father's heart ached, they could not say nay, and Reubena went. 



Transplanted to the beautiful town of Oakland, in the land of sunshine and 
roses, Reubena found herself in her true element, and expanded into one of the 
sweetest of human flowers. Edward Brown was soon able to build a pretty cottage 
next to the home of his most congenial friend, Mortimer McDonald, whose wife and 
little son contributed greatly to Reubena's happiness. Edward and Reubena had 
not been settled long in their new home when they received the following letter 
from Reuben: 

"dear cistur i hev got marid to jain marier alden. i hed ter kas she 
wold'ent giv me no peace kas she didunt want to liv up on the mounting no 
longer, ma is well but pa aint. i ketched 2 rabits and 1 koon last night but she 
aint no hand fer em 

you affekshernait bruthir 

The missive was not dated and its chirography was such as to defy reproduc- 
tion by anything except the photographic art. It was Reubena's first letter from 
home. She read it again and again, and the picture of her childhood's home grew 
vividly before her. She saw the rays of the afternoon sun aslant the kitchen floor 
where the patient, sweet-faced mother stood getting the supper; she heard the 
loud tones of Reuben driving the cows into the yard, where they waited for the 
father to finish a day of hard work by milking them. She saw and almost smelled 
the sweet pinks, just at the right of the kitchen window, where the mother always 
planted them, so that she could see them on the rare occasions when she had an 
opportunity to be seated. Then at the left she saw the three stone steps which 
led down to the garden where the hollyhocks and other perennials bloomed year 
after year, without paying the slightest attention to whether it took two years to 
bloom and three to run out; they were there every time. All this passed as a 
living picture before Reubena's vision. Little wonder that with a childhood so 
happy and a lover next door, she now idealized it all in the retrospect, including 
even poor Reuben, and that Satan's Kingdom became in her imagination the most 
beautiful spot in the world, and ever after so remained. 

Farmer Wiswall and wife lived in a home made desolate by Reubena's absence. 
They walked about the flower garden, among the hollyhocks and phloxes, touching 
with tender remembrance the colors that were " Reubeny's" favorites, tears rolling 
down their withered cheeks as they talked of her. And when Reuben came stalk- 
ing into the house one day with Jane Maria Alden and told them he had " got 
married to her," they felt added desolation as they contrasted this rough, coarse 
girl with their gentle Reubena. But they could only accept the situation, and they 
did it with the same sweet grace with which Reubena had been given up when 
Edward Brown had pleaded. 

Jane?Maria Alden prided herself on being a "worker and a fretter," and she was 
both. She was often heard to say that a woman that couldn't fret " wa'n't no 'count." 
Nevertheless, that there was a kindly spot somewhere in her anatomy Farmer Wiswall 
and wife soon found out. She insisted upon doing all the hard work and taking the 
best possible care of the old people when they were ill, as was not rarely the 
case. Reuben soon ascertained his wife's opinion of a " lazy, shiftless creeter who 
won't do nothin' but set on the river bank and fish all day long;" she whisked him 
around into farm work at a lively rate. Indeed, at the end of the first year of his 
married life, he had lost much of his superfluous flesh and had assumed quite the 
proportions of an ordinary man. 

About this time good Farmer Wiswall dropped in the harness. He was found 
in the hay-field in a dying condition. The tired, worn-out man did not linger long, 


and then Jane Maria buckled the harness straight upon Reuben, and work was 
the order of the day with him from the rising of the sun to the going down of 
the same. 

Reubena received the news of her father's death with a sad heart, for she had 
dearly loved him, but soon after a little daughter was born to her, and grief was 
swallowed up in the joy that only mothers know. Fond hopes and bright anticipa- 
tions filled their hearts as the happy parents gazed upon their first-born, trying to 
determine whether the eyes were blue or black, — dear little eyes that were des- 
tined to shed some bitter tears. Meanwhile a little Kenneth McDonald had been 
growing up in the neighboring home. His first visit to little " Margaret " was an 
amusing affair; he put his arms about her and squeezed her until she grew black in 
the face, and the arms had to be unclasped by force, Kenneth insisting he " wanted 
her all for his own." To pacify him he was told he might have her, whereupon he 
came in the afternoon to carry her home in his little express-wagon. After con- 
siderable coaxing, however, he was persuaded to postpone the removal until Mar- 
garet was a little older, a proposition to which he consented only on the condition 
that he could come every day and see her. 

When little Margaret was three months old, Reubena received another letter 
from Reuben, thus: 

deer cistur 

We hev got a leetle gal. she was born yisturday. i wanted ter kail it 
rubeeny but she didn't so she kails it flory ann. ma was reel disapinted kas she 
says it luks jest like yer. ma is reel tikkled with it. no more. 


This letter was dated, and Reubena afterwards learned that her brother's child 
was born on the same day as her own, which she considered a great coincidence; 
and it was. 

Little Margaret grew rapidly. She and Kenneth McDonald were constant 
companions and fast friends. Their grief was great when, in Kenneth's eleventh 
year, his parents moved to Mexico, taking the boy with them. Kenneth could not 
be made to see why he couldn't take Margaret with him since she had been given 
to him, and once more the arms had to be forced apart from their tight clasp about 
Margaret, she meanwhile pouring out her heart in tears. 

After time, the great healer, had brought back a child's peace to Margaret's 
life, it became one of her chief delights to hear her mother tell of when she was a 
little girl like Margaret and lived next door to papa, and they were playmates just 
as she and Kenneth had been. Margaret had wondered in the most matter of fact 
way if she and Kenneth would get married just as mamma and papa had done. 
Reubena enjoyed these recitals as much as Margaret; distance lent enchantment to 
the home of her childhood, and she never wearied of telling how she went to the 
village school and to church at Cherry's Brook. She told the story so charmingly 
and with so much of love in telling it that it seemed to Margaret like a fairy tale; 
she often pictured in her mind the pretty mother playing with her twin brother 
about the home she so idealized, and " Uncle Reuben " became a hero to be 
worshiped in her youthful imagination. 

Reubena had always sacredly guarded her brother's letters from even her 
husband's eye. She could not bear to see a single smile at her brother's expense, 
and Margaret had never heard the peculiar name of the locality where her mother 
had lived. "The Village" and "the Brook " were household words, but she had 
never heard of " Satan's Kingdom." 


It was a welcome event to Reubena when the railroad across the continent 
was built, and thereupon she made an earnest appeal to her mother to come 
and spend the remainder of her days in the California home; but to the poor worn- 
out old lady a journey to Heaven seemed less of an undertaking, and thither she 
soon went. After this months and even years passed with no word from home. 
Finally, after the longest interval of all, there came a letter from Reuben saying 
" the little gal is ded," but giving no particulars. 

Margaret's education was a matter of absorbing interest to her parents. 
Everything was done for her that love could suggest and money procure, for 
Edward Brown was a successful man; the little house had been exchanged for 
a more pretentious one and their social privileges were of the best. Margaret 
became a belle. All Oakland makes almost daily use of the magnificent ferry-boats 
that ply between that city and San Francisco. Margaret often did so, on shopping 
excursions, or to accompany her father home when the business of the day was 
done. No more beautiful girl than she in this great procession. Admiring glances 
followed her everywhere, but her head was never turned. She was always the 
same sweet, unassuming, genuine Margaret. 

One day, as she was about to step upon the boat and her attention had been 
called aside, she nearly ran against a young man just in the act of stepping off. 
Both were confused and as each hurriedly tried to pass, it happened that they 
dodged from side to side in unison until the only thing left for both to do was to 
stand still and start afresh. The incident brought a smile to the faces of both, and 
as Margaret passed the young man lifted his hat. Margaret thought she had 
never seen so engaging a young man, and Kenneth McDonald knew he had 
never seen a girl so beautiful. But where had he seen her before ? The handsome 
eyes of the young man seemed strangely familiar to Margaret and the haunting 
question so absorbed her that as she entered her father's office she ran flatly 
against her father coming out, which naturally provoked a recital of the encounter 
at the ferry-boat. 

Then father and daughter went together to an entertainment with the result 
that it was past the usual hour when they turned their steps homeward, and dark 
when they arrived. As they approached the house they dimly discerned two figures 
seated upon the veranda, and a nearer view showed Margaret the young man 
of the ferry-boat seated by her mother. She was dumb with surprise for the 
first moment and in another was being presented to her old playmate and com- 
panion, Kenneth McDonald. Both were shy and embarrassed at first, partly be- 
cause of surprise at the change each found in the other, and partly because of 
the ferry-boat pantomime; but the hearty laugh which followed, when the parents 
fully understood about the ferry-boat meeting, cleared the air, leaving behind 
cordiality and good fellowship. Something warmer than cordiality or good fellow- 
ship blazed within Kenneth; he would have given a very great deal to have 
exercised his former right of possession and to have clasped Margaret in the arms 
that had been forced apart on more than one occasion when they had hugged too 

He was on his way to New York to finish his education as a civil engineer and 
had stopped on his journey for the purpose of visiting these friends of his parents 
and renewing his acquaintance with the playmate of his youth. He could hardly 
realize that this magnificent beauty was the same little girl he had wanted " all for 
his own," while Margaret, on her side, could scarcely bring herself to believe that 
this elegant man was the little champion and defender of the days agone. 

The visit of a day or two lengthened into weeks and might have passed on to 


months had not a peremptory notice arrived from the parents in Mexico that he 
must proceed or the vacancy in New York would be filled by another. Kenneth 
had to go, but he had lingered long enough to lose his heart to Margaret who had 
given her own in return. The day came for him to leave, and once more the 
arms found their way about Margaret and once again were forced apart, this 
time by the clock on the mantel ticking off the last second before train time. 
Well-behaved trains are like time and tide : they wait for no man. 

{To be continued.) 




There is a time when Nature lays her wand, 
Her magic wand, across the western sky, 
When all at once, as though some artist hand, 
With genius rare and softest touch, had blent 
Coloring and shade with beauty's richest tints 
O'er some unfinished picture, so, the sky 
(But lately dull and scattered o'er with clouds) 
Is tinged with all the splendor of the sun's 
Departing shafts of mellow lambent light, 
Which, garnered in his daily course, has hid 
Within his bosom, gold to lavish forth 
At evening's quiet hour when he departs. 

Ah ! then it is our minds can soar from earth 
Unfettered as the wild bird free. Far, far 
Through rifts of gorgeous clouds we seem to press 
And almost reach the golden portals still 
To us unope'd as yet, and closely sealed. 

O sunset hour ! To you belong the full heart's sigh, 

Our purest thoughts, the earnest prayer 

For holiness of life, for strength divine. 

Why is this glimpse of untold glories, rich and rare, 

Bestowed to mortal eyes? Ah! why the thrill 

Of rapturous pleasure filling all the soul 

As we behold the sunset sky, and drink 

Our fill of deepest admiration, mixed 

With blissful thoughts of glory unrevealed? 

Why do we turn from such a scene so strong 
In faith? so rested from ourselves, strong e'en 
Once more to battle on, in life's stern war? 
Ah, "God is love" ! And still he gives to us, 
The children of his love, rich gifts to cheer 
Our onward way to Him ; and this among 
The best of gifts, methinks, the sunset hour. 



The towns of Killingly and Thompson, Conn., became interested in the project 
for the settlement of the Northwest Territory through the agency of Rev. 
Manasseh Cutler, D.D., an honored son of Killingly. His son Ephraim secured 
the names of some twenty reputable citizens as original members of the Ohio 
company. Four of these signers went out with Gen. Rufus Putnam. Our 
reporter, Theophilus Knight, set out a few weeks later in more independent 
fashion, and pens this account of his experiences some months after, his return to 
Thompson. The supplementary letter of half a century later tells its own story. 
Mr. Knight is still remembered by our older residents as a quick-sighted, clear- 
headed, chatty old gentleman. He was an old-fashioned Whig in politics, much 
interested in the Harrison campaign of 1840. He was born Dec. 19, 1763, died 
Oct. 15, 1845. 

" Plainfield, March , 1788. I then, according to my roving disposition, 
left friends to travel into the Western country. I traveled through a large extent 
of country and through a number of the states on the continent, among which 
were Connecticut and New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and, when I 
came home, through Maryland. While I was gone I was about thirty miles beyond 
any of the states, up the Muskingum river, where I saw a good deal of good 
land and a good deal of poor broken land that I did not like very well. I was 
there in the city of Marietta two seasons so that I saw something of the climate 
and liked it very well, and many other things, but upon the whole look on every 
side, I thought that the country was not so much better than any other that it 
would pay a man for carrying a large family to such a wild wilderness country as 
that, and inhabited with savages and wild beasts of the forest. I think that the 
best and most fertile country for so large a tract of land that I saw in my travels 
was the state of Pennsylvania. That is a level, fine country, but I did not find the 
inhabitants so agreeable as our New England people. The women do a great deal 
of the farming work. I used to see great splay-footed Dutch girls (for that state 
is chiefly inhabited with Germans) spreading dung, carting wood, swingling flax, 
etc., etc. I thought that the ladies did not strike my fancy at all, but, however, I 
do not consider myself under any obligations to have any concern with them. So 
I traveled through the country without any great deal of anxiety about the 

"I was forty days on my journey and I saw a great many things in traveling 
through the country that were worth making observations upon, but my circum- 
stances and mode of traveling was such that I could not do as I should have 
liked to have done, but I think I learned a good deal of one thing and another that 
was pleasing. 

" There were eight of us young men that had set out and had four horses and 
a wagon, and put our clothes, farming-tools, provisions into it, and off we set 
and had a very merry journey through the country. Part of the way we had eleven 
of us in company, and sometimes we were as merry as people need to be. Some- 
times we met with disagreeable things, bad luck, bad traveling, etc., etc., but upon 


the whole, we did pretty well. I left Marietta Nov. 12, 1789, in company with 
Arnold Clarke that belonged to Newport, R. I., and he was a very agreeable, 
pretty man, and we had a very good journey home. I arrived home the day three 
weeks that I left the rivers Ohio and Muskingum. We had fine weather for the 
season and a good journey, but I found it a long road and expensive, being so long 
among strangers. But always found people ready to wait upon us for our money, 
and furnish us with that which was good to eat and drink, I think much better 
than in general is at New England. 

''Thursday, December, 1789. Got home from my tour in the Western coun- 
try; was gone from home one year and eight months; found my friends in general 
all enjoying a good share of health. My father died in my absence ; was all the 
near relative that died while I was gone. I found my friends all glad to see me to 
appearance, how they felt at heart I can't say. I will leave that for their own con- 
science to determine. As misfortune happens to all people in some degree, so I 
-have my share among the rest. 26 June, 1791, had gone out from home on some 
business, was returning home, my horse fell with me and broke my leg." 

It was during the confinement incident upon this misfortune that Mr. Knight 
penned this reminiscence of his Western journey. Other details are found in the 
subjoined letter written more than half a century later, but never before published. 

" To John S. Williams, Esq., editor and proprietor of The American Pioneer : 

" Sir — Very recently in the post-office in the town I reside in I took up The 
American Pioneer extra and as I was one of almost the first adventurers into the 
then wilderness country I thought it might perhaps be some satisfaction to some 
people, perhaps to many in that state, to know that the man is now living that, 
with his companions that went out with him, built the first house or cabin that was 
built in the then Northwestern Territory by New England people (my companions 
that went out into that country with me are all of them in their graves). 

" We did not belong to what was called the Ohio Company at that time. We 
fixed out, or our friends for us, and went upon our own hook. Gen. Rufus Putnam 
from Rutland, Mass., and Major White from Danvers, and Col. Ebenezer Sprout 
from Rhode Island, arrived there with their respective parties on April 7, 1788, and 
landed on the point of land opposite Fort Harmer, then an entire wilderness. I 
and my party arrived and landed at the same point on the 18th of May following. 
There were six of us young men from the town of Thompson where I now reside 
in the state of Connecticut went in company and we had a team of four horses 
and wagon. We were just forty days from the day we started from Thompson 
until the day we landed in the then Northwestern Territory, now state of Ohio. 
Three of my companions in that journey laid their bones in that country and three 
returned to New England. Sir, when I look back to that spot and make my 
reflections of what it was then and what I hear it now is, it seems as if it could not 
be that in one man's short career in this transitory life there could be such an 
alteration in the condition of that place. When I first landed in that place, when 
the people were all in from their labor I could see and speak to all the people in 
that place or settlement in five minutes ; now more than one million souls ! 

" I saw in this week's publication from a Hartford, Conn., newspaper that the 
■organization of the first Civil Court of Jurisprudence was held at Campus Martius, 
Sept. 2, 1788. That I was an eye-witness to. There were no suits of law to be 
tried, but they went through all the ceremonies of opening and adjourning the 
eourt. I was present at the landing of the first family that arrived in the settle- 
ment — Gen. Tupper and his family, and others from Chesterfield, Mass., Major 


Coburn with his family, and Major Cushing and his family, all from Brookfield y 
Mass. In the course of the summer several families from Rhode Island, Capt. 
Deval and others, arrived. We were entirely without females in our settlement 
for over four months. I attended the funeral of the first man from New England 
that was buried in that settlement. He was killed by a fall off the bridge that was 
building between the town and the stockade. He was trepanned, but died soon 
after. His name was Joshua Cheever from Massachusetts. 

" I was present at the first celebration of the American Independence that was 
celebrated in that territory ; oration delivered by Rev. Manasseh Cutler. He has 
a son, Ephraim t Cutler, who has been a man of considerable note in that state. 
For entertainment had a pike barbecued that weighed twenty-five pounds. I was 
present and attended the funeral obsequies of Judge Varnum, the most splendid 
funeral I ever saw. He was buried under a military escort by all the officers of 
the garrison, a company of United States troops, and martial music. Many old 
revolutionary officers and Indian chiefs in a bundance, headed by old Cornplanter, 
the Seneca chief, a very noted man of his tribe — but he is dead ; died not long 
since. Then followed the common citizens of the settlement. A very long pro- 
cession to travel in a forest. He was the second adult person that was buried in 
that state. 

" I saw Major Doty and two companies of United States troops commanded 
by Captains Strong and McCurdy set sail from Fort Harmer to go down the river, 
and build a fort, where Cincinnati is now built, the greatest commercial city in 
any of the Western states. Pittsburg, I expect, is the greatest manufacturing city, 
but Cincinnati the most commercial. We purchased our boat a number of miles 
up the Youghagany river above what was then called Smeral's Ferry, where the 
Ohio Company built their boat to go down the river in the spring. That is thirty- 
six miles above Pittsburg, which was then a village containing a few log houses, 
right at the point of land between the two great rivers that form the Ohio. We 
started from there Friday night, with a boat loaded with eleven horses, two cows, 
a great Maryland wagon, all our provision for the summer, and thirty souls, all 
stowed away in a boat twelve feet wide and thirty feet long, and it was full. We 
went ashore at Wheeling a few minutes Saturday night. One or two houses was 
all I recollect seeing at that place, and what is it now ? We arrived at our 
destined port Sunday night, just before sundown. We were just about forty-eight 
hours from Pittsburg to Marietta, a distance of two hundred miles. Our great 
Maryland wagon, eight horses, and one cow, and a number of our souls went on 
down the river to Kentucky. That was the last we ever saw of those people. 

" Now, sir, if you can pick out any part of the above narrative that you think 
will be of any amusement to any of your readers, use it just as you please. He is 
an old man now in the seventy-ninth year of his age, and he won't have any disa- 
greeable feelings if you look it over and then commit it to the flames, for I have 
outlived all my youthful companions in my native land, and I presume I should 
not find perhaps a single person in Marietta that would know me or anything 
about me. You say in your extra you wish to see name of writer. I subscribe it. 

"Theophilus Knight, 
"Thompson, northeast corner, State of Connecticut, 1841." 


HOEVER comes into Lebanon center along the south turn- 
pike is charmed by glimpse of roofs showing in neighborly 
contiguity among fine old elms and maples, above which a 
gilded church vane flashes in the sun. 

Ascending the slope of well-beaten road is to catch the balsamic breath of a 
pine grove at the left and find one's self at once in the heart of the town — before 
lying a mile long green ; a double roadway marked by stately trees, houses whose 
building date from ante-revolutionary days, and other houses of more modern 
architecture, and facing the road that runs east and west from Windham to Col- 
chester the old gray-painted brick church, with its clock dials turned to the four 
points of the compass like watchful eyes marking the flight of time by deep-toned 
bell; and beyond, and on each side, and everywhere, the hills — wonderful in 
winter beauty of purple brown leaflessness softened by snow chrism ; a miracle of 
spring buddings when apple orchards swell into bloom ; abounding in cool shadows 
and suggestions of retreat during summertide, and in autumn a splendid apotheosis 
of coloring. 

The hills of Lebanon have been likened to the hills of Lenox, but unlike 
Lenox the old town does not waken to fashionable life with coming of summer. 
Restless rest-seekers have not descended upon it in numbers ; no wealthy mag- 
nates are building themselves villas to be closed with the falling of the leaf, yet 
ever and anon come some who love nature for its own sake, and who know what 
wealth of historical interest centers in this quiet place. 

The territory which now constitutes the town was claimed by the Mohegan 
chief, Uncas. After the destruction of the Pequot fort at Mystic by Maj. John 
Mason the bravery and power of the English so impressed Uncas that he seems to 
have felt their friendship could defend him against any foe, so from time to time 
he ceded lands to the colony of Connecticut. 

The first proprietor within the town limits was Maj. Mason himself. In 1663 
the General Assembly of the colony gave him for meritorious service five hundred 
acres of land in any unoccupied territory he might choose, and the gallant Major, 
who must have had an eye for the beauties of nature as well as for the trail of the 
Indian, looked away over the southwestern slopes of Poquechanneeg recently 
ceded to the colony by Uncas, was pleased therewith, and the land was surveyed 
and formally conveyed to him in 1665. In 1666 the General Assembly gave Rev. 
James Fitch, son-in-law of Maj. Mason, one hundred and twenty acres adjoining 
Mason's tract, to which, for favors received, was added by gift of Oweneco, son 
and successor of Uncas, a strip five miles long and one mile wide. This area was 

s 4 8 


increased by a goodly purchase in the names of Josiah Dewy and William Clarke, 
and in 1692 Oweneco conveyed to four proprietors, Capt. Samuel Mason, Capt. 
John Stanton, Capt. Benjamin Brewster, and John Burchard a tract called " ye five 
mile square purchase." When to these holdings were joined three smaller sections 
known as "ye gore," "ye one mile propriety," and "ye great meadowes," the sev- 
eral owners " adjudged these lands sufficient for a plantation," and " in order that 
ye Worshippee of goode bee there sett up, ye Kingdom of Christ enlarged," they 
marked out streets and apportioned the land in house-lots of forty-two acres, 
"With all other juste divisions of Uplande and Meadowes as shall hereafter bee 


agreed upon," and among the names of individuals to whom grants were made is sand- 
wiched this decision : " To ye Minister of Ye Gospel that shall settle here one lott." 

We of the present day who love this fair Lebanon made for us out of a wilder- 
ness like to think that our ancestors were led by instinct for the beautiful to lay 
out two wide streets encircling a mile-long green, but the early annals of the town 
show that the now fertile green was then but a dense alder swamp, and " because 
of ye wettnesse of ye Soile " the settlers who came in so soon as the five-mile pur- 
chase was fully open for occupancy built their houses on the dryer ground of the 
edge of the slope extending back on each side. Thus between the lines of dwell- 
ings was left a swampy space, where cat-birds sang and nested among the alders, 
and where frogs held nightly spring concerts from the cool depths of more than 
one miasma-breeding pool. But malaria was not a fashionable malady two hun- 
dred and some odd years ago, and though the staunch settlers may have shaken 
often enough with chills, which must have prevailed to some extent in all the new 
places, they continued to fell trees and to clear out underbrush, to plow, to plant, 
to reap, using all their powers and energies to win from the unsubdued soil the 
necessaries of existence. 

Probably in the twenty-nine years elapsing between the time of the land gift to 



Maj. Mason and the making of the five-mile square purchase some pioneers built 
log cabins about the slopes of Poquechanneeg, and with their wives and children 
braved possible perils from Indians and probable perils from wild beasts, and so 
did somewhat to make the place known to civilization, for, though in many cases 
the new " plantations" from one cause or another proved failures and were aban- 
doned, the settlement of Lebanon seemed assured from the time of marking out 
the first streets and home lots. The proprietors organized, " choyse" their officers, 
held "legal Towne meetings," and kept their records in cramped writing, but 
though the musical Indian name of Poquechanneeg had early been changed by the 
Rev. James Fitch to Lebanon because of certain large cedars growing in his 
domain, it was not until 1697 that the General Assembly entered this item: 
" Ordered by this Court that ye new Plantation toe ye westward of Norwich 
bounds bee called Lebanon." 

Now arises trouble about boundaries, and in 1699 the General Assembly made 
record of this sort : " Whereas, differences between Lebanon and Colchester hath 
proved much toe ye 
Prejudice of both 
places and impedi- 
mentall toe ye com- 
fortable Proceedings 
in ye settlementt 
thereof These pro- 
posals are ye nearest 
that can bee agreed 
unto." Then is given 
the permanent divid- 
ing line between the 
towns, which line 
must have been satis- 
factory as nothing 
more is heard con- 
cerning the matter. 

In 1700 the General Assembly made the following entry : " Free liberty is by 
this Assembly granted toe Ye Inhabitants of Lebanon toe embody themselves in 
Church estate, and alsoe toe settle an orthodoxe minister toe dispense Ye Ordi- 
nances of God toe them, they proceeding therein with ye consent of neighbor 
churches as ye Lawe in such cases doth direct." 

Though from the time that the pioneer settlers built their log cabins religious 
services had been held each Sabbath at some one of the different homes, it was 
not until November of the above-mentioned year that the church was really formed 
and a site for a meeting-house " fixed and established forever " upon the highway 
running across the green. The town records show "ye sum of ten lbs." raised 
toward building what must have been a small and roughly finished edifice, and "an 
orthodoxe minister," Rev. Joseph Parsons, was called to preach predestination and 
the wrath of God toward evil doers. They wanted strong doctrine and plenty of 
it, these men with Puritan principles, and sat reverently through morning and 
afternoon sermons which extended into "seventhly" and "ninethly." Not so hard 
for grown-ups, animated by the spirit which sent their fathers to this country in 
1620, but how little backs must have ached and little heads must have nodded 
despite the dreaded tithing-man, and the beat of drum calling folk to church must 




have sounded dreary indeed in the ears of our ancestors of tender years. This 
meeting-house was pulled down and a larger one built in 1732, the second one 
having a belfry and a bell, which was quite a distinction in the days when few towns 
could afford anything of the kind, and in 1806 this church being in need of repairs 
was pulled down and replaced by the one now standing. During the hundred 
and ninety-five years since the church was formed there have been but nine 
pastorates ! 

None of the early Connecticut towns were organized under formal act of 
incorporation, but after securing the offices of a minister their next step was to ask 
that they might become invested with town privileges. Consequently the same 
session which conferred right of embodiment in church estate granted also " toe ye 



: ... . : 

Inhabitants of Lebanon all such immunities, privileges, and powers as generally 
other townes within ye colony have and doe enjoy." 

But though Lebanon was now fully organized, with church, school, a military 
company called " a train-band," and was about to take its place by deputies in the 
General Assembly with other towns of the colony, its advance was hindered by un- 
certainty as to bounds and titles of lands. In 1704 the public records say " there 
were greate difficulties and troubles among ye Inhabitants of Lebanon through ye 
unsettledness of their Landes," and a surveyor was appointed to run the south line 
of the five-mile-square purchase. In 1705, after William Clarke was sent to the 
May session as the first deputy from this town and Samuel Huntington sent in 
October, the General Assembly passed an act giving all lands in question to the 
purchasers and proprietors, " their heirs and assigns forever." This act estab- 
lished peace, and brotherly love continued. 

The tradition tells of a kind of stockaded fort to which the people could^flee 
in times pf danger and which was built near the center in the settlement's first 
days. It does not appear that there was much disturbance from Indians — those of 




this section being very friendly, in league with the English and dependent upon 
them, so a period of tranquil prosperity followed the establishment of boundaries. 
The men of Lebanon " layed out " roads and built bridges ; placed saw and 
grist mills, "voated at legal town meetings" that all horses should be branded and 
all cattle ear-marked ; that the swine be allowed to go at large " when yoked and 
ringed as ye Lawe directs," they be kept out of the common field, and that all swine 
found therein "shall bee liable toe bee pounded — which latter injunction doubt- 



less was carried out in both senses of the word, for even in colonial days when 
blue laws prevailed what farmer could keep his temper upon finding pigs in his 
corn ? They " voated " to widen the two principal streets by compelling every 
man " that hath a house that butts upon ye Streete toe cutt down ye bushes halph- 
way across and keep ye Streete cleare — that is toe say he shall hoLde Woods off 
his Lott ; " and deciding that Heaven's first law should prevail upon earth they 
also "voated " that " as order is ye only way of management of Publick Concearns 
any Person in Towne meeting who speaks without leave of ye Moderator shall paye 
two Shillings and six pence in Country paye, and any Person so refusing toe doe 
shall have distress made upon his Estate for ye Money." It is to be presumed 


that after this all persons consulted the moderator, and so avoided more distress 
than life would naturally hold for them. 

Besides so systematically conducting the business of the town these sturdy 
men fixed a bounty upon every " woolf " head ; fought bears, wild cats, and " other 
beastes " — such as coons, muskrats, minks, and woodchucks, with which the forest 
primeval abounded and which did much damage in field and fold ; they gathered 
their scanty crops of corn, rye, pumpkins, turnips, beans, and peas ; they swingled 
their flax and hatcheled their tow ; they ate of wild turkey, bear's meat, and ven- 
ison until flocks should increase — rendering thanks " for such things as ye Lorde 
gives his people." The women spun and wove, and made and mended, keeping 
their hearts as well as they kept their houses — and children grew up in obedience 
to parents and fear of God ; the girls, like the Vicar of Wakefield's wife, to read 
English without much spelling, and to be keepers at home ; the boys to study 
Latin and public affairs, and to fall sensibly in love with the girls — whereupon at 
an early age they " were married together according toe ye ordinance of God and 
ye Legal Prescription of ye Commonwealth." Yet the natural heart of youth 
sometimes manifested itself in " unrighteous whisperings and smiles " during ser- 
mon time ; in being averse to con essays under such names as " A Spiritual Mus- 


2 53 


tarde Pott toe Make ye Soul Sneeze with Devotion," and " Crumbs of Comfort for 
Chickens of Grace ; " it is recorded that " certain boyes " beat a drum late one 
night under some one's window, and other " boyes " were fined for " gallopping 
threw ye Toll Gate without payment of Toll." 

Many barrels of rum were disposed of — unpleasant results being most notice- 
able when the sons of Uncas imbibed too much of " the white man's fire-water" ; 
cider flowed freely on "training days " ; and from a bowl of strong punch the min- 
ister was treated when making calls upon his parishioners. We who live in the 
days of temperance crusades marvel whether some divine did not more than once 
find himself fuddled upon theological questions and a bit at sea regarding things 
secular also when he had been making many calls of a biting winter afternoon 
among over-hospitable people. Truly time makes ancient good uncouth ! 

Though little danger from Indians threatened this place itself some of the 
original settlers were killed in an expedition against the savages near Albany, and 
in 1709 during Queen Anne's 
war eleven men from Lebanon 
joined an expedition against 
Canada. In the troubles in 
which the mother country 
was engaged the colonies 
were of course involved, and 
Lebanon was among the fore- 
most towns in the Spanish 
war of 1739, in King George's 
war ; in the war with France 
in 1744 ; and in the French 
and Indian war, which began 
in 1754 and ended in America 
in 1759 with the conquest of 

But despite these draw- 
backs Lebanon gained rapidly 
in wealth and population. 

From the first it paid heed to teaching the young idea how to shoot, and 
after 1743 a High school was kept for thirty-seven years in a gambrel-roofed brick 
schoolhouse on the green by " one Nathan Tisdale," whose fame as pedagogue 
brought pupils not only from surrounding towns and colonies but from North and 
South Carolina, from Georgia, and even from the West Indies. Tisdale's grave in 
the old Torrey Hill burying-ground is marked by a stone testifying to his many 
"virteues," and the lengthy inscription is surmounted by the head of a distressed 
looking cherub set between impossible wings. Yet even grotesque carving cannot 
kill the memory of one who did so much toward fitting youth for life. 

Various trades were carried on here. Cloth was woven, and leather was tan- 
ned ; boots and shoes were made to order by the town shoemaker, who took the 
measure of the feet needing to be shod ; saddles and harnesses were made by the 
saddler ; axes, hoes, scythes were fashioned at other shops ; barrels and casks were 
turned out by the cooper ; greater activity doubtless being lent to the town by 
the extensive commerce of land and sea carried on under Capt. Joseph Trumbull. 

After the captain's son Jonathan was graduated from college his heart turned 
toward the ministry, but he soon resigned his parish in a neighboring town so that 
he might become the prop of his father's declining years, and the people of Leba- 



non at once recognized his administrative ability by appointing him to obtain from 
the General Assembly leave to hold and regulate fair and market days ; and the 
same were held twice a year — traders coming from long distances ; people from 
surrounding towns pouring in ; the wide double streets being alive with the bustle 
and traffic consequent upon such occasions. 

Other and more important offices crowded upon young Trumbull. The busy 
merchant fourteen times represented his town as deputy to the General Assembly ; 
three times filled the office of speaker ; was assistant for twenty-two years ; for 
one year was side judge ; and for seventeen years chief judge of the County Court 
of Windham county ; was for nineteen years probate judge of Windham district ; 
was once elected assistant judge, and four times chief justice of the Superior Court 
of the colony ; and for four years was deputy governor. It is not strange that 
having filled all these positions for his town and colony satisfactorily, he was chosen 
governor of Connecticut in 1769, which office he held for thirteen years. 

Now the mutterings of revolution were in the air, and Lebanon was stirred. 
At a freemen's meeting in April, 1770, held because of the Boston massacre which 
occurred the previous March, a committee " met and voted and passed a draft of 
resolves or declaration of the rights and liberties which we look upon as infringed 
by Parliament;" then follows the draft, which reveals the hand of the firm and 
fiery patriot, William Williams. In August of the same year, a town meeting was 
called in reference to sending delegates to a general meeting of the mercantile 
and landed interests of New Haven, to consider proper measures for supporting 
the " Non-importation Agreement." They voted unanimously to send two dele- 
gates, one of whom was William Williams, and elected a committee "to inspect the 
conduct of all persons in this town respecting their violating the true intent and 
meaning of said non-Importation Agreement;" and the committee at once inspected 
a certain somebody who owned to having tea from Rhode Island, — " but yet he 
would not purchase any more or otherwise contrary to said Agreement, and would 
store what he had;" whereupon the town voted it satisfactory, and dismissed him. 
What a hot place for Tories and half-hearted patriots this must have been ! 

W T hen the infamous Boston Port Bill took effect in June of 1774, Lebanon was 
not behind other loyal towns in showing sorrowful indignation. Bells were muffled 
and tolled a strange, solemn peal from day-dawn to day-close. The town-house 
door was hung with black, and the infamous Act affixed thereto; shops were shut 
and their windows covered with black, and a fast was kept by proclamation of the 
Governor. At evening " a respectable number of freeholders " met on short no- 
tice at the town-house, passing declarations of sympathy with Boston and resolves 
to do what they could to retain the just rights and privileges of the country. 

But Lebanon citizens could do more than pass resolutions. When, on the 
Sunday following the battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775, a messenger rode here on 
a foam-flecked steed, entered the meeting-house in the midst of services, and cried 
out that the blood of their brethren had been spilled in battle and the crisis had 
come, scores of men sprang up in their seats, — volunteers for freedom ! The 
services were suspended; the people hurried from the church, anxious, agitated, 
yet thrilling with enthusiastic courage, and beat of drum called those who would 
to take up arms for their country. The store of Jonathan Trumbull was set as the 
center from which the soldiers who now went to the relief of Boston were supplied, 
and it was Trumbull himself, the loyal Governor of a loyal colony, who, with his 
sons and his son-in-law, William Williams, labored among a crowd of others to pre- 
pare and hasten forward the supplies. 

From that time until the end of the war Lebanon sent many men to battle — 


2 55 

and some came back with honors of rank, and some came maimed for life, and some 
came not at all! And the women who stayed at home wept and worked, and loved 
and suffered; sent supplies of food and clothing, and prayers of pure hearts after 
their dear ones, and so held up the hands of those who fought for freedom. 

One bright day in the following June, " Miller Gay," as he was familiarly 
called, heard a " holloa " wafted across the fence of his cornfield, and looked up to 
see a small keen-eyed man who sat his horse with military erectness, beckoning to 
him from the roadside. It was Capt. James Clark. 

"I have left the Lord to look after my crops, Neighbor Gay," he said, "and I 
am getting up a company to join Prescott and Putnam * I want you as drummer." 

Gay left his hoe standing in the row where he had been at work, and went in 
to consult his wife, who, rising from her spinning, kissed him and bade him go; 


and Capt. Clark's company of a hundred men marched away to Miller Gay's 

They made the ninety miles to Charlestown Neck in three days, and with two 
other Connecticut companies advanced up Bunker Hill at the moment when Put- 
nam, despairing of reinforcements, ordered Prescott to sound the retreat. With 
these fresh companies on hand Putnam called for another stand against the enemy, 
but ammunition was exhausted, and the newly-arrived troops could only cover the 
retreat of their brave countrymen by pouring volley after volley into the British 
ranks, — Capt. Clark urging his men to stand ground so long as possible, firing 
himself until his musket was too hot to handle, — then allowing a stubborn falling 
back in the direction of the army whose retreat had really been a victory which 
stands as one of the great battles of the world. 

Capt. Clark's name was among those of the leaders who fought bravely and well 
at Harlem Heights and White Plains, and after the war he came home with the shoul- 
der-straps of a Colonel. What gladness beyond words must have been his, as upon 
the good steed which had borne him through many battles, he rode into the town of 
his boyhood once again! No roar of cannon and rattle of musketry now. No 



groans of dying men through powder-smoke. Instead, the serene blue sky above, 
the peaceful fields about, and beyond at his home the welcome of wife and children 
awaiting him. It was long since he had heard from home, for in those perilous 
days the usual slow methods of communication by letter were often interrupted, 
and messengers did not always reach their destination, and because of his joy in 
his return his sympathies went out the more readily to some one whom he knew 
must have met with loss, as reaching the foot of Torrey Hill, he saw a funeral pro- 
cession wind into the cemetery. He turned and followed after the people. He 
heard the " Dust to dust and ashes to ashes;" then, as he drew nearer, the people 
fell back with strangely startled faces, and he saw that it was his own wife who 
knelt weeping there by the grave of their little twin daughters. 

The year before his death, when he was 95, Col. Clark was one of the forty 
survivors of the battle who were present at the laying of the corner-stone of Bunker 
Hill monument by 
Lafayette, in 1825, on 
the fiftieth annivers- 
ary of the battle. 
Lafayette, who had 
been in Lebanon, es- 
pecially noticed Col. 
Clark, and upon hear- 
ing of his three days' 
march from Lebanon 
and of his pressing 
into the engagement, 
he, in the warmth of 
his Frenchman's 
heart, kissed him, say- 
ing, "You were made 
of good stuff !" 

Somewhat away 
from the center and overlooking a superb sweep of hills, the old Clark home- 
stead stands where it has stood for nearly two hundred years, — a house of 
ample, quaint rooms and sloping roof. Upon the corner of the highway leading 
to Windham, the house where lived William Williams, one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, still fronts the pretty green as when the settlers 
raised its stout timbers; and further along the opposite street, near the house that 
was Governor Trumbull's home, the Stars and Stripes and a small French flag float 
in fair day breezes to mark the little gambrel-roofed War Office. 

In this building, where Trumbull conducted his extensive commerce, the War 
Council of the colony held most of its sessions, and it became, by force of circum- 
stances, not only military but naval headquarters. Across its threshold have 
stepped Washington, Lafayette, Count Rochambeau, Marquis de Chastellux, Baron 
de Montesquieu, Duke de Lauzun, Admiral Tiernay, Generals Sullivan, Knox, Put- 
nam, Parsons, Spencer, Samuel Adams, John Adams, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, 
Benjamin Franklin, and a host of other famous patriots, bearing messages of weal 
or woe, and counseling together in " the days that tried men's souls." 

In the Trumbull tomb at Lebanon lie the ashes of the great and good war 
governor, Jonathan Trumbull, Sr.; his eldest son, Joseph, first commissary-general 
of the American army; his second son, Jonathan, private secretary and first aid- 
de-camp to General Washington, and afterwards governor of this state; his third 



2 57' 

son, David, commissary under his brother throughout the Revolution, and his son- 
in-law, William Williams, who gave himself with tongue and pen and estate to the 
cause of the colonies — sending cattle and gold to Valley Forge during the gloomy 
winter of 1777, and knowing that if the cause of independence failed his head must 
pay the forfeit for his signature attached to the famous declaration. Not far from 
the Trumbull tomb is the grave of Col. Clark, who was buried with military honors; 
about him sleep many Revolutionary heroes. In what other little country burying- 
ground rest so many illustrious dead ? 

Another of the Trumbulls, who does not sleep with his fathers in the old tomb 
and of whom we must speak, is John Trumbull, the artist. Though distinguished 
for patriotic zeal and labors during the Revolution, he is best known as one of our 
most celebrated painters. In 1780, after holding important positions in the army, 
he went to England, with assurances of safety as a non-combatant, to study paint- 
ing under Benjamin West — but soon after, through excitement caused by the 


execution of Andre he was arrested and imprisoned eight months. Upon his 
release he returned to Lebanon, and when the war was over he resumed his studies 
under West — producing some of the finest historical and war paintings, and some 
of the best portraits our country can show. " The Battle of Bunker Hill," and the 
" Delaration of Independence " are two of his best known paintings, and the most 
interesting of his portraits is the one of himself — which hangs in the Trumbull 
Gallery of the Yale Art School, where are fifty-seven specimens of his work. He 
spent his later years in New York, where he was connected with the American 
Academy of Fine Arts, and was buried in a vault prepared by himself on the Yale 
campus in New Haven, beneath the Trumbull Gallery. 

There is a house to which Lebanon people point with pride as the birthplace 
of another governor of their state — William A. Buckingham, chief magistrate of 
Connecticut during our Civil War, and one of the noblest men who have claimed 
kinship with the town. His fine face as it is shown in later photographs brings 


back vividly to the writer that same face looking kindly upon her, a very small and 
very much abashed maid, who, in meeting, he as her father's friend, took up in his 
arms and kissed. The place where he was born is known as the Buckingham 
place, and, shadowed by tall trees which lend an air of distinction to its architec- 
ture, it draws the attention of all who enter town by the south turnpike. 

The streets of Lebanon are quiet enough now, but sitting beneath one of the 
ancient elms on the upper green it is not difficult to imagine six brilliant French 
regiments under Duke de Lauzun and Count Rochambeau quartered in town for 
many weeks — we can see smoke rolling upward from the huge brick oven where 
the soldiers' rations were cooked; gaily uniformed officers are moving about camp- 
houses behind the church; pennons are swelling in the June breeze, bands are 
playing, an orderly gallops across the green from the barracks near the stream 
which carried " Miller Gay's " grist mill and where a deserter was shot by order of 
the Duke. A fairly written story, which appeared in the New York Sun and was 
widely copied, credits this deserter with keeping tryst until so late an hour that 
his life was the penalty for being out beyond permission, but alas! history states 
that he stole a pig and fled to the woods because of the Duke's warning to the 
regiments that no further depredations among the town folk who so generously 
provided for them should pass unpunished. How gladly would we fancy him 
a chivalrous lover, forgetting as he looked in his sweetheart's eyes that time 
waited for no man, but " the pretty Prudence " melts into a fictitious heroine by 
comparison with cold facts, and the French deserter becomes as ignoble a person 
as " Tom, the piper's son," whom we learned to despise so long ago as we pored 
over the ballads of Mother Goose! We find ourselves wondering if Washing- 
ton really will review the troops as we hear he is to do before the termina- 
tion of his anticipated visit to his trusted friend and counselor, " Brother Jona- 
than," as he called the good old governor, thus giving to the states the name 
under which they often figure; we question as to whether the noble general's suit 
will bear token of Madam Trumbull's fine scarlet cloak which she so generously 
gave to be cut into trimming for the soldier's uniform; we have indistinct recollec- 
tion of a story involving a cherry tree and a hatchet and a boy who couldn't tell a 
lie. Then we are rousing with a start, to find that instead of stage coach horn blow- 
ing adown the turnpike the ring of a bicycle bell is in our ears as a wheelman darts 
by; the Revolution is of the past; and we have dreamed ourselves half asleep 
here in the shade of this old elm, which, if it could but speak, might tell us more 
thrilling tragedies, more charming love stories, more state secrets, more delightful 
reminiscences of everyday life in the olden time than can anything ever written. 



Over two hundred and six years ago, in the spring of the year 1690, the Gen- 
eral Court of the Colony of Connecticut was the recipient of a petition. It was 
subscribed by twenty-four persons, residents of the original town of Wethersfield, 
residing and owning property on the east side of the Connecticut, or, as it was 
then known, the Great River. Although the General Court had been exercising 



its varied functions, at the time this petition was presented, for a period of about 
forty years, it had never before had such a petition presented for its consideration. 

It seemed that these thirty or forty householders living on the east side of 
the river, had determined to ask the General Court to be released from their obli- 
gations to the town of Wethersfield, and had taken this method of making their 
wish known to that body as it was the tribunal authorized to decide such matters. 
The parent town at a meeting held December, 1689, had materially assisted their 
residents on the east side of the river in their efforts to form a new township, by 
passing a vote which was in substance, that in case the General Court would grant 
their request, no dissenting voice would be raised by the town of Wethersfield, but 
that the inhabitants should continue a part of the township of Wethersfield, and 
should continue to contribute their proportion to all "publick charges " until such 
time as they shall have an " allowed minister " settled among them. 

After becoming deliberation the General Court, on May 8, 1690, granted the 
petitioners an act of incorporation, and advised them to be " cautious how they 



improved this privilege," and also embodied in the document the provision expressed 
in the vote of Wethersfield, regarding their duty to that town in the matter of 
public charges, and further stipulated that these charges should continue until they 
had a "good orthodox minister settled among them." 

Two years later, in July, 1692, the " good orthodox minister" which it was nec- 
essary to settle among them, to be completely severed from the parent town, was 
found in the person of Rev. Timothy Stevens, a graduate of Harvard College. His 
salary was placed at sixty pounds a year, " current money," with ten pounds more 
to be added after five years. During his later ministry, however, we find by refer- 
ence to the town records that in 1714 his salary was to be paid in grain, if the rev- 
erend gentleman would accept the same. Mr. Stevens did accept it, but, as Mr. 
Chapin in his history of the town observes, " it required no little equanimity of 
mind and spirit, not to be disturbed when the town charged him two shillings a. 

bushel more for wheat 
on his salary, than 
they allowed it on his- 
taxes; and one shilling 
a bushel more for corn 
and rye." Mr. Stevens- 
continued as pastor of 
the church until his 
death, April 14, 1726,. 
in the thirty-third year 
of his ministry. He 
was buried in the 
Green cemeterv not 

™Pf3' :L ...VSSBS w"iln^ e r P ^ 

JH&|i * %SLv*2^§l tive church edifice, in 

which he so faithfully 
preached for more 
than a generation. We 
have conclusive evi- 
dence that the original townsmen chose well when they selected Mr. Stevens, and 
the honored place which he held in the community was accorded to him not only 
because the custom of the times demanded that special favor and respect be given 
ministers of the gospel^ but for the better reason that he was strong in the hearts, 
of all townspeople. In the limited space which this article affords further refer- 
ence cannot be made to Mr. Stevens or the line of worthy men that succeeded 
him in the pastoral office. The early history of the church and town are so closely 
allied that no attempt at a historical sketch of the town can be made without 
constant reference to both church and town affairs during the early years of the 
town's history. 

The name of Glastonbury, or as it was spelled originally " Glassenberry," 
together with the decided measures which were adopted in favor of public worship 
and public education soon after the town was incorporated, as reference to our 
town records confirms, and combined with the fact that several of the leading citi- 
zens of the new town were from Glastonbury in England, or that vicinity, is one 
of the best evidences that the founders of this town intended that Glastonbury 
in the colony of Connecticut should be to the* new colony and its neighboring 
territory, what Glastonbury in England had been for so many centuries in the 

(the oldest house in town, built 1675.) 



k ? 



mother country, a place famous in religion and learning. The place where 
authentic historians declare the first church erected for Christian worship was 

established on English soil. 

' ' They feared no fiery bigot's rule 
While near the church spire stood the school." 

The early settlers, however, were 
not particular to have the name of 
the new town spelled in the same 
manner as its namesake, and as the 
General Court did not trouble to de- 
cide the matter, from 1692 for nearly 
one hundred years the town was 
known as Glassenbury in conformity 
with the spelling adopted at the time 
the charter of incorporation was 
granted. Subsequently it was changed 
to Glastenbury, and in 1870 to Glaston- 
bury, its proper method of spelling. 
It is pertinent to add that there is 
no other post-office by the same name 
in the United States, and no other 
town except Glastenbury in Vermont. 
Mention cannot here be made of 
the subsequent history of the church 
and school, and these together with 
other matters of interest in the early 
history of the town, reference to which 

is herein omitted, will be the subjects for some future papers for this magazine. 
Brief allusion should be made to the Indians, who occupied in large numbers 

the section of the state in which the town lies. The red man was no stranger to 





the small number of residents who were the founders of this town. But their rela- 
tion to the Indians was close and always, as far as we have any record, remarkably 
friendly. The only recorded evidence of any indication of hostility on the part of 



the aborigines is the instance mentioned by Mr. Chapin in his history of the town. 
John Hollister, the ancestor of the family by that name, resided on the west side of 
the river, and was accustomed to come across the river to Nayaug, a name given 
to a large portion of what is now South Glastonbury, because the Nayaug Indians 
occupied it, without the protection of other white men. It is said that on one 
occasion a stalwart and muscular Indian, who claimed with apparent reason to be 






(The one of his first wife, at the left, is the oldest stone in town, date 1698.) 

the most athletic man of his tribe, confronted Mr. Hollister while he was working 
in his field. The Indian informed the white man that he had been told that the 
person whom he was addressing was the strongest man in the settlement, and sug- 
gested that they try their strength by indulging in a fight. This proposition re- 
ceived the assent of Mr. Hollister, and the combat was begun at once. At length 
both were nearly exhausted, and having agreed upon a truce they sat down upon a 

log to rest themselves. 
HHI The fighting was again 
resumed after a brief 
respite, and the two 
continued the contest 
until sunset. Finally, 
as neither could claim 
that he had van- 
quished his opponent, 
friendship tokens were 
exchanged between 
them, and all attempts 
at hostilities ceased 
forever after. Dr. 
Chapin significantly 
adds that when it is remembered that all this transpired before William Penn settled 
Pennsylvania in 1681, and that all that he gained of peace and quiet through his 
upright treatment of the Indians, our fathers had secured a whole generation 
before his time, a share of the praises which he has received in such abundance is 
the just share, which 
should be allotted to 
our original settlers. 
The " six large 
miles " along the east 
bank of the river, 
.and extending from 
the river " three miles 
east into the wilder- 
ness," which was in- 
cluded in the original 
layout of the town 
of Wethersfield on 
this side of the Con- 
necticut, was a favor- 
ite stamping ground 
for the red man, and 
the territory still 
farther east, subse- 
quently purchased and annexed to the town, was also a resort prized by them, as the 
region, especially in the eastern section of the town, abounded in hunting and fish- 
ing. The hills and brooks, or mountains, as the former were called, and are still 
given that distinction, were all very familiar to them, as the names which they 
gave them indicate, and many of these names have been adopted and are still 
used to distinguish the same natural objects. 

Countless numbers of arrowheads and curiously shaped tools hewn out of flint 
and stone have been found for many years on the land bordering on the meadow, 






along what is commonly known as the "meadow hill," and there are evidences 
that, at some localities where the arrowheads and other instruments used by them 
in warfare are especially abundant, the members of the tribe were accustomed 
either to prepare these implements themselves or have some skillful members of 
the tribe engage in this vocation for the benefit of all. 

Probably no less than twenty tribes of Indians were to be found within a 
radius of about ten miles of the spot where the first settlers located. 

A person looking at a map of this State will at once observe that Glastonbury 
is one of its largest towns. He will be still more impressed with this fact if he 
avails himself of a trusty horse and travels over a portion, at least, of the more 
than one hundred miles of highway within its borders. 

The road problem has always been a perplexing one in this town, and has 


given our town fathers no little annoyance, but macadam has solved it in some 
sections, and will undoubtedly continue to do so in the coming years. 

There is something about the scenery which greets the traveler as he climbs 
the picturesque hills in the eastern and southern portion of the town which appeals 
at once to that priceless sense which permits him to appreciate all that is beautiful 
and attractive in nature. The view from Chestnut Hill, in South Glastonbury, and 
eminences over which the traveler must pass on the highways, especially in the 
sections of the town just mentioned, are, upon the testimony of persons who are 
not residents of the town, unusually fine. Such opinions can perhaps be accepted 
without the local feeling of town pride, which is justly prevalent and never harm- 
ful, even if it does permit the proud resident to indulge in the free use of the 
superlative degree when using adjectives to characterize what he esteems to be 
the attractive features of his town. 

It is said that few towns in New England possess such charming and diversi- 
fied landscapes as the views which are presented from many of the hills in this 
town. Painter, camera fiend, and sketch artist can each find choice bits of scenery 
which will be of peculiar interest to each. 

The main street of the town has few equals as a country street 


Its generous 


width, the thrifty farms and well-kept residences which flank it on each side have 
won many favorable comments from passing travelers. 

With this very incomplete reference to Glastonbury's early history and a few 
of its natural attractions, we pass to consider two features of Glastonbury life, 
about which little has been written; and although to a fair proportion of our older 
surviving citizens the later portion of the period recalled is still vivid in their 
memory, more than a generation has arisen to whom the facts are little known. 
Reference is made to Glastonbury in the days of the stage coach and tavern, and 
in the time of the old state militia and the days of Regimental Training. 

Many years before the first railroad was built in this state, the Hartford and 
New London Turnpike Company was incorporated. The object of the company 
was to establish a stage route between Hartford and New London. The distance 
in a straight line between the two towns was about forty miles, and the turnpike 
was laid out along this line as nearly as possible, regardless whether it required 
the stage to surmount the highest hill or forced it to traverse many sections of 
road undesirable in other respects. A short cut was all that was considered by 
those straight-lined prospectors, and the method of going around a steep hill or 
other hindrance was never thought of. Notwithstanding the steep hills and other 
obstacles, the distance was covered in a day, and the coach was under way again 
bright and early the following morning on its return trip. 

Frequent changes of the horses which drew the coach made faster time possi- 
ble. The first stop for this purpose outside of Hartford was made at Buck's 
Tavern in this town, at what is still known as Buck's Corner, and the old tavern 
house is still standing in good repair. The first gate-house where toll was col- 
lected is still standing, about two miles below Buck's Tavern, but this faithful 
sentinel of the road is now thoroughly disarmed, and is fast going into decay. 

While taverns abounded in all portions of the state during this period, they 
were especially numerous along the route of a prosperous stage line. Only a short 
distance north of what was then, and is still known as Welles' Corner, upon the 
Main street of the town, there is still standing a large wooden house, which, for 
about one hundred years, was kept as a tavern. It had a more than local reputa- 
tion, and was known throughout the western part of this state and in Eastern 
New York state and in Rhode Island, from which localities many of the passengers 
on the stage line came and went, as " Welles' Tavern." It was the first stop made 
by the coach outside of Hartford, and the passengers were accustomed to clamber 
out of the coach and enter the tavern to renew acquaintance with the occupants 
and indulge in a draught of New England rum, or cleverly prepared toddy for which 
the tavern was famous. 

The tavern-keeper well knew the tendency of the traveler's appetite for such 
drinks, and never failed to delight this taste, which was a great item of profit to the 
hostelry. On the other hand, no tavern would have been regarded as worthy of 
the name by travelers or local patrons, unless it was well equipped with the 
favorite liquors of the day and their mixtures. 

Let us try and place ourselves in front of the tavern and witness the arrival of 
the stage. It is the event of the day. The approach of the stage is heralded by 
a tally-ho, a long blast from which instrument awakens the barnacles or rounders 
at the tavern who are always to be found holding down a fair proportion of the 
office chairs, and warns those who are to board the coach upon its arrival to be in 
readiness for the trip. Soon four spirited horses drawing the heavy coach loom 
into view. It was common to see the coach carrying fifteen or twenty passengers, 
and not infrequently the conveyance was laden with several more than the latter 


number. Little attention could be paid to the personal comfort of the passengers, 
as the stage carried a decidedly miscellaneous cargo, but the travelers of that day 
accepted the conditions, and happily noted the vast improvement this means of 
communication afforded over the time when turnpike companies were not estab- 
lished or were much less general. Now the coach is drawn up in front of the 
tavern, and out scramble the passengers, to stretch themselves and relax from the 
cramped positions which their meagre seating allowance in the coach made neces- 
sary, and indulge in a round of the favorite beverage which they took no doubt 
for their stomach's sake and often infirmities. These infirmities did come often in 
many cases, either at every tavern or from a pocket edition of some favorite liquor. 

After a stop of about ten minutes, the horses have been watered, — note the 
distinction in the case of horses and passengers, — old acquaintance has been re- 
newed and new ones formed, and the stage is again under way. A moment's stop 
at the post-office on Welles' Corner for the mail, and the coach disappears from 
view, en route for New London. 

Welles' tavern has a place in the town's history. It was the rialto of local 
politics. From the time of its establishment down to its latter and closing days 
under the ownership of Azel Chapman it was the center of political life and 

Here town, state, and national politics were discussed with the utmost free- 
dom, and in some of the secret consultations which were held within its walls, by 
those influential in town affairs, town politics was shaped to their liking, and a 
candidate's chances of success at the polls assured, or rendered impossible. 

It was the favorite resort for old and young when farm work would permit a 
brief respite. If a man was in search of his neighbor, experience taught him that 
as a preliminary step before attempting to search for him, he should take observa- 
tion of the weather. If it was a bright, clear day, or one adapted for farm work, 
the person whom he wished to see would doubtless be found on his own 
premises. But if the weather was in any way ill-adapted for the farmer's occupa- 
tion the seeker knew that the chances were decidedly in favor of the person whom 
he was desirous to meet being found at Welles' tavern, and if he was wise, he 
would act accordingly. 

The price of the night's lodging at the tavern was the first question asked by the 
guest, unfamiliar with the scales of charges, and this important part of the visitor's 
knowledge was at once readily furnished. Supper, lodging, and breakfast w r ere 
furnished for fifty cents, and as by far the larger proportion of the guests were 
transients this was all they wished to know. This assured them the two meals 
which they wished to make sure of, and provided for the night's rest, so that the 
travel toward their destination could be continued with man and beast renewed 
and refreshed on the morrow. 

(To be continued.) 

Lack of space in the present number of this magazine has made it necessary to divide this article, 
and the latter part of the paper will be found in the next issue of the Quarterly with more pictures of 
local interest. This portion of the article is unavoidably a restatement of facts connected with the early 
history of the town which have already been published, but which it would be impossible to omit without 
giving the article a noticeable incompleteness. 

'■ / ffMfq 


h K) re si 11 £ L 


Illustrated by D. F. Wentworth. 

A lovely sky, a cloudless sun, 

A wind that breathes of leaves and flowers, 
O'er hill, through dale, my steps have won 
To the cool forest's shadowy bowers ; 
One of the paths, all round that wind 

Traced by the browsing herds, I choose, 
And sights and sounds of human kind, 
In nature's lone recesses lose ; 

The beech displays its marbled bark 

The spruce its green tent stretches wide, 

While scowls the hemlock, grim and dark, 
The maple's scalloped dome beside. 

Sweet forest odors have their birth 

From the clothed boughs and teeming earth ; 

Where pine-cones dropped, leaves piled and dead, 

Long tufts of grass and stars of fern 

With many a wild-flower's fairy urn 

A thick, elastic carpet spread ; 

Here, with its mossy pall, the trunk 

Resolving into soil, is sunk ; 

There, wrenched but lately from its throne, 
By some fierce whirlwind circling 

Its huge roots massed with 
earth and stone, 
One of the woodland 
kings is cast. 





All weave on high a verdant roof 
That keeps the very sun aloof, 
Making a twilight soft and green 
Within the columned, vaulted scene. 

Above, the forest tops are bright 
With the broad blaze of sunny light ; 
But now a fitful air-gust parts 

The screening branches, and a glow 
Of dazzling, startling radiance darts 
Down the dark stems, and breaks below ; 
The mingled shadows off are rolled, 
The sylvan floor is bathed in gold ; 

With pointed ears an instant look, 
Then scamper to the darkest nook, 
Where, with crouched limb and staring eye, 
He watches while I saunter by. 
A narrow vista carpeted 
With rich green grass invites my tread ; 
Here, showers the light in golden dots, 
There, sleeps the shade in ebon spots, 

Low sprouts and herbs, before unseen, 
Display their shades of brown and green ; 
Tints brighten o'er the velvet moss, 
Gleams twinkle on the laurel's gloss ; 
The robin, brooding in her nest, 
Chirps, as the quick ray strikes her breast, 
And as my shadow prints the ground, 
I see the rabbit upward bound, 

So blended that the very air 

Seems network as I enter there. 

The partridge, whose deep rolling drum 

Afar has sounded on my ear, 
Ceasing its beatings as I come, 

Whirrs to the sheltering branches near 
The little milk snake glides away, 51 
The brindled marmot dives from day ; 



And now, between the boughs, a space 

Of the blue laughing sky I trace ; 

On each side shrinks the bowery 

shade ; 
Before me spreads an emerald glade ; 
The sunshine steeps its grass and moss, 
That couch my footsteps as I cross ; 



Merrily hums the tawny bee, 

The glittering humming-bird I see ; 

Floats the bright butterfly along, 

The insect-choir is loud in song ; 

A spot of light and life, it seems 

A fairy haunt for fancy dreams. 

Here stretched, the pleasant turf I press 
In luxury of idleness ; 
Sun-streaks, and glancing wings, and sky 
Spotted with cloud-shapes, charm my eye ; 

While murmuring grass, and waving trees 
Their leaf-harps sounding to the breeze, 
And water tones that tinkle near 
Blend their sweet music to my ear ; 
And by the changing shades alone, 
The passage of the hours is known." 

Cemetery, iewhavbh 


One hundred years ago, in July, 1796, that public-spirited citizen, James 
Hillhouse, caused the purchase and preparation of the burial ground known as the 
Grove Street Cemetery. His own body was laid there when his work was over ; 
and before him and after him have come to keep him company so many gifted and 
noble ones that with truth we read that " it is the resting-place of more persons of 
varied eminence than any other cemetery on this continent." The roll of honored 
names on its stones represents brain-power that has stirred the world and has done 
much to make the nineteenth century what it has been. 

The place seems dedicated to the fame of learning and of noble lives, and as 
it is still in use by the descendants of the original owners, the crumbling Past and 
the well-kept Present meet there very strikingly. 

It was the first burial ground in the world to be divided into ''family lots," 
and every visitor must notice the prominence of the family feeling. Parents, 
children, and grandchildren are together ; those whose lives have been spent else- 
where have sought burial with their kindred, while the families that enjoyed sweet 
intercourse in scholarly pursuits and social courtesies are still neighbors in death. 

The wall and gates are severely Egyptian in style, but over the massive 
pylons at the entrance, the words, "The dead shall be raised," testify that to the 
ancient yearning for a life beyond the grave has succeeded the triumphant faith of 
Christianity. Within is the mortuary chapel, and the golden butterfly on its front 
again points every passer to the soul's release from the burden of the body. 

The cemetery is a quiet little square of seventeen acres, separating college 
halls on the one hand from the stir of business on the other. It is a cheerful city 
of the dead, with tall trees, high-trimmed, and with evidences of scrupulous care. 
Thoughtful visitors are always wandering along its avenues, peering here and 


there for tokens of the olden time, or for memorials of revered instructors and 
loved classmates. 

Let us walk down Cedar avenue, the "famous row." Here are pioneers of 
American scholarship, such as Benjamin Silliman, the elder, a man whose privilege 
it was to be indeed a Nestor in science, to open the way to the wide fields we 
traverse freely. The little, low, gray laboratory has disappeared from the face of 
the Yale campus, but does not every one who sends a telegram owe thanks to 
Silliman and Morse that within its humble walls they persisted in the experiments 
which resulted in the great invention ? Professor Silliman was a keen observer, a 
delightful writer, a noble man ; his name honors the stone on which it is inscribed. 
His son and successor, Benjamin Silliman the younger, is in another part of the 
ground : but in the same inclosure rests a Revolutionary dame, Mrs. Eunice 


Trumbull, " reiict of Jonathan Trumbull, late Governorof Connecticut." She was 
the widow of the second governor from that illustrious family which contributed so 
much to the success of our war for independence, and she was the mother of 
Harriet Trumbull, who was the wife of Professor Silliman, and who lies here, too. 
Thus two families bearing the American patent of nobility, valor and learning, 
were united. 

The mantle fell on no less a man than James Dwight Dana, the great geolo- 
gist, who searched the secrets of the coral groves. His slight form and pure face, 
a presence seeming more spiritual than material, were a part of New Haven for 
many years. Xow he rests here. 

Next is the grave of Jedidiah Morse, the " Father of American Geography." 
A shaft bears aloft a globe, commemorating the service that Morse did in placing 
geography in the realm of systematic knowledge. Any one who has seen a copy 
of Morse's first edition, two stout octavo volumes bound in calf, will be apt to 
deem it at least as far removed as a great-grandfather from its modern descend- 
ant, the floridly embellished and tersely written school geography. 

His work, which may have been called for by the needs of the girls' school 
which he had in Xew Haven the year after his own graduation in 17S3, is many 




times amusing when the author least intends to afford diversion. The title page 

runs thus — 

" The 


Universal Geography 

or a 

View of the Present State 

of all the 

Empires, Kingdoms, States, and Republics 

in the Known 


and of the 

United States of America in Particular/' 

Some of the " particulars " are not unpleas- 
ing reading for Connecticut people ; as for 
instance — "Connecticut is the most populous, 
in proportion to its extent, of any of the thirteen 
states. A traveler, even in the most unsettled 
part of the state, will seldom pass more than 
two or three miles without finding a house or 
cottage and a farm under such improvement as to 
to Theodore winthrop. afford the necessaries for the support of a family." 



Again, " In no part of the world is the education of all ranks of people more 

attended to than in Connecticut." 

The high regard in which the legal profession has always been held here finds 

an explanation in his pages. " The people of Connecticut are remarkably fond of 

having all their disputes settled according to law. The prevalence of this litigious 

spirit affords employment and 

support for a numerous body 

of lawyers." But the lawyers 

were not to be left in un- 
disputed possession of legal 

mysteries, for Morse says that, 

"In 1672 the laws of the 

colony were revised, and the 

general court ordered them to 

be printed, and also that every 

family should buy one of the 

law books ; such as pay in 

silver to have a book for twelve 

pence, such as pay in wheat to 

pay a peck and a half a book, 

and such as pay in peas, to 

pay two shillings a book, the peas at three shillings the bushel." 

How intimately the pursuit of agriculture and the book trade were associated 

in those days ! Morse sagely remarks, " Perhaps it is owing to the early and uni- 
versal spread of law books that the people of Connecticut are to this day so fond of 

the law." 

This is his testimony for the state which had the first school fund : " A thrift 

for learning prevails among all ranks of people in the state. In no part of the 

world is the education 
of all ranks of people 
more attended to than 
in Connecticut." 

Now in 1896, there 
comes a voice from a 
son of Connecticut, who 
has spent nearly half a 
century in the sunny 
land of cotton : " As I 
grow older, my opinion 
is stronger than ever 
that the ancient state 
has done more for the 
education and general 
advancement of all the 
Connecticut educators have a great 


people of this vast country than any other 
past to live up to. 

The salutary influence of the clergy, described as "very respectable," is noted 
as having preserved a kind of aristocratical balance in the very democratic govern- 
ment of the state. 

What do the members of the medical profession and tobacco-raisers think of 
this "act of the general assembly at Hartford in 1647, wherein it was ordered, 



i That no person under the age of twenty years, nor any other that hath already 
accustomed himself to the use thereof, shall take any tobacco until he shall have 
brought a certificate from under the hand of some who are approved for knowledge 
and skill in physic, that it is fit for him, and also that he hath received a license 

from the court for the same.' All others who -had 
addicted themselves to the use of tobacco, were, by the 
same court, prohibited taking it in any company, or at 
their labors, or on their travels, unless they were ten 
miles at least from any house, or more than once a 
day, though not in company, on pain of a fine of sixpence 
for each time ; to be proved by one substantial evidence " ? 
Oh ! the vicissitudes of time ! 

But the laws of Connecticut were again revised in 
1750, and of them Dr. Douglass observed, "That they 
were the most natural, equitable, plain, and concise code 
of laws for plantations hitherto extant." 

Morse died in 1826, after a varied life, which 
brought him honors, among them a degree from the 
University of Edinburgh, and the office of U. S. Com- 
missioner to the Indian tribes. Here also is his wife, 
Elizabeth Anne Breese, granddaughter of President 
Finley of Prince- 
ton. So there is 
a family history 
in the names of 
Samuel Finley 
Breese Morse, 
Morse's illustri- 
ous son, whose 
first wife, Lucre- 
tia Pickering, 
took her place 
here at the age 
of twenty-five, 
not knowing 
what fame was in store for her husband. 

See this cross which bears the name 
of Theodore Winthrop — a name that sum- 
mons the tragedy of the civil war, the 
blighting of a promising literary career, all 
too soon for achieving fame in battle. In 
that gifted man met the inheritance of the 
families that New England counts among 
her proudest possessions in the past, the 

Woolseys, the Dwights, the Winthrops. The call of Sumter roused the patriotism 
in the scholar's heart, and in three months promise and performance were alike 
ended. Much can be read between the terse lines, "Born in New Haven, 
Sept. 22, 1828. Fell in Battle at Great Bethel, Va., June 11, 1861." 

College honors, travel in lands old and new, the love of friends, the unfolding 
of fame in letters, the glow of patriotism, all led to that supreme moment, when, 
leaping up to urge on his men, he fell. The pathos of his death casts a spell over 




2 11 

us when we turn the pages of " Cecil Dreeme " and k4 Edwin Brothertoft," of " Love 
and Skates," and of those descriptions in the Atlantic of that memorable first 
march to Washington, which made him speak to the whole nation after his pen and 
sword were laid aside forever. 

Next is a name no less famous, that of 
Eli Whitney, " the inventor of the cotton-gin, 

We all know what Horace Greeley has so 
strikingly set forth, that the United States and 
the civilized world are richer because the inven- 
tive genius and courteous helpfulness of that 
young Yale man offered a friendly hand to southern 
labor. What modern commerce would be without 

the cotton- 
gin, it is hard 
to say. 

Beecher, great 
father of great 
children, lies 
near, beneath 
a block of 
stone bearing 
a cross in re- 
lief; and next 
are the Tay- 
lors, Dr. Tay- 
lor of theolog- 
ical renown, 
and his daugh- 
ter, Mary, the 
wife of Noah 

Porter, who is beside the kind hearted, swift- 
footed, clear-headed, eleventh president of 
Yale. And in this neighborhood of death 
is the grave of Noah Webster, 1 758-1842. 
Verily, he "being dead, yet speaketh," for do 
not millions of us implicitly obey his orders 
given in the famous spelling-book, and in the 
"Unabridged," inspired by him with a life 
which keeps it in vigorous growth while gen- 
erations pass away? The speller attained a 
sale of sixty-two million copies long ago ; and 
although his royalty was only a cent a copy, 
that supported his family for years. 

Webster was a typical son of Connecticut 
in his versatility. Of Hartford birth, a graduate of Yale, he was teacher, lawyer, 
judge, politician, magazine editor, author of text-books, one of the founders of 
Amherst, and lexicographer, as occasion demanded. The renown of his dictionary 
perhaps causes us to forget that his words were a prime mover for the call for the 
convention which gave to the United States their revered constitution. He lived 
in sight of his final restingplace. 






On the opposite side is the grave of Joel Root, the model of high-bred 

integrity, whose adventures in a business voyage of three years around the world 

in the first years of the century read like a second Crusoe. 

Turning to another avenue, we find an educator of a later generation, but of 

wide influence, John Epy Lovell, "founder and teacher of the Lancasterian 

school." He was born in 1795, and lacked 
but three years of a century of life when 
he died in 1893. For years he carried 
out in New Haven his peculiar ideas of 
methods of instruction, and although 
the " monitor system " is an educational 
fashion long since laid aside, the memory 
of the genial and talented teacher has 
been green. In 1889, Mr. Lovell appeared 
in the procession which celebrated the 
two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of 
the founding of the town. Every eye 
was turned on the veteran, who, in his 
ninety-fourth year, was already in the 

halo of the past. He sleeps beneath granite blocks picturesquely piled, a 

monument given by an association of his pupils. 

These stones commemorate the Clap family, " The Reverend and learned Mr. 

Thomas Clap, late President of Yale College," in days so far away (1 740-1 765), 

that he could show his enterprise by causing the first catalogue to be prepared for 

the library, that library so associated with the foundation and continued life of the 

college, by compiling 

the college laws (in 

Latin), and the first 

book printed in New 

Haven, and by securing 

the new charter with 

the style, " the Presi- 
dent and Fellows of 

Yale College in New 

Haven"; Mrs. Clap, 

and their daughter, 

Mary Clap Wooster, 

" widow of Gen. David 

Wooster, of the Revo- 
lutionary Army." 

She was the 

" Madam Wooster " 

whose namesake is the 

New Haven Chapter of 

the Daughters of the Revolution. 

Another Yale president is in this scholastic ground, the first President Dwight. 

Of all the praiseworthy acts of his able career not one was more laudable than 

beginning the work of breaking down the old-fashioned barriers which separated 

classes and faculty. His " reign " naturally trebled the number of students. 

Six headstones in a row, each one bearing the name of Olmsted, tell of 

death's ravages in one family of sons. 




The father, Denison Olmsted, the loved professor of Natural Philosophy and 
Astronomy, before the days of specialists, and five sons, lie here. 

Of the sons, all but one Yale men, one died at twenty-two, two at tw T enty-five, 
one at thirty, and one at thirty-five. 

Near the rear wall is the burial-place of another revered Yale president, 
Theodore Dwight Woolsey. Perhaps the extent of his fame as a scholar was never 
better seen than when 
one of the Chinese 
embassies brought 
over as a gift to him 
his work on Inter- 
national Law trans- 
lated into Chinese. 
Most pathetic is the 
inscription over the 
graves of the two 

of Syrian 
days apart, 

who died 
fever in 
only two 
"In their 


deaths they were not 

Three gre at 
scholars repose to- 
gether in death even 
as they labored to- 
gether in life, Professor Twining, Professor Hadley, Professor Loomis. Professor 
Twining made the first railroad survey in the state, and therefore one of the first in 
the country. It was in 1835, for the Hartford and New Haven railroad. The books 

which Greek and mathematical students have 
f : pored over for so many years have been the best 

monument for Hadley and Loomis. After the 
latter's burial, there came warning telegrams 
from the chief of the New York police, and a 
strict guard was necessary every night until the 
heavy base of the monument was laid, and there 
was no further opportunity to pry into the 
secrets of that powerful brain. 

" Leonard Bacon ! " What memories his 
name brings up of work and inspiration for 
more than fifty years of pastoral life in New 
Haven. Some one said of him that while really 
a man of low stature, he always gave the im- 
pression of being of commanding height. Such 
was the effect of his master-mind. 

" After life's fitful fever," here sleeps his 
gifted and disappointed daughter, Delia Bacon, 
the prophetess of the Baconian theory of the 
authorship of Shakespeare's plays. A cross is 
the symbol above her, with these words, "'So 
he bringeth them to their desired haven.' In grateful remembrance, this 
monument is erected by her former pupils." 





Rest, now, perturbed spirit, in that realm where perplexities are resolved into 

glad certainty. 

Here is Elbridge Gerry, vice-president of the United States, and signer of the 

Declaration ; and Charles Goodyear, the great inventor, one of America's bene- 
factors. He was preemi- 
nent in the talent which 
is a chief characteristic 
of Connecticut men, and 
his struggles for nearly 
thirty years with poverty 
and debt and injustice 
while he wrestled with 
the problem, the solution 
of which transformed 
caoutchouc into vulcan- 
ized rubber in its hun- 
dreds of useful forms, 
border on heroism. Like 
many other great invent- 
ors, he was rudely treated 
by Fortune, who bade him 
take fame and foreign 

medals, while she poured the earnings of his brain into the hands""of those who 

borrowed his ideas. 

Gen. Terry and Admiral Foote, our heroes in the civil war, are here ; and 

reminders of the Revolution are not lacking. The clays of alarm and distress when 

Arnold was wreak- 
ing his vengeance HHHHHHH 

on the home of „ 

his first wife, are 

brought to mind 

by the time-worn 

monument of the 


of ex-Gov. English, 

bearing the words, 

" Benjamin English, 

died 5 July, 1779, 

aged 74. He was 

stabbed by a Brit- 
ish soldier when 

sitting in his own 


In another 

part of the ground 

is the grave of 

Nathan Beers, 

another aged man who met death in the same way during the same raid. 

thankful that the days of arbitration are at hand. 

The old New Haven families, the Trowbridges, the Ingersolls, the Hillhouses, 

have come here for their long home ; of governors who have honored the old state, 

HI -4 "■ 


Let us be 



such as Governor Dutton and Governor Baldwin, the defender of the famous 
Armistad captives ; of learned professors, such as Thacher, the Latin scholar, and 
Eaton, the botanist ; of men eminent in all professions, such as Dr. Levi Ives, 
"the beloved physician," Henry R. Storrs, the jurist and orator; of benefactors, 
of patriots, the list grows as fast as one walks about. William Dwight Whitney, 
whose fame as a philologist 
and Sanskrit scholar is 
world-wide, and who was 
member of so many learned 
foreign societies that a 
whole alphabet seemed to 
follow his name, has taken 
his place among the illus- 
trious dead. Joseph Earl 
Sheffield lies in sight of his 
home on Hillhouse avenue 
and of the buildings of the 
lusty, evergrowing Scientific 
School, which was his noble 
gift to Yale. His example 
of bestowing what he had to 
give while he was alive to 
watch the growth of his plan ought to be followed by millionaire philanthropists 
who wish to secure his success. The grandfather of President Cleveland, the 
Rev. Aaron Cleveland, was buried on Linden Avenue, in 1815. 

The bones of New Haven's first governor lie near the Center church, where 
the earliest interments were made, but the monument is here with this inscription : 

" Theophilus Eaton, Esq., Governor. 

Deceased Jan. 7, 1657, Aetatis, 67. 

Eaton, so famed, so wise, so meek, so just, 

The Phoenix of our world here hides his dust, 

This name forget, New England never must." 

Wherein the sentiment is more laudable than the poetry. 

Is there a name more honored in Connecticut's revolutionary history than 

that of Roger Sherman, one of 
^^m ::■-.-."" the immortal five who presented 

the Declaration ? 

He is buried here. The lines 
on his monument show that his 
fellow-citizens left him little time 
for private life. He was " Mayor 
of the city of New Haven, and 
senator to the United States." 
" He was nineteen years an 
Assistant and twenty-three a 
Judge of the Superior Court, in 
high Reputation. 

He was Delegate in the first 

Congress, signed the glorious 

Act of Independence, and many 

years displayed superior Talents and Ability in the National Legislature. He was 

a Member of the general Convention, approved the federal Constitution, and 




served his Country with fidelity and honor in the House of Representatives and 
in the Senate of the United States." 

We know that there is no flattery in the quiet euiogium that follows : 

"He was a man of approved Integrity, a cool, discerning Judge, a prudent, 
sagacious Politician, a true, faithful, and firm Patriot." 

Full of pathetic suggestions is the " college lot," where, in days gone by, those 
who died in the midst of their course, away from home, were laid, having found 
their long home in the town to which they came with aspirations for laying the 
foundations of great careers. 

Most of these monuments are of like pattern and have been placed there by 
classmates. The inscriptions nearly all express in Latin the regret of these class- 
mates, and have dates of long ago, when it was necessary that death and burial 
should occur in the same place ; but one is recent, 1892, and is the memorial of 
Kakichi Senta, Japan. An ocean and a continent separate him from his gentle, 
dark-eyed friends in that wonderful West of the Orient. On the tombstone of 
little Susie Bacon, who died in Switzerland in her fourth year, are her touching last 
words, " Der liebe Gott liebt Susie, und ich soil Ihn sehen." 

There are not many of the mirth-provoking epitaphs which one sometimes 
sees in old churchyards. Sidney Hull and his five wives may draw a sigh from 
some, a smile from others. 

But one of the most interesting features of this burial ground is the long line 
of ancient headstones resting against the wall. A great part of two sides is 
occupied by these memorials of the colonial dead, brought hither in 1820, when the 
graves in the Green were leveled. Here we read history by fascinating hints and 
snatches. The stones are sometimes of slate, but oftener of sandstone, which has 
proved in many cases a treacherous record-bearer by flaking off in layers, thus 
leaving a painful blank where once appeared the name and station of him " To 
the Memory " of whom the stone was raised. Many of them are bordered by scrolls 
and vines, and are surmounted by cheerful death's heads and cherubim. Some 
are the rude efforts of unaccustomed hands, trying to preserve the memory of dear 
ones, when it was difficult to carve even a few letters, and some show that, as 
years passed, the stone-cutter had taken his place as a recognized workman. By 
the irony of fate the date for which a curious visitor looks most eagerly is often 
the very part of the inscription which is illegible, but the stones belong to the 
seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. 

In those days they were strenuous to insist on the social standing betokened 

by " Mr. and Mrs." as, 

" Mr. David Atwater, 

A noted apothecary, and a firm advocate for his country, in defense of which he fell a volunteer 

in the battle at Gumpo Hill, 1777." 

Another shows that phonetic spelling had its adherents, 

" Joseph Allsup 
Deseased in ye 42 yeare of his age, January the 12, 1691." 

There are many double stones and almost all have rounded tops. 
Here is a " doleful sound " from the stone of Mrs. Betty Colt, who died in 
1765, aged twenty-two, 

" Passenjers, as you pass by, 
Behold ye place where now i lie, 
As you are now, so once was i, 
As i am now, so you must be, 
Prepare to die & follow me." 


Sometimes the words proved too much for the sculptor and he was forced to 
divide such a word as " dyed," placing one part on one line and the other on 

Allings and Atwaters and Mixes and Bradleys and Beechers abound, and the 
military titles of those who died in the early part of the eighteenth century remind 
us that peaceful homes were not secured without fighting. A glimpse of the 
loyalty to the old home is seen in the following : 

" In memory of Mr. Josiah Woodhouse, who was born in ye city of London, in old England, and 
died in New Haven, Sept. 7, 1 761, in his 43d year." 

Some of these old stones have been broken in half lengthwise, and when one 
portion has entirely disappeared, the remaining half gives tantalizingly partial 
record. For example, of some nameless one, we have yet this tribute of aching 

hearts : 

" Aged 19 years 
Beloved in life 
And much bemo aned in death." 

The sole legend on another is, "A. B." On another, 

"R., 1686, F. P." 

These alphabetical memorials were full of meaning once to some fond ones ; 
now they only say that some one died, and some one lamented. One, like a part of 
a puzzle, gives us an opportunity to guess the whole : 

James Rice 

friend of 

nd religious order 

emed and useful 

in his life 

death sincerely lamented. 

He died 

the yellow fever 

September 29, 1794. 

65th year of his age. 

Happy the man, who, when his life's records are shattered, can leave frag- 
ments that point to such a whole ! 

The sexton's bell rings, the gates will close, and we leave the honored dead to 
their eternal peace in the midst of that city which they blessed by their lives. 



In this department we shall aim to give interesting extracts from old papers and books, worthy 
for one reason or another to bring to the attention of our readers. 

Well authenticated incidents of general interest, especially if they have never been printed, 
will be welcomed from our readers. 


The Old Mansion Fort Crailo, the 
oldest house in the state of New York, 
is about to become the property of the 
National Society of the Colonial Dames 
This is the house where " Yankee 
Doodle " was composed. It is near 
Albany, but on the opposite side of the 

General Abercrombie made it his 
headquarters in 1756, and there the 
Connecticut contingent reported for 
service in colonial times. 

These Yankees, led by Thomas Fitch, 
the eldest son of the Governor of Con- 
necticut, came on sorry-looking nags, 
but they were the best their farms 
afforded, and they wore no uniforms, 
but more precious than lace or buttons 
was the turkey feather which their 
wives and sweethearts had pinned to 
their hats. Such was the incident that 
inspired Richard Schuckburg, a young 
surgeon, to write, 

" Yankee Doodle came to town 
Riding on a pony. 
Stuck a feather in his hat 
And called it ' Maccaroni.' " 

The word " maccaroni " being synony- 
mous with our word "dude." 

The words fitted the well-known tune 
of " Lucy Locket Lost her Pocket," 
and the jingle and air caught the fancy 
of the soldiers who would lead in any 
attack when roused by hearing this 
tune played. 


A Likely Negro Wench and Child to be 
sold. Enquire of the Printer. 
To be sold by the Subscriber of Bran- 
ford, a likely Negro Wench, 18 years of 
age, is acquainted with all sorts of House 
Work ; is sold for no fault. 
—June Jj, 1763. 


The first woman's club organized in 
Connecticut, and the fifth in the country, 
was the Woman's Literary Club of New 
Britain. The first meeting was held at 
the home of Mrs. Charles Peck on Pearl 
street, Oct. 4, 1875. Boston and Phila- 
delphia claim the lead in the organiza- 
tion of woman's clubs, then came the 
Sorosis, and soon after the club in Grand 
Rapids was formed. 

The late Mrs. Thomas A. Conklin of 
New Britain was familiar with the Grand 
Rapids club and its work, and through 
her efforts this club was organized, the 
object being the study of history, art, 
and literature, and the science of educa- 
tion. For eighteen years this plan was 
followed, then American history was the 
topic, followed by the present course of 
study in sociology. In 1894 the name 
was changed to the Woman's Club of 
New Britain. 

The meetings are held fortnightly, 
when most interesting and carefully pre- 
pared papers are read by the members. 
The membership is one hundred and 
twenty-five. Ten new members are 
added each year. 

In 1802 there was but one carpet in 
the whole town of Meriden. 

Jeremiah Spencer, born in Bolton, 
Conn., Feb. 5, 1770, was taken by his par- 
ents, with five other children, to Wyom- 
ing, Penn. In the summer of 1776 the 
father died. Two elder sons were killed 
in the battle of Wyoming, July 3, 1778, 
and the mother and four surviving chil- 
dren fled from the scene of desolation 
on foot for Bolton, where they arrived 
at the end of five weeks. Jeremiah was 
then in his ninth year, made the whole 
journey on foot, without hat, coat, or 
shoes. About 1803 he removed to Tor- 
ringford, where he lived until his death. 
He joined the church on profession of 
faith July 4, 1858, in his 89th year, and 
died Oct. 22, 1863, in his 94th year. 




The dainty little river or rivulet that 
bears this name is in East Lyme, and 
received its designation from a marriage 
ceremony that was performed on its 
bank in the latter part of the year 1646, 
or the early part of 1647. The couple 
linked together were Jonathan Rudd 
and some unknown fair one whom with 
little hazard of mistake we may give the 
gentle name of Mary. New London and 
Saybrook were then adjoining towns, 
though Lyme, East Lyme, and Water- 
ford have since seated themselves be- 
tween. The scene of this solemn 
betrothal was a solitary spot, far from 
any human habitation, unless it might 
have been of savage wigwams ; the 
ground was covered with snow 7 , and the 
solemnities must have been performed 
in the open air. Witnesses were not 
wanting on this interesting occasion. 
The air, we may believe, was full, and a 
goodly number belonging to the earth 
stood around, wrapped in their furry 
robes. John Winthrop, Esq., afterwards 
Governor of the Colony, was acting 
magistrate ; a friendly cavalcade accom- 
panied him from New London, which, 
with the bridal party from Saybrook, 
and a few wild faces peering curiously 
from the woods, made a company suffi- 
cient to relieve the wilderness of its 
silence and solitude. 

This enlivening piece of romance, 
which comes like a breath from a bank 
of violets across the sterile ridges of 
our early history, originated from what 
the historian may consider a fortunate 
concurrence of untoward events. No 
person duly qualified to perform the 
nuptial service was to be found in Say- 
brook, and the route to Hartford was 
too much obstructed with snow to admit 
of travel in that direction. Application 
was made to Mr. W T inthrop at Pequot 
Harbor to come to Saybrook and ratify 
the contract ; but he had been com- 
missioned by Massachusetts, and his 
settlement being under the jurisdiction 
of that colony, he could not exercise the 
functions of a magistrate within the 
limits of Connecticut. To obviate the 
difficulty, he proposed to meet the par- 
ties upon the border of the two govern- 
ments, and there, under the open expanse 
of heaven, to rivet the golden chain. 
This arrangement not only gave novelty 

and brilliancy to the ceremony, but 
made it an incident of historical impor- 
tance, subsequently cited and accepted 
as reliable testimony in a case relating 
to the original bounds of the two 
— Caul kins' History of jVorwic/i, page 164. 


A groom who lost his bride upon the 
steps of the altar was Noahdiah Brainerd. 
Young Samuel Selden of Hadlyme, 
Conn., so runs the tale, observing a 
notice on the door of Chester meeting- 
house, stating that Noahdiah Brainerd 
and Deborah Dudley proposed marriage 
in that house on the following Lord's 
day, tore the notice from the door and 
substituted another, in which the names 
Samuel Selden of Hadlyme and Deborah 
Dudley appeared as proposing marriage 
upon the self-same day. When the 
wedding morning arrived, Captain Sel- 
den came early to the meeting-house, 
armed and equipped according to the 
law, and, observing that his notice was 
undisturbed, took heart of grace, and 
when Mr. Joseph Dudley, his wife, and 
daughter Deborah appeared, he ad- 
vanced, addressing the latter affection- 
ately, and led her up the aisle to the 
minister, who married them according to 
the solemn forms then obtaining. W r hat 
the groom-elect, Noahdiah, was about 
all this time we are not informed, but as 
the Selden family history records that 
Samuel took his bride across the river 
the same day, without objection or 
resistance on her part, it certainly 
looked as if the fair Deborah, like the 
love of the " young Lochinvar," was not 
averse to a changeling groom, while the 
inscription upon the wedding ring, still 
preserved in the Selden family, — 
" Beauty is a Fair, but Virtue is a Precious 
Jewel," shows that Samuel fully appre- 
ciated the various charms of his dar- 
ingly won bride. The strange sequel to 
this romantic wedding is that after 
many years of wedded life and the birth 
of several children, upon the death of 
her husband, Samuel, Deborah Selden 
became the wife of her first lover, Noah- 
diah Brainerd. 
— From Colonial Days and Dames. 



Rev. Wm. Gibbs vs. Joseph Cornish. 

In the year 1740 several members of the 
Simsbury Congregational Church with- 
drew, owing to the bitter controversy over 
the site of the meeting-house and organized 
St. Andrew's Church of Scotland. This is 
the oldest Episcopal Church in this part of 
the state, being some forty-five years older 
than any of the Hartford churches. 

The Propagation Society sent over Rev. 
Wm. Gibbs as rector of the church. Tradi- 
tion says that the good Puritan brethren 
made his path a rather thorny one, and 
the following writ tends certainly to con- 
firm that idea. 

This writ was issued by my great-great- 
great-grandfather, Judge John Humphrey. 
He was judge of Hartford county court, a 
member of the governor's council, for 
twenty-five years justice of the peace, 
town clerk, captain in the militia. He 
represented the town of Simsbury for 
twenty-three years in the legislature, and 
died while in attendance on that body at 
New Haven, and was buried beside Colonel 
Dixwell, the regicide. He was an uncle of 
General David Humphrey, Washington's 
aid, and afterwards minister to Spain and 
Portugal. The writ is as follows: " To the 
Sheriff of the County of Hartford, his 
Deputy, or either of the Constables of the 
town of Simsbury in said County greeting: 
" In His Majesty's name summon Joseph 
Cornish of said Simsbury, viz.: of the 
society called Turkey Hills, to appear be- 
fore John Humphrey, Esq., one of His 
Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the 
County aforesaid, at his dwelling house in 
said Simsbury on the fifteenth day of 
February next at one of the clock in the 
afternoon, then and there to answer unto 
Wm. Gibbs of Simsbury, above said clerk, 
minister of the Church of England, in a 
plea of the case brought on one statute law 
of this Colony in Law Book, page 169-170, 
intitled an act for providing how the taxes 
laid on professors of the church of Eng- 
land for the support of the Gospel shall be 
disposed of, and for exempting said pro- 
fessors from paying any taxes for the 
building meeting-houses for the present 
Established Churches of this Government, 
wherein among other things therein men- 
tioned, it is enacted and provided:— That 
all persons who are of the church of Eng- 
land and those who are of the churches 
established by the Laws of this Govern- 
ment that live in the bounds of any parish 
allowed by this assembly, shall be taxed 
by the parishoners of said parish by the 
same rule and in the same proportion for 
the support of the ministry in such parish. 
But if it so happen that there be a society 
of the Church of England where there is a 
parson in orders according to the canons of 
the Church of England, settled and abiding 
among them and performing Divine Ser- 
vice, so near to any person that hath de- 
clared himself of the Church of England, 
that he can conveniently and doth worship 

there: then the collector, having first indif- 
ferently levied the tax as above said, shall 
deliver the taxes collected of such persons 
declaring themselves attending as above 
said, unto the minister of the Church of 
England living near unto such persons, 
which minister shall have full power to 
receive and recover the same in order to his 
support in the place assigned him, as by 
said Statute in Court may appear. 

" Whereupon the plaintiff saith that the 
parishioners of said society of Turkey Hills 
at their lawful society meeting, held in 
said Turkey Hills parish, on the 5th day of 
August, A.D. 1757, granted a rate of two 
pence on the pound on the public list for 
the paying of ministerial charges, and ap- 
pointed the Deft a collector to collect the 
same. And also said society, at their law- 
ful society meeting, held on the first Tues- 
day of December, A.D. 1757, granted 
another rate of one penny upon the pound 
on the common list, to be added to the two 
penny rate aforesaid, and appointed the 
Deft, to collect the same, which rates were 
for the support of the Gospel ministry in 
said parish; and the Deft, soon after had 
a rate bill made and delivered to him, in- 
cluding said rates, with a warrant, signed 
by lawful authority, requiring him to levy 
and collect of all the said parishoners 
named in said rate bill their several pro- 
portions of said rate or tax — and the 
plaintiff farther saith that one Darius Pin- 
ney, of said Simsbury, was one of the in- 
habitants of said parish and was named in 
said rate bill, and that his proportion of 
said tax was £0 — 17 — 4% — all which the 
Deft, afterward levied and collected of the 
said Darius Pinney on the 11th day of 
June, A.D. 1759; which said Darius Pinney 
was before the granting said tax and ever 
since hath been and now is a professor of 
the Church of England, and he with others 
then had and still do make a public pro- 
fession thereof — and the plaintiff further 
saith that he, the plaintiff, for many years 
before the granting said taxes was and 
hath ever since his first mission continued 
to be a minister in orders according to the 
canons of the Church of England, and is 
and hath been ever since his first mission 
duly appointed a minister over the church- 
the statute afore, he, the plaintiff, hath 
been for many years before the granting 
said taxes, settled and abiding and per- 
forming Divine Service so near to the place 
where the said Darius Pinney did before 
the granting said tax, and ever since hath 
and still doth live, that the said Darius 
Pinney can conveniently, hath and doth 
attend Divine Service in the Church of 
England under the plaintiff's ministry. 
And the plaintiff further saith, by force of 
the statute afore, he, the plaintiff, hath 
right to recover and receive of the Deft., 
the said Darius Pinney's proportion of 
said tax, and the Deft, ought to have paid 
the same to the plaintiff — yet the Deft, 
hitherto utterly refuseth and neglecteth to 
pay the same, though it hath been often 



requested and demanded of the Deft, by 
the plaintiff, which is to the damage of the 
plaintiff as he saith the said sum of seven- 
teen shillings and five pence money, and 
for the recovery thereof, with cost, the 
plaintiff brings this suit. Fail not and 
make due return of this writ with your 
doings thereon. 

" Dated at Simsbury, the 8th day of Janu- 
ary, A.D. 1760. 

John Humphrey. 

Justice of Peace.'' 


Connecticut had the distinguished honor 
of being the only one of the thirteen colon- 
ies whose colonial governor, " Brother 
Jonathan " Trumbull, remained loyal to his 
country as opposed to the oppressive meas- 
ures of his king. We may well feel proud 
of the Revolutionary record of our state, 
whose roster shows that she furnished 31.- 
931 men to the cause of liberty and country, 
which number was only exceeded by Mas- 

E. E. R.. in New London Dai/. 

Oct. 12, 1895. 

Leading events of the American Revolu- 
tion taking place in Connecticut during 
July and September : 

July 5. 1779. — Tryon's raid on New 

July 8. 1779. — Fairfield burned by 

July 12. 1779. — Norwalk burned. 

July 21. 1780. — Governor Heath asks 
Connecticut for 1.000 militia. 

September 1. 1781. — Battle of West 

September 6. 1781. — Battle of Fort Gris- 

September 6, 1781. — New London burned 
by the British under Benedict Arnold. 

September 30. 1775. — Skirmish at Ston- 


Mr. Edward Clark of Winsted is the 
owner of a curious old book, unique in vs 
way and worthy of attention. It is a col- 
lection of manuscripts and pamphlets evi- 
dently " home-bound." sewed between pig- 
skin covers. First comes a sermon, en- 
titled " Sound Repentance the right way 
to escape deserved Ruine." preached at 
Hartford May 14. 1685. by Mr. Samuel 
Wakeman, pastor of the Church of Christ 
in Fairfield. This was printed in Boston 
in 1685 by Samuel Green. Next, a well- 

written manuscript, "The Spiritual Travels 
of Nathan Cole," an autobiographical jour- 
nal of his spiritual life. Nathan did uot 

agree with the established churches, and 
held meetings at his own house, with a 
few other converts to his views. One of 
his trials was the persistence with which 
the church at Kensington tried to collect 
taxes from him for years after he had 
moved from there, and was helping sup- 
port other churches. The book contains 
some quaint petitions to this Kensington 
church for abatement of such taxes. Here, 
also, is a copy of the celebrated sermon 
preached at Suffield by Israel Holly, " the 
next Sabbath after the report arrived, that 
the people of Boston had destroyed a large 
quantity of tea. belonging to the East India 
Company, rather than submit to Parlia- 
ment Acts, which they looked upon as 
unconstitutional, tyrannical, and tending to 
enslave America." This was printed at 
Hartford by Eben Watson, near the Great- 
Bridge. 1774. 

Semi-political and religious pamphlets 
and manuscript complete the book, mixed 
with poetry, copies of some of the Wethers- 
field church records, and scripture verses. 
Withal, a quaint relic of olden times, where 
we can read between the lines the trend of 
thought, the hard, angular life, and meagre 
literary privileges. 


The post-office system was first estab- 
lished in Connecticut in 1693, by special 
authority from the king. The mail 
went through the colony from Boston to 
New York once every week. The postage 
from Boston to Hartford was gd. 

The Roman Catholics of Connecticut 
are informed that a Priest is now in 
New Haven, where he will reside for 
sometime. Those who wish to make use 
of his ministry, will find him by enquir- 
ing of Mr. Azel Kimberley's, Chapel 
— New Haven, Jan. 28, ijq6. 

fust Imported from Dublin, in t/ie Brig 
" Darby C 
A parcle of Irish Servants both Men 
and Women, and to be sold cheap, by 
Israel Boardman, at Stamford. 

— yth [anuary, IJ64. 


Querists should write all names of persons and places in such a way that they cannot be misunder- 
stood. Always enclose with queries a self-addressed, stamped envelope and ten cents in postage for 
replies and enquires. Querists are advised to write only on one side of the paper. All queries and notes 
should be sent to Wm. A. Eardeley-Thomas, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 

We should be pleased to receive word of the state of the now-existing town and parish births, bap- 
tisms, marriages, and deaths; when they begin, what is missing, what churches are in the vicinity, and 
when organized. Also what cemeteries are in the neighborhood, and when they were first used. Tomb- 
stone inscriptions, and copies of town and parish vital statistics will be most thankfully received. 

Any one having any information on the stage lines and routes through the state will please send it 
to this department. 

"Happy is the man who can trace his lineage ancestor by ancestor, and cover the 
hoary time with a mantle of youth.'' 1 — Jean Paul -Richie r. 


4. White. — We have received the list of 

children of Daniel and Alice (Cook) 
White; and the parentage of Susanna 
(White) Johnson. 

5. GristcohJ.— A note about the early Gris- 

wolds has been received. 


1. There is a neglected burying ground 

alongside the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R., 
about one-half mile south from Brook- 
field Junction, containing stones of the 
Carl, Camp, Dibble, Dunning, Glover, 
Gray, Northrop, Beebe, Smith, Stevens, 
Sturdevant, Wildman, and Wileman 
families. We should be glad to get 
copies of all these inscriptions. 

2. Hopkins. — Stephen (1) (of Mayflower) had 

3 sons and 6 daus.; Giles (2) in., 1639, in 
Yarmouth, Catorne Whelden; Stephen 
(3), b. 1642, d. Oct. 10, 1718. in Harwich; 
in., May 23, 1667.H, Mary Myrick; 
Judah (4), b. July, 1677; Mary (4), b. 
Apr. 15, 1692, in Eastham; m., Nov. 5, 
1714, in Harwich, John, son of James, 
John (5) had John (6), b. 1751, Harwich; 
Macor; Judah (4) had John (5), b. 1704; 
moved to Guildhall, Vt. ; then to Lyndon ; 
then to Brattleboro; d. at Pike, N. Y., 
1813; John (6) had John (7), m. Sarah 

in Vt; settled in New Fairfield, 

Ct.; John (7) had Stephen (8), m. Chloe 
Judd; Stephen (8) had Hiram Smith (9), 
m., 1837, Louisa (7), dau. of Abel Mont- 
gomery (6) (Abel (5) ) Sherwood ; Hiram 
S. (9) had Lewis Legrand (10), b. Feb, 
24, 1842, in N. Fairfield; m., Sept. 18, 
1865, Grace A. Croad of Edinburgh, 
Scotland; Lewis L. (10) has Mary Louise 
(11) and Stephen Legrand (11). Mr. 
Lewis L. (10) Hopkins is at present 
judge of probate for Danbury district. 
3. Chase. — William (1), Gov. Winthrop's 
Fleet, 1630, m. Mary ; had Wil- 
liam (2), b. 1622, England, m. abt. 1642, 
; he d. Feb. 27, 1684-5, Har- 
wich; had John (3), b. Apr. 6, 1649, in 
Yarmouth; m., abt. 1671, Elizabeth (2), 
dau. of Francis (1) Baker; had Isaac (4), 
d. May 22, 1759, Yarmouth; m., May 23, 

1706, in Y., Mary (3), dau. of John (2) 
(Richard (1) and Alice) Berry; had Isaac 
(5), b. Mar. 28, 1714, in Y., m., Nov. 17, 
1737, in Harwich, Thankful, dau. of John 
and Mary (Hopkins) Macor; had Isaac 
(6). b. 1750 near Danbury, Ct.; had Oba- 
diah (7), b. abt. 1771, in., 2d, abt. 1802, 
Amy, dau. of Elisha Perry; had Alason 
Holmes (8), b., Jan. 15, 1804, Danbury, 
Ct., m. Mary Jane, dau. of Knapp Bedell; 
had Theodore Bailey (9), of New York 

4. Wanzer. — Lieut. Abrain (1); served in 

French War; m., 1st, a Miss Heusted; 
came from Long Island to New Fair- 
field, Ct.; had Moses (2), d. Aug. 10, 
1772, in Sherman, Ct.; m. Elizabeth 
Knapp of Danbury; had Abraham (3), 
b. Dec. 16, 1748; and 9 other children, 
among whom was John (3), b., July 13, 
1766, in New Fairfield; m., Apr. 1, 1792, 
Grace, dau. of Francis Dawson Swords; 
had Willis Haviland (4), b. Aug. 20, 1818, 
m., 2d, Sept. 4, 1844, Sarah Ann, dau. of 
Hanford Martin Kellogg: had Homer 
Leach (5), b., Mar. 3, 1850, New Fair- 
field; m., Oct. 8, 1878, in New Milford, 
Mary Alice, dau. of James A. Giddings; 
have Grace Giddings (6), b. Feb. 11, 
1882. Mr. Homer L. Wanzer is a repre- 
sentative from New Fairfield. 

5. Contributed by Mr. Joseph Forsyth 

Swords of Hartford, Conn. 
Children of Lebbeus and Amity (Whitney) 
i. Amity, July 17, 1734. 
ii. Reuben, Apr. 15, 1737. 
iii. Hepsebeth, Jan. 19, 1744-5. 
iv. Elizabeth, June 18, 1748. 
v. Whitney, Nov. 22, 1751. 
vi. Issacher, June 8, 1755. 
Children by Issacher and Jemima Graves, 
i. Richard, Apr. 4, 1780. 
ii. Reuben, Aug. 16, 1781. 
iii. Daniel, Jan. 20, 1783. 
iv. Amity, Feb. 5, 1785. 
v. David, Oct. 16, 1786. 
vi. Artemas, July 20, 1789. 



vii. Anna, Feb. 2, 1791. 
viii. Jemima, Mar. 7, 1793. 
ix. Issacher, Apr. 20, 1795. 
x. Elijab, Feb. 16, 1800. 

Only one deatb recorded in early records 
— Experience, wife of Richard Graves, 
June 30, 1745. No marriages recorded 
before 1800. 

Probate Records from Plainfield, Wind- 
ham Co., Conn. 
Estate of Libeus Graves, late of Killingly, 

inventory dated Mar. 15, 1757, — addi- 
tional inventory dated Apr. 6, 1758. 

(Book C.) 
Letters of administration given Ammety 

Graves, on estate of Libeus Graves, late 

of Killingly, — dated Apr. 12, 1757. 
Distribution of personal estate of Libeus 

Graves, — dated Apr. 8, 1760. 
Hepsibab, Elizabeth, Whitney, Isicor, and 

William Graves, minor children, made 

petition for guardian, March 11, 1760. 

(Book D.) 
Record of Graves in his Majesty's service, 

1755 to 1760; from Pay Rolls in Conn. 

State Library. 
Josiah Graves, private in Capt. Jonathan 

Pettibones' Company of Col. Elihn 

Chauncey's Reg't., Sept. 8 to Dec. 14, 

Nathan Graves, private, \ In Lt. Col. 

Sept. 8 to Dec. 8, 1755. ) Andrew 
Ebenezer Graves, corporal, ( Ward's Co. 

Sept. 8 to Dec. 8, 1755. / of Col. Elihu 
Elias Graves, private, \ Chauncey's 

Sept. 8 to Nov. 8, 1755. / Reg't. 
By Act of Legislature of Massachusetts, 
passed July 6, 1787, Thomas Graves Rus- 
sell, gentleman, changed his name to 
Thomas Russell Graves, being a lineal des- 
cendant of the Hon. Thomas Greaves, late 
of Charlestown, Mass. 
6. Contributed by Mr. E. H. Pearce, New 

Fairfield, Conn. 

New Fairfield — Ball's Pond District. 




°l s^~^* 

















* . 






1. Where Abel Sherwood, b. 1720 (m. 
Hannah Fountain) and his son, Abel, I). 
1754, lived. The road has been changed 
so that where the house formerly stood is 
now the center of the road. The highway 
now (1896) follows the town line from there 
10 New York state. Mrs. Hannah (Foun- 
tain) Sherwood, in., 2d, before Feb. 2, 
1762, Elisha, son of Elisha Perry. They 
probably lived there in number 1 as late 
as 1770. Information is desired of the 
death of Elisha and Hannah. 

2. Where Mrs. Sophia Turrell, dau. of 
Thomas W. Sherwood (Abel, 1754), thought 
Granny Perry or Nash lived. 

3. Where Nelson L. Fuller lives, 1896. 

4. Where Habbeus Lacey lived. 

5. Dea. Thomas W. Sherwood's home; 
where his daughter, Mrs. Sophia Turrell, 
lives, 1896. 

6. Where Abel Montgomery Sherwood 
(Abel, 1754) kept a tavern in 1813. 

7. Schoolhouse. 

8. Where Mr. E. H. Pearce lives, 1896. 
7. Contributed by Rollin H. Cooke of Pitts- 
field, Mass. 

Early deeds in Berkshire Co., showing 
first deeds to Conn, men, with first deeds 
of the same in Lenox and Stockbridge. 
Belding, Oliver, of Canaan. Ct, Mar. 28, 
1774: Lenox. Mar. 9, 1781; Bryant, Au- 
gustine, of Canaan, Ct., Feb. 2, 1773: of 
Lenox, Feb. 12, 1779; Blin, Ephraim, of 
Farmington, Ct., May 13, 1768: of Lenox, 
Sept. 23, 1771; Blanchard, Theodore, of 
Salisburv, Ct., Sept. 2, 1783: of Lenox, 
Dec. 6, 1784; Booth, Lemuel, of Strat- 
ford, May 19, 1783: of Lenox, Aug. 31, 
1784; Booth, Isaac, of Stratford, May 19, 
1783: of Lenox, Aug. 31. 1784; Cooper, 
Asa, of New Haven, Oct. 14, 1772: of 
Lenox, Apr. 20, 1778; Culver, Caleb, of 
Wallingford, Apr. 6, 1770: of Lenox, 
Mar. 19, 1781; Cartwright, Christopher, 
of Sharon, Apr. 15. 1767; Churchill, 
Joanna, of Farmington. Apr. 15, 1775: 
of Lenox, Mar. 24, 1777: Dunbar, Samuel, 
of Wallingford, Jan. 21, 1771: of Lenox, 
Oct. 19, 1771; Foster. Jonathan, of 
Wallingford. Sept. 10, 1766: of Lenox. 
Mar. 24, 1772; Fisher. Luke, of Salis- 
bury, Apr. 21, 1768: of Lenox. Nov. 17, 
1772; Ford, Ichabod, of Norwich. Apr., 
1777: of Lenox, Aug. 4. 1784; G rover, 
David, of Union, Feb. 7. 1784: of Lenox. 
Aug. 31, 1784; Hewit, John, of Norwich, 
Apr. 5, 1768: of Lenox. Mar. 2.",. 17.7- 
Hollister. Ephraim. of Northington 
(Avon). Mar. 31. 1773: of Lenox. June 1, 
1774: Hvde, Andrew, of Lebanon. May 
'2-2. 1779; Isbell. Noah, of Salisbury. Oct. 
6, 1767: of Lenox, Nov. 16. 1772. 
(To be continued.) 

1. Green. — Esther or Hester Green of Wil- 
lington. Ct.. b. Dec. 25. 1753; m.. Sept. 
24. 1778, William Abbott (his 2d wife), 
of Union. Ct. They moved to N. Y. 
state 179-!: she d. Dee. 23, 1839, in Clin- 
ton. Oneida Co.. N. Y. Who were her 
parents and ancestors ? W. F. A. 



2. Jones. — Are any of the descendants of 

Benoni Jones of New Britain living ? 
Chester Olmstead, the oldest son emi- 
grated to Ohio before it was settled 
(1795-1810). Benoni in. an Olmstead, and 
it is thought lived in Hartford. The chil- 
dren were DeWitt Clinton, William, and 
Sarah. Querist please give name and 

3. Ferris. — Jeffrey and John Ferris settled 

in Connecticut about 1640. Henry Boyn- 
ton Ferris, b. Dec. 5, 1851, in New York 
city; m. May 13, 1874, in Buffalo, N. Y., 
Belle C. Buckland; son of Joshua Currey 
Ferris, b. Feb. 12, 1826, d. May 15, 1882; 
m. Feb. 13, 1851, in New York city, 
Lydia M. Boynton; son of Jonathan Fer- 
ris, b. Mar. 18, 1779, d. Sept 16, 1838; m. 
Feb. 13, 1800, at Peekskill, N. Y., Jane 
Owens; son of Jonathan Ferris, b. 1732, 
Eastchester, N. Y.; d., 1798, at Peeks- 
kill; m. Rachel Dean, b. 1732; d. Aug. 
8. 1798. The ancestry of this Jonathan 
is desired back to the first settler. Lydia 
M. Boynton, dau. of John Boynton (m. 
Lydia Fash); son of Isaac Boynton of 
Hollis, N. H. (m. Judith Macomber). 

H. B. F. 

4. Tolles. — Lamberton Tolles, b. in Bethany 

about 1750; d., 1821, in Plymouth, Ct, 
aet. 71; m. Abigail, dau. of Samuel and 
Ruth Brisco of Milford, Conn. He spent 
most of his life in Bethany, then Wood- 
bridge, Ct. He had 3 brothers, Jared 
(sergt. Capt. Peck's Co., 5th Battalion 
Conn, troops, Amer. Rev.), Lazarus, and 
Daniel (all of Bethany). The name 
Lamberton is supposed to come through 
the marriage of some ancestor into the 
Lamberton family, first residents of New 
Haven. Who was Lamberton's father ? 

W. F. T. 

5. (a) Higgins. —Israel Higgins, probably b. 

at Haddam, Ct. (or one of the Had- 
dams); m. Henrietta, dau. of William 
(Joseph) Bradford. She was bapt. at 
Haddam Cong. Ch. Oct. 4, 1765. Israel 
and wife went to Glastonbury, Ct., 
where he died Aug. 16, 1814; she d., aet. 
92. Desired, the ancestors of Israel, date 
of birth, marriage; and date of death of 
Henrietta, his wife. 

(b) Wells. — Mary Wells m., Oct. 4, 1733, 
Elijah Worthington, of Colchester. Ct; 
son of William and gd.-son of Nicholas, 
of Hartford and Hatfield, Mass. De- 
sired, her ancestry. 

(c) BoJMns. — Abigail Robbins m., Nov. 
28, 1733, Gershom Bulkeley, son of Rev. 
John of Colchester, and gd.-son of Ger- 
shom, D.D., of Wethersfield and Glaston- 
bury. Desired, her ancestry. 

F. W. B. 

6. Holmes. — Who were the ancestors of 

John Holmes, who, in 1686, went from 
Roxbury, Mass., to New Roxbury, now 
Woodstock, Ct. ? Who was the father 
of David Holmes, who em. Mar., 1782, 
from Torrington, Ct., and in 1818 resided 
in Mass., drawing a pension ? C. H. T. 

7. Dickinson. — Nathaniel (1) Dickinson, 

Wethersfield, 1637; Thomas (2) a first 
settler of Hadlev, Mass., m. Hannah 
Crow; Thomas (3), b. Feb. 15, 1672; 

moved back to Wethersfield; m. ; 

d. ; Thomas (4), b. about 1713, m. 

Annie ; d. ; Thomas (5), b. 

Mar. 17, 1737, moved about 1759 to Nor- 
folk, Ct.; m., 1760, Mary Stephens; d. 
Goshen, Ct. Wanted, name of wife of 
Thomas (3), names of children, date of 
death; surname of wife of Thomas (4), 
names of children, date and place of his 
death; residence of Thomas (5) before 
moving to Norfolk. A. L. C. 

8. Avery. — Samuel Avery of Norwich, m. 

Charlton (it is thought), and their 

son Samuel, b. Aug. 31, 1784, at Nor- 
wich. Who were the parents of Samuel, 
Sr., and his wife ? H. F. T. 

9. Chandler. — Who were the parents of 

Mercy Chandler, wife of Josiah Bartlett 
of Lebanon, Ct.; she d. Feb. 7, 1781 (or 
'86); he d. Mar. 16, 1782. He was b. 1701 
in Marshfield, Mass., where his father, 
Ichabod Bartlett, had moved from Dux- 
bury. He m., probably in 1722, Mercy 
Chandler, as their first child was b. in 
Oct., 1723. Place of residence and mar- 
riage have not been found. Their mar- 
ried life was passed in Lebanon. 

C. L. P. 

10. Adams. — Mary Adams (d. Sept. 20, 1754, 
aet. 78), m. Edward Spalding (b. June 18, 
1672, at Chelmsford, Mass.; d. Nov. 29, 
1740, at Canterbury, Ct.). Their first 
child, born in Chelmsford, and the rest in 
Canterbury. Children were Benjamin, 
Elizabeth, Ephraim, Jonathan, Ezekiel, 
Ruth, Abigail, Ebenezer, Thomas, and 
John. Who were her parents ? 

A. S. W. 

11. (a) Bartlett. — Rev. Horace Bartlett, b. 
Jan. 21, 1793, at Chatham, Ct. (now Port- 
land), related that his father d. when he 
was aet. 6y 2 , and his mother was fifty 
when he was born. Who were his par- 
ents, their occupation, and can they be 
traced to the Mass. or N. Hampshire fam- 
ily ? It is said they spring from the 
same family as Joseph Bartlett, who 
signed the Declaration of Independence. 
Were any of the ancestry revolutionary 
soldiers ? 

( b) Tripp. — The above Rev. Horace m.. 
about 1812-13, Currence Tripp. He was 
at that time a carpenter and moved to 
Middletown. She had an ancestor who 
had charge of a cannon during the Fr. 
and Indian War. Can the Tripp ancestry 
be traced ? The Tripps probably lived in 
Haddam and Essex. J. O. M. 

12. (a) Wilcox. — Samuel Wilcox, Jr., son of 
Samuel and Abigail (Whitmore) Wilcox, 
b. Feb. 20, 1683-4; m., May 19, 1707, 
Hester Bushnell. Desired, parentage of 
Hester, with date of their marriage, and 
her birth. 

(b) Cheney. — Benjamin Cheney, m. Nov. 
12, 1724, at Windsor, Ct., Elizabeth Long. 



Desired, the parentage of Benjamin and 
Elizabeth, with date of their birth. 

C. H. A. 

The editor of this department is prepared 
to make personal researches at moderate 
rates. Correspondence solicited. 

Mr. Eardeley-Thomas is engaged upon a 
history of all the Fountain Families in 
America before 1800; of the descendants of 
Ezra. Perry of Sandwich, Mass.; of the de- 

scendants of William chase of Yarmouth, 
Mass.; and of Thomas Chase of Newbury, 
Mass.; and of Samuel Chase of Maryland; 
also lie and Mrs. G. Brainard Smith 
of 320 Wethersfield Avenue. Hartford, Ct., 
are writing the history of the descendants 
of Aquila Chase of Newbury. Mass. Those 
bearing the above names or being descended 
from the above are requested to w T rite us 
on the subject. 


We should like to have reports from the patriotic and historical societies of Connecticut for 
this department so we can represent the state as completely as possible. 


The paper of the evening at the April 
meeting was by the society's correspond- 
ing member. Rev. William Copley Wins- 
low of Boston, on " Edward Winslow and 
his leadership in the Plymouth Colony," 
showing the important part taken by 
Winslow in the earl3' history of that 
colony. The paper has since been printed 
by the New York Genealogical and Bio- 
graphical Society. 

At the May meeting Joseph G. Wood- 
ward rear an interesting and highly pat- 
riotic paper on the subject, " Was General 
Samuel Holden Parsons a British spy ? " 
which completely vindicated General Par- 
sons from the charges recently made 
against him. 

The annual meeting of the society was 
held May 26. The president gave his 
annual address, and the annual reports of 
the treasurer and librarian were read; all 
of which showed the society to be in, a 
flourishing condition. A large number of 
interesting and important manuscripts 
have been received during the year. The 
old officers were re-elected, with the ex- 
ception of the recording secretary, F. B. 
Gay, who declined re-election. 

A committee previously appointed was 
given power to arrange with owners of 
collections suitable for a public museum, 
for the exhibition of such collections in 
the rooms of this society. It is hoped that 
this action may be the starting point of a 
public museum worthy of the city. 

The annual field-day was appointed for 
June 17. the societv accepting the invitation 
of the Conn. Society S. A. R., to be present 
at the unveiling of a memorial tablet at the 
old " War Office " in Lebanon. 

Recording Secretary and Librarian. 


The Records and Papers of the New Lon- 
don County Historical Society. Part II. 
Vol. II, published at New London. 1896. is 
a little volume full of interest. It contains 

an " Plistorical Sketch of the Schools of 
New London from 1645 to 1895," by Hon. 
Benjamin Stark. This report is illustrated 
by excellent full-page plates ; a portrait of 
the author, several of old schoolmasters 
and schoolhouses, also portraits of Leonard 
II. Bulkeley and Harriet P. Williams, w T ho 
endowed the fine schools that bear their 
names. New London may well be proud 
of its fine schools, and this report of the 
schools from the founding of the town to 
the present day is exceedingly interesting. 
This article is followed by a history of the 
" New London Society for Trade and 
Commerce," by N. Shaw Perkins, and a 
paper on " The Preston Separate Church," 
by Amos A. Browning of Norwich. Then 
comes the " Report of the Annual Meeting 
of the New London County Historical So- 
ciety," held September 2, 1895, with a list 
of officers and members. From this we see 
the origin of the extensive celebration of 
the 250th anniversary of the founding of 
New London, in a motion presented to the 
societv at the last annual meeting by 
Ernest E. Rogers. The report also includes 
a list of papers and relics received during 
the year, and a record of the business trans- 
acted by the society. 


The Connecticut Society of the Order of 
Founders and Patriots was organized in 
Hartford May 9, 1896. 

The officers are : Deputy Governor, 
Charles A. Jewell ; Registrar. Edward E. 
Sill ; Secretary-Treasurer, Charles M. Gla- 
zier, Hartford : Councilors, for three years, 
James E. Brooks, John E. Morris. Frank 
W. Mix: for two years, Jonathan F. Mor- 
ris AY. F. J. Boardman, Henry L. Morris; 
for one year, William C. Russell, Fraucis 
D. Nichols. Charles A. Peltor. 

The national society was formed in New 
York citv in February, and at the first an- 
nual meeting on April 24th, Colonel Fred. 
D. Grant was elected Governor. 

The objects and purposes of the society 
are historical and patriotic. 



A meeting of the Sons of the Revolution 
in the State of Connecticut was held in 
Hartford on March 24th. Six gentlemen 
were elected to membership. 

A meeting was held in May to pass upon 
applications for membership, a large num- 
ber of which had been received. 

The new " Register," just issued by the 
Sons of the Revolution is very beautifully 
printed and is one of the finest books of the 
kind ever published. 




The third annual social state conference 
of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution assembled in Hartford, May 26th, as 
guests of the Ruth Wyllys Chapter. The 
formal session opened in the morning in 
the Park Church, which was prettily deco- 
rated with palms and the American flag. 
Nearly five hundred members were present. 
The meeting was called to order by Mrs. 
Sara T. Kinney of New Haven, state regent. 
An organ prelude was given by John S. 
Camp; Mrs. Henry T. Bulkley of South- 
port offered prayer. Alfred Harrington 
sang " The Two Grenadiers," by Schuman, 
with fine effect. 

Mrs. J. H. Holcombe, regent of the Ruth 
Wyllys Chapter, gave the address of wel- 
come. Mrs. Sara T. Kinney gave the re- 
sponse. Mr. Harrington sang two more 
selections. Then followed the business 

Thirty-two Chapters of Connecticut were 
represented, and several guests from other 
states were present, including Mrs. Ethel 
B. Allen, state regent of Missouri ; Mrs. 
Barber, state regent of Colorado ; Mrs. 
Henry Treat Olmstead of Chattanooga, 
Tenn.; and Mrs. W. J. Thursby of New 

In the afternoon the conference met in 
Foot Guard Armory, which was beauti- 
fully decorated with green and white, with 
palms, ferns, and flowers, and the colors 
of the society. 

An elaborate lunch was daintily served. 
Then came the bright and witty after- 
dinner speeches, and charming music. 

Mrs. Georgiana Hull Parsons of South 
Norwalk gave an address on " The Women 
of '76 " ; Mrs. Mary E. M. Hill of Norwalk 
spoke of " The Meaning of our Society " ; 
Mrs. Kinney introduced Mrs. Angeline 
Loring Avery, a daughter of Solomon Lor- 
ing, who enlisted in the Revolutionary war 
when he was fourteen years of age, and 
whose daughter, Mrs. Avery, was born 
when he was seventy-three years old. Mrs. 
Kate Foote Coe of Meriden gave a short 
talk on " Glimpses of Washington in Trini- 
dad and Venezuela " ; Miss Clara Lee Bow- 

man of Bristol spoke on " Objects of work 
for Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion." Mrs. Harriet Beecher S. DeVan of 
Stamford, a granddaughter of Henry Ward 
Beecher, gave an address on " Objects and 

There was good music by the Banjo Club, 
excellent singing by Mr. and Mrs. E. C. 
Tolles and Miss Elizabeth King. Alto- 
gather, this was one of the most delightful 
social meetings ever held by the Daughters 
of the American Revolution in Connecticut. 


In June, 1893, Mrs. Keim, the state 
regent, visited Simsbury for the purpose 
of forming a chapter of Daughters of the 
American Revolution. A formal organiza- 
tion was effected in November, and the 
chapter given the name of Abigail Phelps, 
whose three sons, Captain David, Col. Noah, 
and Colonel Elisha Phelps, served in the 
war, the two latter being prominent in the 
Ticonderoga expedition. 

The Chapter contains descendants of 
Governor Thomas Dudley of Massachu- 
setts, Governor William Leete, Elder 
William and Ozias Goodwin. William 
Pynchon, Matthew Grant — ancestor of 
General Grant and John Brown — Colonel 
Noah and Captain David Phelps, two 
Colonel Jonathan Humphreys, Judge John, 
Major Elihu, and Hon. Daniel Humphrey, 
two Colonel Jonathan Pettibones, Captain 
Abel Pettibone, Colonel Munroe of Lexing- 
ton, Colonel Denison, Esquire John Owen, 
Captain Job Case, Captain Fithin Case, 
Captain Eliphalet Curtiss, the Lords, Wood- 
bridges, Whitings, and Wadsworths, and 
the Sewells, Winslows, and Lawrences of 

We are also honored by the membership 
of two veritable daughters, Mrs. Selina 
Belden and Miss Mahala Terry. 

The same officers have held since organi- 
zation, with the addition of vice-regent. 
Mrs. Charles Pitman Croft is regent ; Mrs. 
Joseph Toy, vice-regent ; Mrs. Joseph R. 
Ensign, secretary ; Mrs. George C. Eno, 
treasurer ; Miss Mary Winslow, registrar; 
and Miss Mary H. Humphrey, historian. 

Meetings are held once a month at private 
houses or at the library. Papers have been 
written by the historian on the Pettibone, 
Whiting, Phelps, and Humphrey families, 
and reports of the congresses of '95 and '96 
by Mrs. Fannie Eno Welch and Miss Mary 
Winslow. Washington's birthday and the 
anniversaries of Lexington and Ticondero- 
ga have been commemorated, and a recep- 
tion will be held at the home of the regent 
on Bunker Hill Day. 

At the meetings varied programmes have 
been offered. Colonial and revolutionary 
letters have been read, selections from 
John Fiske's American Revolution and 
other historical works, and various articles 
on subjects pertaining to the days of '76. 
Musical and social features of the meetings 


2 93 

have been made prominent. Several meet- 
ings, particularly of a social nature, have 
been held at the home of our regent, Mrs. 
Croft, at one of which the Chapter met 
Mrs. Keim. 

The chapter numbers about forty-five, 
and has been well represented at the Con- 
tinental Congresses and at most of the 
Connecticut conferences. 

The first contribution toward the Conti- 
nental Hall at Washington — two hundred 
and fifty dollars— was made by Mrs. Antio- 
nette Eno Wood, who has also presented 
us with a handsome frame, ornamented 
with the State Arms, for our charter. 

We have also contributed toward the 
Mary Washington Monument and Mrs. 
Harrison portrait funds and various objects 
in the line of D. A. R. work. 

On Memorial Day the chapter decorated 
with flags and flowers the graves of thirty- 
six soldiers of the Revolution, buried in the 
Simsbury cemetery. 




is the fifteenth Chapter in the State in the 
order of organization, having been formed 
in November, 1893,— its Charter, however, 
bearing date of April 26, 1894,— and now 
has the names of 94 ladies on its member- 
ship list. 

The Chapter is privileged to bear a dis- 
tinguished name, that of Faith Trumbull, 
who was the loyal and devoted wife of 
Governor Jonathan Trumbull, known as 
the Revolutionary War Governor of Con- 
necticut, and the confidential friend of 

She was the mother of six children, each 
of whom filled prominent positions during 
the Revolutionary period. 

Their eldest son, Joseph, was Commis- 
sary-general in Washington's army ; Jona- 
than. Jr. was paymaster in the army and 
afterward Governor of Connecticut from 
1797 until his death, August 7, 1809 — a 
period of nearly twelve years; David was 
assistant-commissary and the father of 
Governor Joseph Trumbull, who was Gov- 
ernor of Connecticut in 1849 ; the youngest 
son, John, was aid-de-camp to Washing- 
ton, and the renowned artist who painted 
many historic paintings, including the four 
great national pictures ordered by Con- 
gress for the Capitol at Washington ; the 
eldest daughter. Faith, was the wife of 
Maj.-General Jedediah Huntington, and the 
younger daughter, Mary, was the wife of 
William Williams, one of the four Connecti- 
cut signers of the immortal Declaration of 

During the progress of the Revolutionary 
War it was necessary to make frequent 
calls for contributions to aid the Continen- 
tal army; on one such occasion, when a 
contribution was to be taken in the Con- 
gregational Church at Lebanon, it is related 

of Madam Faith Trumbull that she lefl 
her seat in Church and throwing from her 
shoulders the elegant scarlet cloak — a 
present to her from Count Rochambeau, 
the commander of the French allied army — 
laid it on the altar as her offering for the 
needs of the soldiers. The cloak was after- 
ward cut into strips and used to trim the 
uniforms of many of the American army 

Faith Trumbull Chapter has held meet- 
ings at irregular intervals, sometimes on 
historic dates to commemorate events of 
the Revolution, at other times to listen to 
lectures or a familiar "talk" on pertinent 

On several occasions the meetings have 
taken a social form for the mutual acquaint- 
ance and pleasure of the members. A few 
outings to historic places have proved de- 
lightfully interesting. 

The Chapter was represented at the 
recent State Conference at Hartford by 17 
members, and about 30 men*bers were 
present June 17th, " Bunker Hill Day," at 
Lebanon, when the Sons of the American 
Revolution unveiled a Bronze Tablet in the 
old " War Office " where Governor Jona- 
than Trumbull and the Council of Safety 
held more than eleven hundred meetings 
during the Revolutionary War. 

Eight members of this Chapter are 
descendants of Governor Jonathan and 
Madam Faith Trumbull, and one of the 
above members is also a descendant of the 
second Governor Jonathan Trumbull. 



One of the most interesting meetings of 
the Esther Stanley Chapter was held at the 
home of Mrs. William L. Humason on the 
afternoon of April 10th. Thirty-six mem- 
bers responded to the roll-call. 

We were highly favored by a mandolin 
solo by Mr. James Foster, a son of one of 
our members. Three new members were 
elected, and we now number fifty-nine 
daughters. The leading events of the 
month were given by Mrs. H. B. Boardman. 
An interesting ancestral paper was read by 
Mrs. Frank Johnston ; a poem, " Quakeress 
Ruth," was read by Mrs. William B. Thom- 
son, and Mrs. Charles B. Stanley gave an 
account of the " Burning of Fairfield. 
Conn." The hospitality of our hostess 
was demonstrated in a very agreeable and 
refreshing manner, and after a short social 
talk the meeting adjourned. 

At our regular May meeting, held at the 
home of Mrs. F. H. Allis, thirty-five ladies 
were present. After the events of the 
month had been given by Mrs. Page, an in- 
teresting paper was read by Mrs. M. C. 
Hart, upon her ancestor, Lieut.-Col. Tench 
Tilghman, aid-de-camp of General Wash- 
ington. A poem was read by Miss Alice G. 



Stanley, entitled " Tilghinan's Ride from 
Yorktown to Philadelphia," and formed a 
pleasing sequel to Mrs. Hart's paper, which 
had given such a full and interesting ac- 
count of Tilghman's life. Music, refresh- 
ments, and a pleasant social hour completed 
the programme for the day. 

May 29th twenty-four members of the 
Esther Stanley Chapter met at Fairview 
cemetery, and after a few appropriate re- 
marks from the historian, floral offerings 
were placed on the graves of Esther Stanley 
and the Revolutionary heroes buried in our 
midst. At the invitation of Mrs. H. D. 
Humphrey all adjourned to her home, where 
amid a profusion of old-fashioned flowers, 
a short literary program was rendered and 
a delicious ice enjoyed. 




The Sarah Riggs Humphreys Chapter, D. 
A. R., was formed in October, 1893, at the 
home of our Regent, Mrs. A. W. Phillips. 
Our former State Regent, Mrs. Keim, and 
Mrs. Phillips, were instrumental in the for- 
mation of this Chapter, and by a most for- 
tuitous concurrence of circumstances, the 
ladies who were interested at the outset 
were the ones to give it that character of 
stability and culture which it has ever 
maintained. From the time of its inception 
until the present time, our much-loved 
Regent, Mrs. A. W. Phillips, has been the 
ruling spirit, the soul of the organization. 
With an energy and zeal that never tired 
she visited the ladies of our town, inter- 
esting them by her well-controlled enthu- 
siasm, which never goes to extremes, and, 
with a perseverance worthy of grateful 
recognition, aided in the search for Revo- 
lutionary ancestors, which has enabled our 
Chapter to increase in numbers so rapidly 
that at the present writing we have over 
one hundred members. It was also our 
good fortune to have for historian Miss 
Jane De Forest Shelton, whose enthusiasm 
and literary genius have left their impress 
on our Chapter, and whose impulse in the 
direction of acquiring historical knowledge 
has been of so great benefit, while the con- 
scientious work of the registrar, Miss 
Louise Birdseye, and the excellent work 
of our other officers have been conducive 
to the progress of the organization in the 
right direction. A volume would not suffice 
to describe the merits of the many historical 
papers written by our ladies, the subjects 
being the dissensions between the mother 
country and the colonies, the battles of the 
Revolutionary War, the noted men who 
figured in that war, while neither Columbus 
nor Washington were forgotten on the anni- 
versaries which commemorated important 
events in their lives; then, too, papers on 
town history, early coinage, and on abstract 
themes, showed the genius possessed by our 
ladies. The first year of the organization 
we had very little music, but since then 

the double quartet of ladies, developed 
through the efforts of Mrs. Leonidas Ailing, 
chairman of the Music Committee, and com- 
posed entirely of Daughters, the violin 
played with rare skill by Miss Fannie Os- 
borne, the piano solos, and the sweet music 
of the mandolin club, have contributed 
much to the enjoyment of our meetings. 
Elocutionists from a neighboring town, as 
well as our own, have graciously used their 
talents to give us pleasure. 

With one or two exceptions the monthly 
meetings have been held at the homes of 
the ladies, and it has been our pleasure 
to entertain visitors from a number of the 
Chapters of the State, while Mrs. Keim, 
our former State Regent, Mrs. Kinney, our 
present State Regent, and Mrs. Coffin, our 
Governor's wife, have graced our meetings 
with their presence. 

The hostesses and the committee on en- 
tertainment have ever attended to their 
duties with a courtesy much to be com- 
mended, while the reception held in Febru- 
ary, 1895, was a marked success, showing 
to the townspeople that the organization 
was no passing fancy, and, indeed, I think 
all will admit that it is one whose founda- 
tion is laid in true patriotism, and the desire 
to preserve the memory and history of 
those early struggles for independence to 
which we owe largely our present liberty 
and happiness. But the work of this Chap- 
ter, to which particular reference must be 
made, is two-fold, the historical library, 
planned and labored for so zealously by our 
Regent, that it now numbers four hundred 
volumes, the gifts of Daughters and friends 
outside the Chapter, and the last and crown- 
ing work, the reclaiming of what is called 
the Up-town Cemetery. To this the Chap- 
ter has appropriated one hundred dollars, 
and the gifts of friends have so increased 
the fund that much has already been done. 
Mrs. Chas. H. Pinney has superintended 
this work, and she has been unremitting 
in her care to see that every dollar was well 
spent, many times most generously supply- 
ing deflciences. Such, in brief, is the his- 
tory of the Derby Chapter, named for the 
gracious lady who was the mother of one 
of our brave Revolutionary heroes, Gen. 
Humphreys. So gentle and courteous, so 
generous and kindly disposed was she, that 
they called her Lady Humphreys, and it is 
a source of much gratification that her 
grave, as also that of her husband, Rev. 
Daniel Humphreys, has been kindly cared 
for by one of our enthusiastic Daughters. 


The meetings of the Mary Silliman Chap- 
ter, D. A. R., have been largely attended. 

Great interest has been taken in the Revo- 
lutionary data of each month given by the 

" Our Western Land " has been adopted 
as our chapter hymn, Mrs. Birdseye pre- 
senting printed copies. 


2 95 

Upon invitation of the Sons of the Ameri- 
can Revolution the Mary Silliinan Chapter 
assisted in the decoration of the graves 
of Revolutionary heroes on Memorial Day. 
Lineage papers have been read by Mrs. S. 
Y. Beach, Mrs. Elmer Beardsley, Mrs. 
James Burroughs, Mrs. C. H. Bill, Mrs. 
George Jameson, and the Misses Sarah 
Bartram and Booth. 

Mrs. Howard Curtis, chairman of the com- 
mittee on historical relics, has brought relics 
for inspection, and given interesting de- 
scriptions of them. Relics have been pre- 
sented to the Chapter by Mrs. Orlando 
Bartram, Mrs. John Findley, Mrs. Samuel 
Banks, and Miss Booth. 

The Lafayette meeting, December 9th, 
was of special interest and largely attended. 
Mrs. N. W. Richardson was present and 
told of the honor conferred upon her by 
shaking hands with Lafayette on the oc- 
casion of his visit to America in 1824, to 
lay the corner-stone of Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment. The Chapter has, among its mem- 
bers, two genuine daughters of the Revolu- 

Our delegates to the National Congress 
were Miss Sarah J. Bartram and Mrs. James 
Burroughs, who, upon their return, gave 
exceedingly interesting reports. 

A question-box has been introduced and 
special attention is given to the musical 
program. Tea has been served after each 

We have had the pleasure of welcoming 
the regents and members from other Chap- 
ters in the State. 

We have 123 members. 


Corresponding Secretary. 


The Orford Parish Chapter, whose organi- 
zation was assured February 20, 1895, but 
not fully effected until May 4th following, 
has been steadily increasing in member- 
ship until there are now twenty-three 
names upon its rolls. 

At the last annual meeting the same 
officers were elected as were appointed for 
the first year, and are as follows: Regent, 
Mrs. A. Willard Case ; vice-regent, Miss 
Mary Cheney; registrar, Mrs. Louise Holt 
Moore; secretary, Miss Laura Mabel Case; 
treasurer, Mrs. Charles S. Cheney; his- 
torian, Miss Alice B. Cheney; local board 
of managers, Mrs. Frank Cheney, Mrs. M. 
S. Chapman. 

The work of the Chapter thus far has 
been that of identifying and marking the 
graves of Revolutionary soldiers buried in 
the town, and at eleven graves markers 
designed and used by the S. A. R. were 
placed, and the graves decorated on Me- 
morial Dav. Several others have since 
been identified and will also be marked in 
the same way. 

Orford Parish Chapter has two real 
daughters of Revolutionary soldiers among 
its members. Mrs. Mary Pitkin, now resid- 

ing in Milwaukee, who will be 98 years of 
age August 30th, and her sister, Miss Har- 
riet Hollister, 93 years old. Can any Chapter 
in Connecticut excel that record of having 
two " real " daughters who are sisters, and 
is not Mrs. Pitkin the oldest Daughter in 
the State, if not in the membership ? What 
is most remarkable, she wrote a very grace- 
ful letter of acceptance in response to the 
invitation of the Cnapter to become a mem- 
ber, in which she says: " I am thankful 
that so much of the true American principle 
remains with the descendants of those that 
gave us a free country." 




On December 8, 1894, the first meeting of 
the society was held at the house of Mrs. 
Bell. Officers were elected, and a paper was 
read by Mrs. Pitkin, secretary of the Ruth 
Wyllys Chapter of Hartford. The name 
chosen for the Chapter was that of Abigail 
Wolcott Ellsworth, whose husband was 
chief justice of the United States and a per- 
sonal friend of Gen. Washington. Since 
then Ave have held five meetings yearly. 

The Chapter has adopted for its local 
badge a dark blue ribbon, bearing the in- 
scription, " The Abigail Wolcott Ellsworth 
Chapter, No. 25, Windsor, Conn., 1894." 
This is to be worn with a pin made from 
an original forest-tree which stood until 
recently on the grounds of the old Ells- 
worth homestead. On the pin are the letters 
D. A. R. in silver. The charter is also in 
a frame made from the wood of the same 

The Chapter has now about twenty-five 
members, among them a daughter of a 
Revolutionary soldier, now in her ninety- 
ninth year. 

The last meeting for this year was held 
June 11th, at the old Ellsworth house: the 
State Regent was present, and various inci- 
dents relating to the history of the house 
were read, after which the ladies were 
allowed to roam at will through the house, 
which contains many objects of interest. 
Late in the afternoon refreshments were 
served in the dining-room. The meeting 
was then adjourned until fail. 



A. R. 

The Katherine Gaylord Chapter of Bris- 
tol held a most interesting meeting on 
March 27th. devoting the time to different 
characteristics of the " Women of the Revo- 
lution." as illustrated in the following short 
papers: "Prominent women whose hus- 
bands and fathers had influence in the Rev- 
olution," Mrs. George Scott: " Organized 
bodies of women in the Revolution." Mrs. 
L. G. Merick; "Women rulers who took 
some part in the American Revolution," 



Mrs. Edward E. Newell; " Heroic South- 
ern women in the Revolution," Miss Pierce; 
" Women of romantic connection in the 
Revolution," Miss Tuttle; " A stay-at-home 
heroine," original story, Mrs. Andrew Gay- 
lord; "The women of '7(3," original poem. 
Miss Hanson. 

After listening to these interesting papers 
all felt a new affection for the much-talked- 
of grandmothers of Revolutionary times. 

The April meeting of the Chapter took 
the form of a debate on the question, 
" Were the Tories justified in their alle- 
giance to King George ? " 

The disputants were Miss Root and Mrs. 
C. I. Allen, affirmative; Miss At wood and 
Miss Hubbell, negative. The vice-regent, 
Mrs. M. L. Peck, who was presiding, gave 
judgment in favor of the affirmative side, 
from the weight of argument, but she was 
not supported by the house, for the daugh- 
ters of patriots positively refused to vote 
for the Tories under any circumstances. 

The May meeting celebrated the anni- 
versary of the capture of Ticonderoga. A 
charming letter, with several pamphlets 
and poems, which had been sent by Mrs. 
Joseph Cook to the historian, Miss Root, 
were read. 

" The Legend of Ticonderoga," told in 
prose by Miss Gordon Cummings, and in 
poetry by Robert Louis Stevenson, were 
then read by Miss Roberts and Mrs. W. E. 
Sessions, followed by a delightful paper on 
the " History of Ticonderoga," prepared by 
Mrs. Dayne, and short biographical 
sketches of Ethan Allen, Seth Warner, and 
Benedict Arnold, prepared and read bv Mrs. 
B. F. Judd. 

Miss Alice M. Bartholomew read a charm- 
ing paper on " My Visit to Ticonderoga." 

The D. A. R. Glee Club, under the leader- 
ship of Mrs. C. F. Barnes, furnishes music 
for the Chapter meetings. 

The regular program for the year is 
finished, but a special meeting is called for 
June 17th in order to dedicate the monu- 
ment to Katherine Gaylord, which was 
erected in Burlington last fall. The exer- 
cises will be held at three o'clock in the old 
cemetery, and will consist of an address on 
the life' and work of Katherine Gaylord, 
by the Regent, Mrs. Muzzy, an account of 
"The Descendants of Katherine Gaylord," 
by Mrs. Alexander Wheeler of Bridgeport, 
a poem bv Miss Hanson, and a paper on 
" Old Burlington," by Mrs. J. M. Webster 
of that place. 

The Chapter will then be entertained by 
the ladies of Burlington, and after the sup- 
per the following toasts will be given: 
" Fads," Miss Root; Duet, " The Sword of 
Bunker Hill," Mrs. C. F. Barnes and Mrs. 
C. S. Treadway; "Sister Towns," Mrs. 
Turner; " Our Heroine," Mrs. Charles S. 
Cook, the last-named lady being the only 
direct descendant of Katherine Gaylord in 
the membership of the Chapter. 

In addition to the literary work reported 
above it has been voted that the Chapter 
assume the care of improving the village 
green, once used as the old military train- 

ing ground, but now somewhat neglected. 
It is hoped to transform it into an at- 
tractive park, and thereby perpetuate a 
link with the past. 


Recording Secretary. 


The New England Society of Mayflower 
Descendants, which was incorporated in 
New London, Conn., on March 7, 1896, has 
taken a broad stand in regard to member- 
ship, and is growing rapidly as a direct re- 
sult of its liberal policy. There have 
already been enrolled over fifty members, 
representing all parts of the country, and 
the society has on file a large number of 
applications upon which it has not been 
able as yet to take action. 

The society has shown much wisdom in 
the choice of a name, selecting one which 
does not seem to restrict its scope to any 
one State, and yet not so general in charac- 
ter as to lose all local significance. The 
early Fathers reared their first cabins in 
Plymouth, but in less than a dozen years 
they began their settlements in Connecticut, 
and were driving their cattle in various 
directions through the forests to other 
homes. But what new settlements so re- 
mote as not to be embraced in the present 
confines of New England ? 

Both ladies and gentlemen are eligible 
to membership in the society, and, although 
it is called the " New England Society," 
applications will be favorably considered 
from any desirable person in any part of 
the country who can prove his descent 
from a passenger on the Mayflower, and 
who wishes to preserve those New England 
associations which began with his Pilgrim 

The following extracts will give the rules 
which govern the reception of applications: 

Purpose of Society. — The purpose for 
which it is constituted is to perpetuate the 
memory of the band of Pilgrims, passen- 
gers on the Mayflower, who landed at Ply- 
mouth Rock, Massachusetts, December 21, 
1620; and to preserve their records, their 
history, and the memory of all facts re- 
lating to them, their ancestors and their 
posterity. The Compact, that memorable 
constitution of self-government, their con- 
stancy of purpose under severe trials, and 
their fortitude under privations, entitle the 
Pilgrims of Plymouth to the veneration of 
mankind, and form an example worthy of 
emulation for all time. 

Eligibility — Requirements.— Every lineal 
descendant, over eighteen years of age, of 
any passenger of the voyage of the May- 
flower, which terminated at Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, December 21, 1620, includ- 
ing all signers of the Compact, shall be 
eligible to membership. The candidate 
must be proposed and seconded by mem- 
bers in good standing, and elected at a 
regular meeting. Each member-elect, upon 


: 97 

notification of election, shall pay the initia- 
tion fee and dues for the year and comply 
with the requirements of the Constitution 
and By-Laws. 

Proceedings on Applications. — Nomina- 
tions for membership shall be made in writ- 
ing- to the secretary by a member of the 
society, and shall be seconded by another 
member, both of whom shall vouch for the 

All nominations must be favorably re- 
ported by the Board of Assistants, before 
final application blanks may be issued to 
the nominee. 

The nominee shall then file final blank, 
showing- direct descent from a passenger 
or signer of The Compact on the Mayflower, 
and with the consent of the Board of Assist- 
ants, nominees and members may file 
additional papers showing descent, all of 
which shall be sworn to, and shall include 
references and authorities given in detail. 

It is necessary to establish the identity 
of an ancestor by reference to remote 
Family Bible or gravestone records. The 
blank should be accompanied by a duly 
acknowledged affidavit, vouching 'for these 

All application papers and evidence of 
lineage shall be referred to and examined 
by the Historian, and, after the lineage is 
approved, the nomination, with the applica- 
tion paper or papers, shall be reported to the 
society at the next regular meeting. 

The members present shall vote upon the 
nomination by secret ballot, and the nomi- 
nee must have two-thirds of the members 
present vote in the affirmative in order to 
obtain an election. 

Every election shall be void unless it shall 
be followed by payment of the entrance 
fee or $3.00, and dues of $2.00, for the cur- 
rent year. 

The officers are as follows: Governor. 
Benj. Stark; secretary and treasurer, Lau- 
rence W. Miner; historian, Miss Fannie 

All inquiries in regard to the society 
should be addressed to the secretary. Mr. 
Laurence W. Miner, New London, Conn., 
who will be pleased to furnish preliminary 
application blanks upon request. 


A meeting of the New York. Pennsyl- 
vania, and Connecticut Commanderies of 
the Military Order of Foreign Wars of the 
United States was held at the Brevoort 
House, New York city, on March 11th. to 
organize the National Commandery of the 
Order. The following delegates were pres- 
ent from the Connecticut Commandery: 
Morgan Gardiner Bulkeley. commander; A. 
Floyd Delafield. vice-commander; Rev. 
Henry N. Wayne, secretary and registrar; 
Rev/ Alexander Hamilton, chaplain: Col. 
Henry Churchill Morgan. U. S. A.. Fred- 
erick Jabez Huntington, and Hon. Erastus 

A meeting of the Connecticut Command- 
ery was held in Hartford on April 6tli, at 
which Mr. A. Floyd Delafield \v;is elected 
national vice-commander to represent 
Connecticut in the National Commandery. 

Two gentlemen were also elected com- 

At a meeting held May 21st one member 
was elected. A meeting will soon be called 
when the many applications tor member- 
ship recently received will be voted upon 



At the first meeting of the Anna Warner 
Bailey Chapter, D. A. R„ held after the 
Continental Congress of the Daughters in 
1895, its Regent, Mrs. Cuthbert Harrison- 
Slocomb, brought before the ladies the 
project of Mrs. Lothrop for the organiza- 
tion of a Society of the Children of the 
American Revolution, and through her 
energetic enthusiasm, seven of the Daugh- 
ters of the A. W. B. Chapter, D. A. R., 
were induced to undertake the formation 
of local societies, and a C. A. R. committee, 
with Mrs. Slocomb as chairman, was ap- 
pointed in order that the ladies might 
work more advantageously in the organiz- 
ing and carrying on of societies. One of 
the ladies has not as yet been able to arouse 
any interest in her locality, so the Anna 
Warner Bailey Chapter. D. A. R.. only 
mothers six societies, one in New London, 
one each in Westerly and Stonington. and 
three in Groton. 

Of these six societies, the Thomas Stan- 
Society, Eastern Point, Groton. was the first 
formed, and was also the first organized in 
Connecticut. Fourteen children eligible for 
membership met on the loth of June. 1895. 
named the society and elected their officers. 
It was an enthusiastic meeting, as have 
been all the ten subsequent meetings of 
the society. All patriotic days have been 
celebrated. On the 6th of September the 
Society, by invitation, joined, in conjunc- 
tion with the other local societieg C. A. R.. 
and the Anna Warner Bailey Chapter, D. 

A. R.. in patriotic exercises at Fort Gris- 
wold, and were much profited by the ad- 
dresses siven by the State Regent. Miss 
Susan Clarke, the Hon. Edgar M. Warner of 
Putnam, and Mrs. Cuthbert H. Slocomb. 
After the exercises the ladies of the A. W. 

B. Chap.. D. A. R.. served their little guests 
with refreshments. 

Connecticut, having organized the most 
societies, is entitled to the banner presented 
by Mrs. Lathrop to the society C. A. R., 
aiid Mrs. Slocomb. Regent of the Anna 
Warner Bailey Chapter. D. A. R.. and a 
State promoter C. A. R., who. by her 
faithful and energetic endeavors, has been 
the cause of the formation of more societies 
than any other promoter (she has not con- 
fined her work to her own locality, but 

: 9 8 


has aided other chapters aud ladies in the 
work of organization, even with her per- 
sonal presence*, has been appointed by Mrs. 
Lathrop its guardian. 

On Memorial Day the Thomas Stan- 
Society, the lirst organized in the State, 
was accorded the privilege of delivering 
into the keeping of Mrs. Slocomb this 
beautiful banner. The Thomas Avery and 
Col. Ledyard Societies joined them in a pro- 
cession, and the children marched around 
the ramparts of Fort Griswold, passing the 
spot where Ledyard fell. Each child 
dropped a floral tribute and then proceeded 
to the Monument House, so beautifully 
transformed into a resting place for the 
weary historic sight-seer, and repository for 
historic relics, where the banner is to be 
kept, until some other promoter or State 
earns the right to its guardianship. Mrs. 
Slocomb received the banner from its 
bearer, Lucy A. Avery, the youngest girl 
in the Society, with a most impressive and 
appropriate address. 

The Thomas Starr Society now numbers 
twenty members, and its meetings are well 




Upon the afternoon of June 20, 1895, Mrs. 
Daniel Morgan of the Anna Warner Bailey 
Chapter, D. A. R., opened her house at 
Poquonock Bridge, to the ladies and chil- 
dren desirous of organizing a local society 
of the Children of the American Revolution. 
As a result the second society in the county 
was formed. The name chosen was that 
of Thomas Avery, a young hero less than 
seventeen years of age, who lost his life 
while fighting by the side of his father, 
Lieut. Park Avery, at Fort Griswold, Sept. 
6, 1781. Lieut. Avery, fearing his son 
might falter in the hottest of the battle, 
turned and said, " Tom, my son, do your 
duty." The boy cheeringly replied, " Have 
no fear, father, I will do my duty," and 
the next moment was stretched lifeless 
upon the ground. 

One of the objects of this society is to 
place in proper condition the grave of 
Thomas Avery, which is now in a neglected 
condition. At an entertainment given for 
the purpose a good sum was netted, which 
will be devoted to this object. 

The officers of the society are as follows: 
President, Addie A. Thomas; vice-presi- 
dent, Sarah H. Morgan; secretary, Dorothy 
M. Wells; treasurer, Frank B. Avery; 
registrar, William R. Wells; historian, 
Simeon Fisii. 

The society, which began with nine mem- 
bers, has now a membership of twenty. 

During the year eleven society meetings 
have been held. At each meeting an hour 
has been spent in singing patriotic songs, 
and in reading or reciting sketches of the 
life of some historic character, which has 
been decided upon at a previous meeting; 

then follows an hour or more passed in 
partaking of refreshments and in playing 

Three times in the year the local C. A. R. 
of Groton, namely, Thomas Starr, Thomas 
Avery, and Col. Ledyard, have been called 
together by Mrs. Cuthbert Harrison-Slo- 
comb. First on July 4, 1895, at the home of 
Mrs. S. S. Meech of Eastern Point; second, 
on Sept. 6, 1895, when the Anna Warner 
Bailey Chapter, D. A. R., entertained the 
children's societies at Fort Griswold; and 
again on Decoration Day, 1896, when the 
Children of the American Revolution, after 
placing flowers ou the graves of the heroes 
whom they honor, met at the residence of 
Mrs. Slocomb, and then marched into and 
about the fort, and, after saluting the flag 
and placing flowers upon the spot where 
Col. Ledyard was killed, marched to the 
Monument House, where Mrs. Slocomb ad- 
dressed the children in her usual happy 




The Col. Ledyard Society, C. A. R., of 
Groton Village, was formed in July, 1895, 
with the following officers: President, 
Mary Jane Avery; vice-president, Betsey 
A. Bouse; 2d vice-president, Mrs. C. H. 

A secretary, treasurer, and historian 
were also chosen. The society now num- 
bers sixteen members. 

At our regular meetings we have readings 
and singing of patriotic songs, games, etc. 
In December we were entertained by one 
of our members. After the regular exer- 
cises the hostess summoned us to the din- 
ing-room, where we enjoyed a delicious sup- 
per. In May the society was entertained at 
the home of our president. We have joined 
the Thomas Starr and Thomas Avery so- 
cieties in the union meetings of local so- 
cieties of C. A. R. 

On Decoration Day we put flowers upon 
the grave of Col. Ledyard, and in the after- 
noon were present and assisted in the exer- 
cises at the fort and Monument House. 

We have an object to work for, and 
already have started a fund with which to 
erect a tablet on the house of Anna Warner 
Bailey, and we are all true Americans, 
who love our country, flag, and liberty. 



The William Latham, Jr. (Little Powder 
Monkev) Society, C. A. R., was organized 
July 18, 1895, with twelve members, all 
quite young, and now numbers fourteen 

We have had several interesting meet- 
ings. As the children are far apart, we 



can only meet on Saturdays during the 
school year. 

We have tried to bring before the chil- 
dren the many historical events connected 
with SToningTon. also the national holidays. 

The Westerly C. A. R. Society met with 
ns under the tree where the Rev. George 
WhiTlield preached. Remarks were made 
by the Westerly minister and Judge 
Wheeler, and singing by tne children. A 
Tablet has been placed to mark this historic 


Presidi nt. 

The Jonathan Brooks Society. C. A. R.. 
was the first in New London, and was 
organized on Flag Day in June. 1895. The 
first meeting was held at the home of Mrs. 
Frank H. Chappell. The Society had then 
twelve members, and now. June. 1S96. 
claims to be the banner society in The ban- 
ner county of the banner sTaTe. having 
sixTy members. 

PresidenT. Mrs. Prank H. Arms: secre- 
Tary. Richard Bishop SmiTh: Treasurer. 
Henry Holt Smith: historian. Edward 
Clark Johnston: assistant hisTorian. Wil- 
liam Cleveland Crump: regisTrar. Miss Alice 
Cooper STanTon. 

Mrs. Arms, the president, is a member of 
the Anna Warner Bailey Chapter. D. A. R.. 
of Groton. 

The Jonathan Brooks Society has cele- 
brated several anniversaries of battles 
fought for our country. 

On July 4. 1895. they held a meeting (at 
the same hour Mrs. Lothrop held hers in 
Boston), at the New London Court House. 
bnilt in 1784. when Hon. C. A. Williams 
gave an interesting address, followed by 
Hon. J. N. Harris and others. Good music 
formed a part of the program, and old and 
young entered into the spirit of The day in 
a good old-fashioned way. 

SepTember 6th. the anniversary of The 
battle of Fort Griswold and the burning of 
New London, the National Promoter. Mrs. 
Cuthbert Harrison-Slocomb. RegenT of The 
Anna AYarner Bailey Chapter. D. A. R.. 
inviTed The children To make Their firsT 
pilgrimage To the historic battlefield in 
Groton. Interesting: exercises, consisting of 
speeches and music, were held, after which 
the ladies of the Chapter served a fine 
collation to their little guests. 

Other days have been observed through 
The year. The Boston Tea Party. The Battle 
of the Kecrs. Battle of Cowpens. Battle of 
Lexington, etc. Our Society had The honor 
of using for the first time The beautiful 
standard presented to Conner-ticuT by Mrs. 
Daniel Lothrop. the National President. 
This was on April 18. 1896, in celebration 
of The Battle of Lexington : the 19th falling 
this year on Sundav. the 18th was observed. 
The meetings have been held in several 
of the sehoolhouses. permission having 
been granted by the president of the school 
board. The last meeting was held at tne 
house of Mrs. Charles S. Starr. 

The name of tin- Society, Jonathan 
Brooks, was chosen in Honor of a patriotic 
boy, who \\;is Tiic first person to enter 

The Town of New London on Sept. 6, 1781, 
after its evacuation by the British soldiers, 
and while the houses were still burning. 

Each year until his death it was his cus- 
tom to celebrate that day with appropriate 
ceremonies. Long after the habit had fallen 
into disuse by his fellow townsmen. 

The tomb of Jonathan Brooks is in the 
ancienT burial ground, and on Memorial 
Day flowers were placed There by the lov- 
ing hands of his little friends. 

The house ThaT was his home in The latter 
years of his life was one of the earliesr 
built in Town. It was recently taken down. 
and Mr. Israel F. Brown has made and pre- 
sented to The children's society a gavel 
made of The wood of one of the great beams. 

In a quiet way we are becoming familiar 
wiTh the history of our country, and pledge 
our allegiance To our counTry's flag. 

A ss is tatit Pres ident. 


The second socieTy of The C. A. R. in New 
London was organized January 1. 1896. 

Mrs. Marian R. Hempstead Stayner is 
The presidenT. wiTh six members of The 
Lucretia Shaw ChapTer, D. A. R.. as assist- 

The first meeting was held January 16th. 
in the senior class-room of the Coit-Street 
School, which was beautifully decorated 
for the occasion with flags, bunting, and 
paTrioTic emblems. The prime objecT of 
This meeting was the choosing a name for 
the society. There were twenty-seven 
eligible children present, and each one was 
requested to vote on the question. There 
were four names proposed, but ThaT of 
Sfephen HempsTead was chosen unani- 
mously. It is with love and reverence we 
think of the brave man whose name our 
society bears. Friend and companion of 
Nathan Hale, he shared all Hale's hard- 
ships and hazardous undertakings, but 
escaped, while Hale was captured and 
hung. Yes. escaped, but what a life of 
ceaseless suffering was his ! A parTicipant 
in The battle of Groton Heights he was 
seriously wounded, and. taken for dead. 
was thrown into the death cart, which was 
already filled wiTh The dead and dying. 
and hurled down The precipitous embank- 
ment toward The river. But this was not 
to be his end. for many long years he lived, 
his healTh compleTely shattered by all he 
had undergone, and, though he was never 
for an insTanT free from pain. The heroic 
way in which he bore all. shows of what 
sturdy fibre was his nattire. and leaves to 
us an example of paTienT endurance. When 
an old man. Though his frame was benT, 
his cheeks sunken, and hair whiTened by 
the terrible suffering he had undergone, he 
often remarked. " All this. aye. and double 
this, would I bear for The sake of my 



Such a life cannot fail to inspire us with 
lotty aims. 

February 22d we celebrated Washing- 
ton's Birthday in an appropriate manner. 
The children took entire charge or the 
decorations, and trimmed the rooms of the 
old Hempstead house, where the exercises 
were held, in a manner most creditable to 
themselves. In this house, which, by the 
way, is the oldest house in New London, 
having been erected about 1640-1643,' 
Stephen Hempstead lived when a boy, and 
this fact adds greatly to the children's 
interest in it. At this meeting an elaborate 
literary program was rendered, followed by 
refreshments, conspicuous among the cake 
being one from the top of which waved 
twenty-seven small silk flags, one for each 
member of the society. A great deal of 
enthusiasm and patriotic feeling was mani- 

The next meeting was the celebration of 
the Battle of Lexington with appropriate 
exercises, one feature of the program 
being the relating of some fact or incident 
connected with the battle by each member 
of the society. On this day the president 
and secretary presented the officers and 
members with a badge consisting of a 
bow of red, white, and blue ribbon, with 
the name of the society printed on one of 
the streamers. 

At the close of this "meeting the society 
was presented with an elegant bunting 
flag, a gift from one of New London's 
patriotic citizens. 

On Memorial Day we had no regular 
meeting, but the members, laden with 
flowers, met at the Coit-Street School, 
where bouquets were made to be placed 
on the graves of the dead heroes. 

A wagon, kindly placed at the disposal of 
the society, was decorated with the folds of 
Old Glory, while the society banner of blue 
and gold ornamented the seat. 

The flowers were placed in the wagon 
and sent to the Court House as a testi- 
monial of respect to the W. W. Perkins 
Post G. A. R. A small delegation of chil- 
dren wended their way to the " Antientest 
buriall place," where one of the members, 
in behalf of the Stephen Hempstead 
Society, C. A. R., presented to the Regent 
of the Lucretia Shaw Chapter, D. A. R., 
some flowers to be placed on the tomb 
of the sweet and loyal lady, Lucretia Harris 
Shaw, whose name the local Chapter bears. 

It was impossible for us to celebrate Flag- 
Day, but later nearly every member was 
present at the lawn party given by the 
secretary of the society at her home. The 
lawns were beautifully decorated with 
flags, bunting, fancy lanterns, etc. An 
orchestra of children furnished excellent 
music, and a literary program, in which Old 
Glory figured conspicuously, was given. 
Refreshments were served on little rustic 
tables. There were thirty children present 
and the exercises concluded with a spider 

On the north lawn thirty long pieces of 
twine were so arranged as to form an im- 
mense spider's web. on each end of twine 

was fastened a tiny flag with a number 
upon it; each child taking one of these tiny 
flags began the task of disentangling their 
own particular line, at the end of which was 
a prize. A great deal of sport ensued, and 
shout after shout broke upon the soft sum- 
mer air. 

After all the prizes had been found, 
thirty tired, but happy, little voices blended 
in that glorious song, The Star Spangled 
Banner, after which it was voted to ad- 

On the 4th of July a picnic will be held 
for the members, and, by that time, thirty- 
five members will grace our roll call, the 
society having been formed just six 

Among our members is a direct descend- 
ant of Israel Putnam, and one from John 
Alden of the Mavflower. 




The Laura Wolcott Society, C. A. R„ was 
organized at the home of Mrs. McCarty, 
March 3, 1896, through the efforts of Mrs. 
Grace F. Arms of New London. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected: President, 
Mrs. A. D. McCarty, who is a member of 
the Ruth Hart Chapter, D. A. R.; secretary, 
Harry Bigelow Hanchett; registrar, Brad- 
ley A. Welch; treasurer, Emma McNeil. 

Mrs. C. H. S. Davis of the Ruth Hart 
Chapter, D. A. R., of Meriden, assisted in 
the organization. At the close of the meet- 
ing refreshments were served and a social 
hour enjoyed. 

The name chosen was in honor of a 
young daughter of Governor Wolcott, who 
was a signer of the " Famous Document." 
Laura Wolcott helped to melt the statue of 
George III, and make it into bullets to aid 
the Continental army. 

A meeting of our society has been called 

for June 20. A Chapter of the Daughters 

of the American Revolution is being formed 

in town, and much interest is being shown. 




The Isaac Wheeler Society, C. A. R., was 
organized with a membership of eight. At 
the present time it has grown to a society 
with thirty-two members. 

Isaac Wheeler, for whom the society was 
named, went to the war with his father, 
Lieut. Isaac Wheeler, at the age of seven 
years as a drummer boy. Once he refused 
to drum, because he had no uniform like 
the rest of the men, so his father bought 
him a pair of red-topped boots. He never 
refused to do his duty again. 

Meetings are held monthly, at which the 
following program is carried out; First, 
one-half hour is given to business, then a 
half hour in history, either in readings, pa- 
pers, or questions, given by different mem- 


30 1 

bers of the society; patriotic songs are 
sung during this time also, the next half 
hour is devoted to amusements. 

Once every week the eldest member of 
the society, who is twenty years old and a 
member of the National Guard of this 
State, drills the boys in military tactics in 
a hall, the use of which is loaned us by a 
kind citizen of the town. The boys are 
armed with home-made guns, regular cadet 

Soon the meetings will be presided over 
by a member of the society, a different 
member each week; all forms and kinds of 
business will be brought up, so that we 
may become proficient in parliamentary 

Our youngest member, of whom we are 
very proud, was voted a member of the 
society at the age of ten days. He is also 
noted for being born on a national holiday, 
the 30th of May. He is not expected to 
drill with the boys for some time. 

One of our rules is that we celebrate the 
national holidays in some manner. 

On Washington's Birthday we held a 
social at the home of one of our members, 
at which a pleasant program was carried 

This is a brief outline of the work we are 
doing. We hope to accomplish more in the 
future than we have in the past. 




The second exhibition was given by the 
Colonial Dames in the rooms of the His- 
torical Society, New Haven, May 6th to 
9th, inclusive. 

A Puritan tea was given at the opening 
of the exhibition. The ladies who presided 
were dressed in Puritan style, and tea was 
served from a thousand-legged table two 
hundred and fifty years old. May 7th was 
Revolutionary day, when blue and white 
were the colors. The glass candlesticks, 
and old pewter bowls filled with fennel- 
seed were loaned by Mrs. Sara T. Kinney. 
Chocolate was served by the Daughters of 
the American Revolution, the ladies being 
dressed in the costume of Revolutionary 
days. In the evening Mrs. George F. New- 
comb read her popular paper on the " Songs 
of the Revolution." and the songs were 
sung by a chorus of women in Revolution- 
ary gowns. 

May 8th was Colonial day, and a full- 
dress' reception was given in the evening, 
when the dames appeared in Colonial dress. 
Throughout the exhibition the rooms were 
beautifully decorated with old-fashioned 

Owing to the great interest in the exhi- 
bition, it was continued May 9th, one day 
longer than originally intended. The great 
success of this exhibition, the largest col- 
lection of purely colonial relics ever shown 
in Connecticut, was largely due to the 
efforts of Miss Rebecca Gibbons Beach, 
who unselfishly devoted her time to the 
work for two months previous to the ex- 

All relics received were limited to articles 
antedating 1785, and many were very much 
older, including two relics of Miles Stan- 
dish, a butter-fly table, and a pipe, brought 
over in the Mayflower, 1620. 

Among the most interesting relics was 
the favorite chair of Governor Treat, the 
chair in which he sat when he discussed 
with Andros, at Hartford, Oct., 1687, mat- 
ters pertaining to the Charter, when " the 
lights were put out and the Charter hidden 
in the oak." There was also a chair of Eng- 
lish oak, once owned by Governor Salton- 
stall, and an exquisite silver tray, tea-set, 
and other silver used in the family of Gov- 
ernor Fitch prior to 1773. 

There was an interesting souvenir of 
Yale College in a silver cup of artistic de- 
sign, with the following words inscribed 
thereon : " To Master Thomas Darling, 
Most worthy tutor, we, His class give this 
cup as a pledge of eternal love, 1745." 

Among the articles loaned by Miss Shef- 
field was a fine tankard bearing the date 
1726, owned by Timothy Jones and wife, 
Jane Harris, fourth in descent from The- 
ophilus Eaton. 

An exqusite little silver cream jug, made 
by Paul Revere, attracted much attention, 
and some rare old marrow spoons were ex- 

The wedding dress of Mrs. Roger Sher- 
man, beautifully hand-painted, was viewed 
with much interest. 

A silver tankard once the property of 
Rev. John Davenport, and another great 
tankard bearing the date 1654 were especi- 
ally noticable. 

An old sampler, probably the oldest in 
this country, was loaned by Mrs. E. A. 
Lithgon. It was brought from England in 
1638 by William Sargent, and worked by 
his wife while at school. The picture is 
21 x 17 inside the frame, is embroidered on 
white satin; over forty different stitches 
being used. It illustrates the story of 
Cueen Esther, and twenty-one human 
figures are represented besides many 
horses, birds and flowers, and the Lion of 
Judea. In the lower left-hand corner Ha- 
inan sits in the gateway and Mordecai on 
horseback. In the right-hand corner the 
Queen gives a feast to the King. In the 
center the Queen appears before the King, 
the King holding out his sceptre. In the up- 
per right-hand corner the King has the 
Chronicles read to him. In the upper 
center Mordecai on horseback with a mes- 
senger running before him. In the upper 
left-hand corner is Haman on the gallows. 

There was a beautiful collection of old 
watches, jewelry, and rare old laces and 
embroideries ; and many old books and 
valuable papers, and a vast number of in- 
teresting relics we cannot even mention. 

The fine collection of miniatures included 
the one of Washington painted by John 
Ramage, and two unique miniatures in 

A case of Washington relics was shown, 
also one of Washington's chairs, and some 
original papers in a suit in which Wash- 
ington was counsel. 




The Colonial Dames of Connecticut are 
to be congratulated upon the success of the 
two exhibitions of Colonial relics, — one in 
Hartford in April, and the other in New 
Haven in Mav : both were of great edu- 

(Owned by Mrs. Colt.) 

(Owned by Mrs. Porter.) 

cational value, and most pleasing from the 
historical associations connected with them. 
To many young people it was a wonderful 
revelation, not only from an historical point 
of view, but opening their eyes as nothing 
else could to see the artistic merit of the 
work of the olden time, which for grace and 
beauty has hardly been equaled in the 
present day, and has never been excelled. 

The Hartford exhibition opened in the 
rooms of the Historical Society on April 

27th, when a colonial tea was given, and 
continued until the evening of May 2d. 

On the evenings of April 28th and 29th 
tableaux " Through Colonial Doorways " 
were given at Unity Hall. This proved to 
be one of the most beautiful, artistic, and at 
the same time one of the most unique enter- 
tainments ever given in Hartford, and it is 
a source of regret that these beautiful 

(Owned by Mrs. Colt.) 

(Owned by Miss Sheffield.) 

scenes of life in the colonial days were not 

At the closing reception yellow tulips and 
yellow ribbons made a pleasing bit of color, 
and a side-table, at which Nathan Hale 
had dined many times, held the great bowl 
of fruitade. The dames appeared in the 
dainty costume of " ye olden tyme." Many 
of the dresses were very beautiful. The 
one worn by Miss Sheffield once belonged 
to her grandmother, and was much ad- 
mired. It was of pink and white striped 
brocade satin, trimmed with rare old lace. 

Mrs. Samuel Colt, president of the Colo- 
nial Dames of Connecticut, exhibited many 
family treasures. Among them were 
quaint silver spoons, owned by Nathan and 
Desire Bull of Newport, 1745. Nathan 
being the fourth in descent from Gov. 
Henry Bull of Rhode Island, and Mrs. Colt 
the fourth in descent from Nathan Bull. 
A large handsome tankard with coat-of- 
arms emblazoned thereon, owned by James 
and Mary Perry of Newport, 1745, who were 
also great-grandparents of Mrs. Colt ; a 
charming old teapot, high candlesticks, a 
porringer, pepper caster, a large cake bas- 
ket with curious ornaments, and old cut- 



glass. A punch bowl of Lowestoft ware 
and two quaint cups were buried with 
other articles to hide them from the British 
during the war of the Revolution. Mrs. 
Colt exhibited several articles owned by 
her ancestors, General William and Esther 
Buckingham Hart. 1766, and some charm- 
ing miniatures of dames and officers of the 
old days, also a lock of General Washing- 
ton's hair in a gold frame. Some curious 
pottery and wampum found in the grave 

( Owned by Miss Sheffield ) 

of an Indian on the south meadows forty- 
rive years ago when the dyke was built. 
Mrs. Colt also exhibited a curious collec- 
tion of watches and some quaint, brilliant 
buckles. A beautifully embroidered white 
satin vest worn by Major William Hart of 
Saybrook, great grandfather of Mrs. Colt, 

(Owned by .Mrs. Porter.) 

and a curious pin-cushion with decoration 
and date 1739 set in pins. 

While looking at articles loaned by Mrs. 
Colt, a white-haired gentleman was much 
interested in the invitation tickets to balls 
and assemblies in Newport and Hartford, 
to Mrs. Colt's ancestors, printed on the 
backs of playing cards. Among the well- 
known names of the committee who signed 
them, was that of William Ely. the grand- 
father of the gentleman who was looking 
at them. 

Among the many interesting articles 
exhibited by Miss Sheffield, was an exquis- 
itely embroidered stomacher and the stom- 
acher-pin worn by Madam Mary Hart in 

1741'. An octagonal silver popper caster, 
owned by Deacon Joseph Blague ;in<l his 
wife, Mary Hamlin, in Saybrook. 1718, and 
used by seven generations of their descend- 
ants: a silver sance-boat owned by Joshua 
and Mary Lathrop. 1686. Knee-buckles 
worn by John Hotchkiss of New Haven 

(Owned by Mrs. Sperry.) 

when he married Susannah Jones. 1755; 
the buckles were also worn by Rev. F. W. 
Hotchkiss. son of John, when he married 
Caroline Hart of Saybrook. Wedding slip- 
pers of 1742 ; many pieces of old silver 
and embroideries were also in this collec- 

A rare old milk pitcher, spoons and old 
English and Dutch silver pieces were shown 
bv Mrs. Josephine S. Porter. 



Miss Taintor loaned some very choice 
pieces of antique silver, the low teapot 
being massive, unique, richly chased, anu 
very attractive. 

Mrs. John Bunce exhibited beautiful old 
china, Lowestoft, and Wedgewood. 

Among the portraits shown, a fine one of 
Colonel Meigs in full uniform attracted 
much attention. 

A silver pepper pot and cream jug, 
brought over by Gov. Thomas Wells, 1636, 
was loaned by Miss Christine Bates of South 

Mrs. Byron E. Hooker loaned a chair, 
owned by Colonel Lathrop. It was one of 
six embroidered by his daughter. The em- 
broidery is beautifully done ; the spray of 
pink roses and foliage is still well preserved 
in color, yet the work was executed in 1756. 
Miss Julia Brandegee of Farmington 
loaned a quaint dress of garnet silk, made 
of silk for which her grandmother raised 
the silk worms, spun the silk and wove it, 
and made* it into the dress which she in- 
tended giving to Martha Washington, but 
for some reason did not do so. 

Among the eighty or more heir-looms of 
historic value loaned by Mrs. Henry T. 
Sperry, may be mentioned the following : 
The Newberry clock was owned by Gen. 
Roger Newberry of Windsor, and made 
by Amos Doolittle of Hartford, previous to 

The late Dr. Lyon, who has an engraving 
of the clock in his book on colonial furni- 
ture, said it was the most beautiful in out- 
line of any clock he had ever seen. The 
key with which the clock has been wound 
since 1762 has been used by succeeding 
generations to the present time, first by 
Gen. Newberry, Mrs. Newberry, their daugh- 
ter, Mrs. John Sargent, Mrs. Abel Sim- 
mons, the granddaughter, Mrs. E. N. 
Loomis, and the present, owner, the great- 

The Wolcott chair was owned first by the 
first Governor Wolcott, not earlier, proba- 
bly, than 1725. It was said that George 
Washington sat in one of the set of chairs, 
numbering six, four of which are still in 
good condition. 

The Russell chair was owned by Rev. 
Wm. Russell who married the daughter of 
Capt. Roger Newberry of Windsor, father 
of Gen. Newberry. He was pastor of the 
Windsor Cong'l Church in 1751, when he 
built the house now standing upon the 
foundation stones taken from the old Pali- 
sado, which was built to protect the people 
from the Indians and from which came 
most of the articles in this collection. 

Portraits which hang beside the clock 
were taken in 1858 from the portraits of 
Gen. and Mrs. Newberry, which were pre- 
sented by Mrs. Rhoda Simmons of Windsor 
(daughter of Gen. Newberry), to Dr. John 
Newberry of Cleveland, late of Columbia 
College, N. Y., grandson of Gen. Newberry, 
painted 1790. They are very truthful. A 
piece of the dress worn by Mrs. Newberry 
(brown satin) at time of sitting for por- 

trait, is attached to the frame. A piece of 
Mrs. Newberry's wedding dress, light blue 
corded silk, over which was worn a hand- 
wrought white lace over-dress. 

The wedding shoe or slipper of Elizabeth 
Newberry, eldest daugnter of Roger New- 
berry, who married the Rev. Henry Row- 
land of Windsor in 1794, is quite a curiosity. 

Two interesting letters and an acrostic 
are framed betw r een two glasses, one writ- 
ten by Roger Wolcott, an acrostic by his 
brother, Alexander W T olcott, 1708, and a 
letter by Roger Newberry, 1761. The acros- 
tic is to Mary Richards, whom he afterward 
married, and Roger Newberry's letter was 
a love letter written to Mrs. Eunice Ely of 
Springfield, who became Mrs. Newberry. 

The stomacher pin owned by Mrs. New- 
berry was one of the three loaned the ex- 

The Yale diploma of John Sargent wno 
married Miss Newberry, was signed by 
Roger Newberry in 1793. 

Many valuable heir-looms, like a very 
fine chantilly lace shawl, a ginger jar owned 
by Capt. Roger Newberry, father of Gen. 
Roger, a curious piece of linen woven in 
biblical figures with their names in letters 
an inch long, known to be two hundred 
years old. An enameled pitcher (a lost art), 
173(5, etc., etc., are among this interesting 

Dr. C. J. Hoadly contributed a frame of 
" tea permits," necessary for one to have 
who wished to drink tea in 1776. One is 
dated Glastonbury, March 13, 1776, and 
signed by Dr. Hale certifies that the widow 
Lois Wright should drink tea. 

The rare old china, including fine speci- 
mens of old whielder, salt-glase, and tor- 
toise-shell ware, the elegant old silver, the 
historic furniture and household utensils, 
articles of olden time dress so quaintly 
fashioned, the rare old books, and all the 
many articles that made up the exhibition, 
were viewed with intense interest. 


During the recent celebration of the 250th 
anniversary of the founding of New Lon- 
don, the people gave a Loan Exhibition 
under the auspices of the Lucretia Shaw 
Chapter, D. A. R. 

The whole lower floor of the old Court 
House was filled with interesting relics of 
the olden time, and the citizens may well 
be proud of the fact that nearly all of the 
relics are owned in New London and 
Groton, with the exception of the Turner 
collection sent from Torrington by a former 
resident. The exhibition continued from 
May 5th to the 9th, and was largely attend- 
ed." The exhibition included a large collec- 
tion of old china, one room being devoted 
entirely to blue and white china and old 
pewter bright as silver. A wonderful col- 
lection of framed silk embroideries, rep- 
resenting pictures. Many pieces of historic 
furniture, including several relics of Gov- 



ernor Saltonstall. Many beautiful old 
miniatures, enough to form an exhibition 
in themselves. There were many articles 
of old time dress, dainty fans and rare 
laces, some exquisite ancient embroidered 
muslin dresses ; an Indian suit of buckskin, 
the coat and waistcoat elaborately em- 
broidered with beads. 

A piece of handwoven bed curtain, 210 
years old, once belonging to the family of 
John Williams, was shown in a frame ; 
the design representing a country house, 
barn, and farmyard, haystacks, cattle, pigs, 
sheep, and chickens, with the farmer and 
his family. 

A beautifully embroidered curtain in de- 
sign of flowers, grapes, and leaves, bearing 
the date of 1754, was loaned by E. S. Rip- 
ley of Willimantic. 

Mrs. C. H. Slocombe of Groton loaned a 
collection of elegant old European brasses ; 
some of them being over 700 years old ; a 
collection of rare old laces was also loaned 
by Mrs. Slocombe. 

An original deed of land from Uncas to 
John and Daniel Stebbins, March 0, 1083, 
and an old deed on parchment with curious 
seals, and signed by Governor Endicott, 
were viewed with interest, also a diploma 
from Yale College granted to Thomas Fos- 
dick, Jr., in 1749. 

There were many old portraits, among 
them one of Governor Thurston, painted 
when he was a young man, and now owned 
by Enoch Crandall. 

The collection loaned by E. Turner of 
Torrington contained many pieces of rare 
old china, and other articles of interest. 


Each one of the past three months has 
witnessed a celebration of importance in 
our staid old commonwealth. Old is ap- 
propriate here in one sense, for should we 
not begin to feel aged and behave with be- 
coming dignity and sedateness when cele- 
brating 250th anniversaries, even though 
young and fresh in spirit and heart. On 
May 6th about 30,000 people visited New 
London to help the citizens of that fair 
place celebrate the 250th anniversary of 
the founding of the town. It was indeed 
a gala day there, the whole city being in 
holiday attire. Bunting and flags every- 
where, all the stores, public buildings, and 
many private residences decorated. The 
previous evening the opening exercises at 
the armory were held, at which an histor- 
ical address was given by Walter Earned, 
a poem read by George Parsons Lathrop, 
and speeches by Congressman Russell, 
Senator Piatt, and Hon. Thos. M. Waller. 

The unveiling of the Soldiers and Sailors 
Monument, given the city by Sebastian D. 
Lawrence, took place at 11 A. M. on May 
6th, Senator Joseph R. Hawley speaking for 
the army, and President Smith of Trinity 
for the navy. 

These speeches were admirable, full of 
patriotism, and calculated to press home to 
each one the significance of the beautiful 
monument which will stand among the 
people as a testimonial of history in which 
they and their fellow countrymen played a 

And the object of such gatherings as these 
is not alone the commemoration of events 
for the ones who took part, nor the holiday 
festival aspect, simply to have a big time, 
but for the value they should be to the 
younger generation: to arouse an interest 
in matters of which they, perhaps, were 
hitherto ignorant, to enable them to learn 
as they could in no other way, the manner 
of life of the people who have gone before, 
that we of the present may awaken to a 
realizing sense of the blessings we enjoy. 

purchased by the labors and privations of 
those true lives preceding us, and feel our 
responsibilities of handing down to pos- 
terity a legacy that shall give no cause for 
that posterity to say we had not learned 
our lesson well. This, then, should be the 
motive underlying all reading and learning 
about past events. That history is for use, 
as much for the benefit of the living as in 
commemoration of the dead. 

And the men and women, boys and girls, 
could think on these things as they went 
about New London on that day, purchas- 
ing and reading the illustrated souvenirs 
and historical pamphlets that were sold on 
the streets, visiting the old mill, the court 
house, with its fine loan exhibition, the old 
Hempstead house, the house where Nathan 
Hale taught school. Fort Trumbull, Groton 
Heights, and many other places of which 
they could learn more in one brief day, 
when everyone and everything stood ready 
to impart information, than they could by 
many days' study at any other time. The 
enterprise and public spirit of a firm of 
prominent merchants deserve special men- 
tion, for fixing their store-windows to 
represent typical New England household 
scenes, one of Puritan times, the other of 
the present. 

The parade in the afternoon was a grand 
affair. Military and other organizations 
from all over the state, attended by numer- 
ous bands, many high officials and digni- 
taries of the state and nation, made it a 
scene not soon to be forgotten. In the 
evening there was a magnificent display of 
fireworks, and those who remained until 
the following day, when the city was yet 
gay and crowded with people, and could 
see, as they rolled away on the train, the 
last of the whaling ships rotting away at 
the dock in the harbor, would realize that 
from the glory of those old-time days of 
pre-eminence had risen a young and pro- 
gressive city, fully as glorious and promi- 
nent as the old New London of past years. 




On June 17th several hundred people as- 
sembled at Lebanon to take part in the 
exercises incident to the placing of a com- 
memorative bronze tablet in the old war- 
office at that place by the society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution. 

In the morning, at 11.30, the graves of the 
Revolutionary soldiers in the old Lebanon 
cemetery were decorated and General 
Samuel E. Merwin of New Haven delivered 
an admirable address. 

The ladies of Lebanon served a bountiful 
collation to the visitors, and all that at- 
tended will remember with pleasure their 
liberal hospitality. 

At the afternoon exercises the address of 
welcome was given by Hon. Isaac Gillett 
and responded to by Jonathan Trumbull 
of NorAvich, president of the State Society 
of the Sons of American Revolution. Sing- 
ing, the unveiling of the tablet by Mrs. E. 
B. Avery of Lebanon, a daughter of a 
Revolutionary soldier, and a scholarly 
and eloquent oration by Rev. Richard H. 
Nelson of Norwich, closed the exercises of 
as interesting a day as is seldom the lot of 
a town to enjoy. 

The Tablet. 

The tablet was designed by President 
Jonathan Trumbull of the society and E. E. 
Lord of New York. It cost $400, and is in 
the form of a parallelogram. 22 x 30 inches. 
On the tablet is the following inscription: 



During the War of the Revolution Gov- 
ernor Trumbull and the Council of Safety 
held more than eleven hundred meetings 
in this building, and here also came many 
distinguished officers of the Continental 
army and French allies. Their monu- 
ment is more enduring than bronze. Erected 
by the Connecticut Society Sons of the 
American Revolution. 1890. 

The scroll at the left of this inscription 
bears the names of " Trumbull, Griswold, 
Dyer, Jabez, Samuel, and Benjamin Hunt- 
ington. Williams, Wales. Elderkin, and 
West," the members of the original Council 
of Safety appointed by the assembly in 
1775. On the scroll at the right are the 
names of the colonial officers who are be- 
lieved to have met in the war-office. These 
are Washington, Putnam, Knox. Parsons, 
Huntington, Spencer. LaFayette, Rocham- 
beau, Chastellux. and DeLauzun. 


On July 1st the old Saybrook Church 
celebrated the 250th anniversary of its 

The present pastor, Rev. E. E. Bacon, 
gave the address of welcome, and the his- 
torical address was given by Rev. Dr. Amos 
S. Chesbrough. This church has consider- 
able historical importance. Having been 
founded but fourteen years after the Hart- 
ford church, and Mr. Hooker and Mr. Stone 
of the Hartford church being present at 
the time of the organization to express their 
fellowship, it was especially fitting that the 
Rev. Dr. Walker should write the saluta- 
tions of The First Church of Christ in 
Hartford, which were read by Rev. Dr. 

This church is known as the " Mother 
of Yale," and President D wight gave an 
interesting address, comparing the college 
of those early times with the present. 

Governor Bushnell of Ohio was present 
and addressed the assembly, speaking of 
the brave men who went from this com- 
monwealth out into the western wilder- 
ness, and founded a great state. It was an 
occasion long to be remembered by the 
good people of Saybrook and their visitors. 


" New London," an illustrated pamphlet 
by Augustus Brandegee of that city, gives 
interesting details of the early history of 
that very interesting locality. It contains 
numerous halftone illustrations of grave- 
stones prior to 1700. 

Judge Sherman W. Adams has had his 
valuable paper, " The Native and Wild 
Mammals of Connecticut," which was read 
before the Conn. Historical Society, printed 
in pamphlet form. The aim of the paper, 
as Judge Adams explains, is to deal with 
the subject from a historical point, show- 
ing the existence of mammals in Connecti- 
cut in the times of our ancestors, which are 
now extinct. The result of careful study 
and research, this paper is very useful and 
handy as a work of reference, besides being 
entertaining reading. 

A book that every town officer in Con- 
necticut will want is entitled, " The Con- 
necticut Town Officer," by Hon. Wm. E. 

It was a happy thought of the author 
which inspired him to carry out the work 
of publishing this book. It is indispensable 
to everyone who should know the powers 
and duties of every town officer as pro- 
vided by statute, being " an index-digest 
of all those sections of the Connecticut 
Statutes which specifically mention town 
officers — and some others — in connection 
with a power or duty." 

Price of book, postpaid — in cloth bind- 
ing, $1; cloth sides and leather back. $1.25: 
full sheep. $1.50. Address. William E. 
Simonds. No. 2 Central Row, Hartford, 


At the present time, with so much excite- 
ment and talk pro and eon regarding the 
silver question, one can do no better to get 
fair impartial ideas on the subject than to 
read the articles and editorials on the finan- 
cial situation in the Arena. This magazine 
is a fund of thought on the leading vital 
issues of the day that well repays careful 
reading. And the best of it is the fear- 
lessness and impartiality with which it 

Notice the series of articles in several 
recent numbers on the " Telegraph Mono- 
poly." A publication that has the courage 
to be outspoken against the abuses of any 
evil deserves credit and support. 

A great variety of topics are discussed 
in this magazine, interspersed with poems, 
a serial story, and illustrated articles. 
Published by The Arena Publishing Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

Of especial interest to- Connecticut people 
is the article in the New England Magazine 
for July on Dr. Henry Barnard of Hartford, 
" The Nestor of American Education." 
The value of Dr. Barnard's services can 
hardly be overestimated; they certainly are 
not in the above-mentioned article, which 
speaks in highest praise of the great edu- 
cator, and impresses us with the vast 
amount of good that one earnest life has 

Also in the same magazine the article on 
" Country Week," dealing with the Boston 
Fresh Air Fund, is suggestive of what 
might be done elsewhere. 

The New England Magazine is published 
by Warren F. Kellogg. 5 Park Souare, 
Boston. Mass. 

One of the most famous points of interest 
to visitors at the recent New London cele- 
bration was the old Hempstead house, the 
oldest in the place, and the home of eight 
generations. Mrs. Mary L. B. Branch, one 
of the descendants of the original owner, 
has published an attractive booklet, giving 
its history and incidents connected there- 
with. It can be obtained of Mrs. Branch 
bv addressing her at New London. Price. 
25 cents. 

The compensating feature of the charac- 
teristic American rush is found in the more 
and more universal habit of summer rest 
and vacations. 

The city dweller is constantly casting 
about for attractive fields in which to enjoy 
his well-earned respite from daily work, and 
the multitude of places to go to make it a 
perplexing problem. Of all places in our 
own state none fill the requirements so 
well as the northwestern section, beauti- 
fully portrayed by the Summer Home Book 
gotten out by the Phila., Reading & N. E. 
R. R. The country through which this 
road runs is grand in its mountain scenery, 
beautiful in its picturesque land- and water- 
scapes, and possessed of a most healthful, 
invigorating air. The places reached by 
the road give ample variety for selection 
of a home among the mountains for a 
longer or shorter period. From New Hart- 
ford and Winsted, through Norfolk, Canaan, 
Twin Lakes, Salisbury, and Lakeville. 
from various points along the road, Litch- 
field, the Housatonic Valley, the Berkshires 
are so easily accessible, that a wealth of 
country is opened up that should be seen 
to be appreciated. 

The book descriptive of it is full of illus- 
trations, and can be had for 4 cents, post- 
age, of Mr. W. J. Martin, General Passenger 
Agent. Hartford. Conn. 

Messrs. Scribner's Sons have published a 
series of brilliant sketches descriptive of 
four of the most fashionable American 
summer resorts, issued in uniform style, 
attractively illustrated and bound. The two 
published first. " The North Shore of Mas- 
sachusetts." by Robert Grant, and " New- 
port," by W. C. Browned, have been 
brought to our notice, and bespeak all that 
the publishers claim for them. 

The excellent, refined taste of these 
books, the breaking away from the old 
conventional lines of " doing " a place, 
giving us something new. and, withal, in- 
structive and attractive, is in keeping with 
the high standard of whatever this firm 
puts out. 

" Bar Harbor." by F. Marion Crawford, 
and "Lenox." by George A. Hibbard, are 
the two others of the series. Each. 12 mo, 
77) cents. Chas. Scribner's Sous. N. Y. 




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It Looks Strange, But it is True* 

IT looks like a puzzle, and it is a puzzle until you try it yourself. That solves it. Every 
man can solve it. Every woman can solve it. On one side of the scales is a single drop. 
On the other side is a dipperful. Yet the drop carries the most weight. Why is it, and 
how is it? Here is the explanation. 

The one drop is a drop of Puritana. The dipperful is a dipperful of so called blood puri- 
fier, nerve tonic, or other palate-tickling concoction. The one drop of Puritana is real medicine 
— it cures. The dipperful is anything, everything, and nothing, when it comes right down to 
a real cure. 

Puritana is the prize formula of Prof. Dixi Crosby, who was for thirty-two years at the 
head of Dartmouth Medical College. It strikes at the root of 92 per cent, of human suffering, 
and brings new strength, new health, new life through the power producer of the system. 
Puritana makes the heart right, lungs right, liver right, blood right, kidneys right, nerves right, 
and health right, because it makes the stomach right. To any man, woman, or child who will 
take it as directed, Puritana will practically give a new stomach. That is why hundreds and 
thousands of people have proved that it cures from head to foot. 

J. F. Scott, for years a prominent contractor and builder in Concord, N. H., says : 

" I have used Puritana for torpid liver, indigestion, and a species of dyspepsia, and it has 
given me such relief that I felt made over new. For these troubles I would rather have one 
bottle of Puritana than a barrel of any other medicine." 

She can eat anything now, but her life was hanging in the balance, when her stomach could 
not digest the simplest food. Mrs. Belle W. Cale, of Charlestown, Mass., tried country air and 
seven doctors in vain, but Puritana gave her a new stomach and a new lease of life. 

Mrs. Henry W. Craigue, of Concord, N. H , was ill for years. She had no appetite, no 
strength, no' ambition. Her life was one constant round of misery and suffering. Puritana 
gave her an appetite and rugged stregth. It made a new woman of her. 

No chance, was what the doctor said about George H. Dunning, of Faneuil Hall Market, 
Boston. He had nervous prostration, had no appetite, could not sleep, could not walk alone. 
Puritana made him over new from head to foot. It gave him sleep, appetite, and strength. 

After trying many doctors, hospitals, and medicines in vain, Mrs. J. S. Daly, of Cambridge, 
Mass., had also abandoned hope, when Puritana was brought to her relief. It gave her strengh 
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-TTTT- mcv^t NUMBER 



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Vol. II. October, November, December, i 

No. 4. 





Probably but few of those who pass 011 the trains through the busy town of 
Meriden fail to notice, lying to the west of the town, the line of sharp peaks known 
as " The Hanging Hills." But probably still fewer of either the traveling public 

(The bench marks the top of the Sandstones, all above this is Lava.) 


or the dwellers in the land realize that these hills are the crumbling monuments of 
volcanic action of wide extent and fierce intensity. Before the time when Con- 
necticut acquired a reputation as " the land of steady habits," — in the days, per- 
haps, of its geological wild oats, so to speak, — it was the field of volcanic activity 
of far greater power than has ever been manifested by Vesuvius. The ancient 
cinder-cones and vents of its volcanoes have long since passed away, but the 
broken and upturned fragments of the old lava sheets form the most conspicuous 
features of the valley, from Mt. Holyoke on the north to Pond Rock, or, as it is 
sometimes called, Saltonstall Mountain, on the south. Perhaps a brief review of 
the series of events which appear to have occurred in this region may not be out 
of place at this point, although it is more concerning the present picturesque fea- 
tures of the valley than of its past geological history that I want to speak. 


Anyone who has walked or driven very much through the valley must have 
observed that it contains noticeably two kinds of rock, — one kind being of the 
sandstone type, well exemplified by the building stone quarried at Portland. These 
rocks are usually of a reddish brown color. But beside these there are vast masses 
of a fine-grained, crystalline rock, blue-black in color where freshly broken, which 
is commonly known as "Blue stone," or more accurately, as "Trap." This is 
quarried at a number of places, as Meriden, Hartford, and West Hartford, and is 
used as broken stone in the construction of macadam roads. It is this Trap Rock 
which has at some time flowed as molten lava from volcanic vents situated some- 
where, apparently in the near vicinity. The sandstones, on the other hand, are 
simply rocks which have been deposited by the ordinary processes of sedimenta- 
tion during the periods of quiet between the eruptions. The careful study which 
has been given to this tract for many years seems to show that at least three 
times have the lavas rolled over the region, forming three heavy sheets of trap 
between which the sandstones lie bedded. The second overflow or "main sheet," 
as it is called, attains in some places a thickness of five hundred feet. 

The region has since been modified by great secondary changes, so that now 
the fragments of the lava sheets are found scattered in different parts of the 


i r 

valley. As a rule, all the rocks have been tilted eastward, so that the ridges 
which the lavas form run generally north and south and present gentle slopes on 
the east with precipitous cliffs on the west. The wear and tear of the ages has 
played sad havoc with these noble hills and the fragments broken from them may 
be seen, forming a long " talus" which often buries their western faces nearly to 
the top. But the same process has cut away the sandstones yet more rapidly, 
leaving the lava ridges standing high above the general level of the land, and 
bringing into sight, 
at East Rock and 
West Rock of New 
Haven and at Gay- 
lord s Mountain, a 
fourth broad mass 
of lava. This sheet 
appears never to 
have overflowed the 
land, but to have 
been intercalated 
between the sand- 
stones below the 

If a start be 
made from Hartford 
as a center, the first 
fragment of lava 
that you meet is the 
long ridge on which 
Trinity College 

stands. The college «s? 

is literally "founded on a rock " and the 
pit that holds the boilers for heating the 
buildings was made only by the use of 
powder. From the college a splendid 
view both east and west opens before you. To the 
east may be seen the long range of which the Bolton 
Hills form a part, bounding the area of sandstone 
and trap in that direction. Two or three miles to 
the southwest may be seen the ridge of Cedar Moun- 
tain, probably a portion of the main sheet, while 
some fifteen miles beyond it can be seen the strong 
outlines of West Peak, the highest of the " Hanging 

Hills." From West Peak a range formed by the " main sheet " runs steadily north- 
ward, and from the point where you are standing you may see in succession Short 
Mountain, Ragged Mountain, Rattlesnake Mountain, or, as it is sometimes called, 
Farmington Mountain, and then Talcott Mountain, sinking at its northern end into 
the wild gorge at Tariffville, where the Farmington River comes plunging through 
the range. On the north of the gorge the hills begin again, passing on to Newgate 
Mountain, where lie the prison buildings and the copper mines where the prison- 
ers of the state were confined in earlier days and where they took out the ore be- 
fore the opening of the rich deposits at Lake Superior made the working of these 
poorer mines unprofitable. The range runs on still to the northward, till you see 


3 I2 



it rising in the bold head of Mount Tom, some forty miles away. Then comes a 
gap where the Connecticut River flows between Mount Tom and the next series of 

■'-.. ' Vft yyi'M 






hills, the Mount Holyoke Range. All this can be seen on a clear day from the 
college hill. 


3 J 4 


A few hundred feet south of the college lie the city stone pits. In these there 
is a magnificent exposure of the sheet of lava resting directly on the sandstones 


below it. It was this splendid " contact " that aroused the intense admiration of 

the eminent geologist, Sir Charles Lyell, when he visited this city many years ago. 

Passing on toward the southwest, at a point about a mile and a half from the 

College, the Newington road turns to the south, and runs along at the foot of the 




well-timbered "talus" of Cedar Mountain. The mass of broken stone buries the 
ridge almost to its summit. A cross-road brings the traveler to the top of the 
ridge, where a beautiful view of the whole southern, western, and northern portions 
of the valley may be seen from a high point on the estate of Dr. Russell. Here a 
platform has been built out from the edge of the cliff, and the kindness of Dr. 
Russell opens the enjoyment of the " Lookout " to all comers. To the west may 
be seen the same view as that already enjoyed from the College hill, except that 



over the top of the Talcott Range now appears the barrier of hills that bounds the 
area of sandstone and trap on the west. The "Hanging Hills " are all visible. 
East of these lies the .broad gap in which Meriden is situated, and, to the east of 
this gap, two sharp peaks appear against the sky, their steep faces toward the west. 
They are really two ranges seen from the end, and they are formed of portions ot 
the same "main sheet" that forms the "hanging hills" and the whole western 
range. The westernmost one is Mount Lamentation, now quite famous on account 
of the thick bed of volcanic ashes which lies in the low ridge at its western foot. 
The eastern one is Higby Mountain, the northernmost member of the Durham 
Range. To the east of Cedar Mountain can be seen again the highlands to which 
the Bolton Hills belong. 

But it is in the " Hanging Hills" that the greatest beauties are to be found. 
At this point the range which we have seen along the western horizon bends to 








the east for a few miles, West Peak, the highest member, standing at the angle. 
At the eastern end of this set lie two rather small but very ragged hills, the Cat- 





hole Peaks, separated from Notch Mountain on the west by the narrow " Cat-hole 
Pass," through which the road to Kensington runs. From the top of West Cat- 
hole Peak a splendid view of the deep pass can be obtained, especially fine if a light 
snow has brought into sharp relief all the strong features of the landscape. Passing 
round the southern end of Notch Mountain, the road enters the deep gulf between 
Notch Mountain and West Peak, in which lies the beautiful Meriden Reservoir. 
The road passes around the north end of the reservoir and winds through the 
woods on the back of West Peak, rising by easy stages till the summit is reached. 
It is from the top of West Peak, a thousand feet above the sea, that the most 
comprehensive view of the whole region can be obtained. To the east may be 
seen Mount Lamentation and Chauncey's Peak, and behind these the long Durham 


Range, — Higby, Beseck, and Three Notches, — with Paug and the great crescent 
of Totoket far in the distance to the southeast, all portions of the " Main Sheet." 
Behind these, still farther eastward, rises the dim barrier of the eastern highlands. 
To the south lies the range of hills sometimes called the "Blue Hills," sometimes 
the "Sleeping Giant," from its resemblance to a great human figure stretched at 
full length with its head to the west. This head is formed by Mount Carmel, 
wmich gives strong suggestions that it was once the site of at least one of the 
ancient volcanoes. If the day is clear, you may look beyond this range to 
the waters of the Sound. To the southwest may be seen West Rock range and 
Gaylord's Mountain, while along the whole western horizon stretches the line of 
the more ancient hill which bounds the area of trap and sandstone on the west. 
The southernmost fragment of the " Main Sheet " is cut by the Shore Line Rail- 
road a few miles east of New Haven, where the long curve of Pond Rock holds in 
its crescent beautiful Lake Saltonstall. 

I have spoken of all these mountains as fragments of the " Main Sheet." This 
is in the main true, but in very many of them, the " First Overflow" makes a strong 




bench in their western faces or a more or less pronounced ridge in front of them. 

The " Third Overflow" often appears as a small ridge near the bottom of their long 

eastern slope. This whole area' of 

trap and sandstone forms a belt 

running from the Sound well up >, ,, ''" 

into Massachu- "np^v*"'^ ivj 

setts. This belt 

is only some three 




miles wide at New Haven, but at the northern state line it broadens out until it 
is somewhere near twenty miles in breadth. There is another very small isolated 
area of the same general structure in the western part of the state. 

Such is a very incomplete account of this most interesting region. Those who 
may feel some further interest in its geological history will find ample literature in 
the various publications of Professor Davis of Harvard, and others who have made 
a special study of the Triassic Area of Connecticut. 


r X $ffpl «|W^>/WW 


To me the lonely lava ridges have a peculiar fascination. I have wandered 
over them in the springtime and I have enjoyed the cool breeze on their summits 
in the scorching days of summer. I have watched them under the cold sunset of 
November, and I have been upon them when the winds of winter howled over the 
snows. They are never twice the same. There is always some new charm about 
them. And I can feel a strong sympathy with that hero of long ago, who, re- 
counting his wandering upon the face of the earth, closed one great chapter of his 
story with the words — 

" Montes .... petivi." 



Clara M. Norton. 




(Continued from last number.) 

After Kenneth's going Margaret's life glided on much the same as ever, but 
her smile was sweeter and the light in her eyes deeper as she hugged her new- 
found happiness close to her heart. But now a ripple had come into the happy 
home life and there were clouds upon the brows of the two so dear to her. 
Edward Brown was undergoing a trial similar to the one which had befallen his 
father when the home at Satan's Kingdom had been given up, the difference being 
that Edward had placed too much confidence in a tried and trusted friend. The 
accumulations of years were swept away in meeting the emergency, but the home 
was still left and business prosperous so that it was decided Margaret should know 
nothing of the trouble. 

But heavier disaster was at hand. One morning, in his usual fashion, Edward 
Brown kissed his wife and daughter and went forth with hopeful heart to the cares 
of the day. That afternoon he was brought home dead, killed by a runaway 
horse. Neither tongue nor pen can describe Reubena's anguish. The warp and 
woof of their two lives had been woven together, with daily additi'on, from her 
babyhood. Under the double warmth of her husband's love and the Pacific Coast 
sunshine she had lost her early look of extreme physical frailty, but it was a part 
of herself which had been buried in Edward's grave ; her health gave way and a 
long illness followed from which she never recovered. 

The business affairs of the dead husband and father were found to be more 
involved than was at first supposed, making it necessary to sell the house which 
had long been their happy home and to move into a smaller one in order to eke 
out the slender income upon which prolonged illness continued to make inroads. 
At last Reubena wrote to her brother of their unhappy condition and of the awful 



conviction being thrust upon her that Margaret would soon be left alone in the 

Reuben was touched to the quick when he received this letter, which In- 
spelled out as well as he could to Jane Maria, who was not slow to see that her 
husband would wish to receive Margaret into their family in the event of his sis- 
ter's death. A stormy time 
followed, and Jane Maria found 
that, for once in his life, her 
husband was equal to the oc- 
casion. Either because of this 
fact or because of Reuben's 
pathos, rude but real, as he 
drew a picture of Margaret 
and of the " leetle gal that is 
dead," Jane Maria yielded the 

Reuben drove to the vil- 
lage and secured the services 
of one of the graduates of 
Prof. Steele's high school in 
preparing the answer sent back 
to Reubena, in which he as- 
sured her of the welcome 
Margaret would have in his 
home and heart under any 
circumstances, dwelling lov- 
ingly upon the hope that there 
were still many years of happy 
life for the sister so dear to 

him. The letter did credit to the young scholar, who had written it con amore, 
and to Prof. Steele's excellent training. It was received by Margaret just 
twenty-four hours after her mother had been laid away, the dear life going out 
so quietly one day that Margaret only knew it by the unresponsive lips which she 
found cold in the stillness of death as she imprinted a kiss upon them. 

Margaret was alone in the world. Her heart went out to this uncle of whom 
she had never heard aught but words of love and praise, who was her mother's 
twin brother, and to whom that dear mother had turned in her deep distress. It 
was found that Reubena's illness had swallowed up every dollar of the few they 
had been able to save from the general wreck and Margaret found herself face to 
face with the world and with poverty. 

Many doors were thrown open to her, but Margaret's heart yearned for the 
uncle she had always wanted to see and who had written the beautiful letter, now 
to her a great consolation, and read many times each day ; so she wrote Uncle 
Reuben that it was her desire to come to him and to the home which was such a 
loving memory to her mother. The high school graduate quite equaled his former 
effort in the answer which was sent back, and Margaret pictured to herself over 
and over the kind and cultured man her uncle must be to write the beautiful 
letters which had made her feel so much at ease. 

Meantime Kenneth McDonald graduated at his profession, that of a civil 
engineer, and was sent to a point quite remote from civilization to assist in laying 
out a railroad. He had written Margaret that letters from him would be very 



uncertain and not to be surprised if long periods of time passed without hearing 
from him. The letters had been filled with his intense love for her and placed 
two years as the limit of their separation. So Margaret was not surprised that a 
long time had passed with no word from her lover. Before leaving for the East 
she wrote Kenneth of all the sad facts and of her intended new home, but, as it 
afterward transpired, these letters never reached him. 

A gentleman and his wife were found who were going to New York ; they 
were willing to take Margaret under their protection, so one day a sad-eyed girl, 
much unlike the sprightly one seen tripping about Oakland on former occasions, 
left the land of sunshine and flowers for — ah ! how little she knew what. 

The uncle's letter had given directions to be followed after reaching New 
York ; these the kind people she traveled with saw carried out and they left Mar- 
garet safely seated on the train which was to bear her onward to the designated 
point where her uncle was to meet her. This happened on a bleak, cold afternoon 
in November, just the time when Oakland takes on its greatest beauty after the 
refreshing rains, when grass and flowers spring into fresh life. The day was a 
gray one in New England, with snow in the air, and a chill seemed to settle over 
Margaret as she found herself being borne over lands that were barren and deso- 
late and past trees 
that were leafless. 

She could not 

keep back the tears. 

i 5 The journey from 

New York seemed 

longer than all the 

-^ .... rest to Margaret. 

When she found 
that another hour 
i would bring it to an 

end she brightened 
up, bathed her tear- 
| stained face, brush- 

ed herself as well 
ij , as she could, and 

';;/ fell into speculation 

#>--* -'*? in regard to "Uncle 

:" ■:■> ,-* *'--• Reuben." She felt 

- * . •>;,,., strangely drawn to 

Y f 1 "'" '" v - ■'. -1, ;; him and was sure 

I that she should 

; *{.' know him the mo- 

ment she saw him. 
Being her mother's 
W twin brother, he 

must very closely resemble her, she thought. The only twins she had ever seen 
looked exactly so alike that she had been unable to tell one from the other, and 
she took it for granted that this was a peculiarity of twins. 

Uncle Reuben seemed a great deal nearer than if he had been any other kind 
of a brother to her mother. She thought of his little girl who had died, who 
seemed almost like a twin to herself, having been born on the same day and she 


determined to fill this girl's place in her uncle's heart so far as she could. Filled 
with these happy thoughts, the train rolled into the little station at the village and 
Margaret alighted. 

Reuben had been in waiting for more than an hour. His excitement was 
high over the fact that " Reubeny's lettle gal's a cummin." He had secured the 
services of the high school graduate to meet Margaret while he should " hold the 
hoss" and "because," as he said, "I feel so shaky all over." 

Reuben was dressed in a pair of old blue overalls faded almost to whiteness 
from Jane Maria's frequent rubbings in the wash-tub; over these hung a coat which 
had been originally green but 

which in the slow process of time ^3— <• 

had gradually changed in streaks 
till it now represented many of the 
colors of the rainbow ; it was worn 
threadbare all over and had suffered 
dissolution in many places; bits of 
hay and straw were clinging to it J 

here and there; under the battered 
old hat unkempt straggling locks 

hung down his neck, meeting there 
the whiskers which so covered so 
much of his face as to leave little 
more than the eyes and nose visi- 
ble, and even from the nostrils of 
the latter feature great coarse hairs 
stood out like " quills upon the 
fretful porcupine." 

The overalls were tucked into 
some cowhide boots to which some 
of last year's mud was still cling- 
ing. The wagon was the same old 
yellow affair in which Reubena and 
Edward had taken the pleasant 
drives " to the school to the vil- 
lage' ' with never a thought that it 
was not a chariot in splendor; but 
old Dolly had long since gone 
where good horses go and been 
replaced by one with even less flesh 
and more bones. Reuben stood 

alongside the platform holding the reins while the high-school boy went through 
the station to the other side where the train stopped. 

Two or three men were the only other passengers; so the young scholar had 
no difficulty in recognizing Margaret as she came out of the car looking about her 
in a bewildered manner, but he stood like one paralyzed so unprepared was he for 
the vision of loveliness which met his eyes, unable to stir from sheer embarrass- 

Margaret's complexion was of a purest blonde with cheeks deepening into 
sea-shell pink. He hair was full, soft, silky, golden, and curling. Her lips parted 
over rows of gleaming pearls. But her chiefest charm, her every varying expres- 
sion, was more elusive than the changes of a kaleidoscope. Taller than most girls, 


her queenly figure appeared to its greatest advantage in the perfectly plain black 
suit she wore. The high-school boy was even shakier than poor Reuben. 

The men who had been her fellow travelers had gone their respective ways, 
and Margaret found herself alone. The wind blew fiercely, and she seemed 
hemmed in by mountains. She wondered where Uncle Reuben could be, that he 
had not come to meet her. She knew she had made no mistake, because this was 
the end of the route, just as her directions had foretold. Tears of disappointment 
filled her eyes. She had pictured herself being clasped to her handsome uncle's 

heart the moment 

she left the train. 

She looked about 

her. A little way 

below she saw the 

. ^. ;> . ' factories whose 

manufactures were 

IM . I 1 ■ ■ '■• _ ,„ . world-famous, 

, -^ '■„•«": ":$ ',, % -f • -. ':' : "' though she knew 

,; -*% >" nothing of that. 

. ' . . | 0*» '• i Thick smoke, with 

'^'V^ 'j. - ' occasional tongues 

*rP ttg£ of flame, rolled from 

, - . f& "- ■■—' _ f y |l j many high chimneys, 

y A>—' and the monotonous 

pounding of the trip- 
hammers made her wonder what manner of place this was. 

Catching sight of the high-school boy, she asked him if he knew Mr. Reuben 
Wiswall, whom she expected would meet her at the train. The ice being thus 
broken, the young man found his voice and told her she would find him waiting for 
her on the other side, and started at once to conduct her thither. Margaret fol- 
lowed. A smile crept over her face when, upon turning a corner, she beheld Reu- 
ben and his equipage, but it turned to look of blank dismay when she was informed 
that this odd-looking man was "Mr. Reuben Wiswall." Her first words were, "I 
think there must be a mistake," but at that instant her little delicate hand was 
grasped by the great horny palm of Reuben, who shook it with vigor enough to 
sever it from the wrist as he shouted " Wal ! wal ! wal ! ef yer aint Reubenny all 
over, only she want nigh ser tall as ye be. Git right in ter the waggin, and I'll 
take ye up ter Satan's Kingdom in less en no time." 

Margaret was speechless. She could believe neither her eyes nor her ears ; 
and she thought her senses must have deserted her. She hesitated to " git inter 
the wagin " without further explanation. This the Uncle Reuben she had pictured 
as being so like her mother ! This her mother's brother ! She could not believe 
it. Fate was playing her some cruel joke. The high-school boy divined the situ- 
ation; he called Margaret back to the front of the station to identify her trunks; 
there he hastily told her that he had written the letters she had received from her 
uncle, assuring and reassuring her that she would find her uncle the kindest of 
men, which indeed he was, but at that moment he was the embodiment of a badly- 
shattered ideal. 

Poor Reuben felt that something was wrong, though he did not exactly see 
what. There seemed no way left but for Margaret to climb into the old yellow 
wagon, which she accomplished after severe struggles, — once falling back into the 
arms of the high-school boy, — a misadventure that he relished, however mortify- 


ing it was to Margaret. The two trunks were lifted into the rear end of the wagon, 
where Reuben had sat when Edward and Reubena drove " to school to the village "; 
and Reuben, gathering up the lines, took the whip in his hand and struck the poor 
•old horse a tremendous blow as a signal for starting. 

Margaret could not understand what this singular man meant by saying he 
would take her to " Satan's Kingdom," and feared his mind was affected. The 
drive was dreary beyond description. A sharp snow storm set in which, with the 
piercing wind, chilled Margaret through and through. They drove on, up through 
the " covered bridge," where the horse's hoofs sounded like drum-beats to a funeral 
knell, and past the "powder mills," Reuben, from force of habit, singing at the top 
■of his voice most of the 
way. The road was 
rough, and Margaret 
was jolted until every 
bone in her body ached. 
They drew up be- 
fore the side-door of 
the little one-story, 
slant-roofed farm 
house, which was jerk- 
ed open by Jane Maria 
with, "Wal ! I thought 
ye never was a-comin'. 
Git right out Margrit. 
Be ye putty well ? " 
This was intended for 
a cordial greeting, but 
the voice sounded 
rough and harsh to 
Margaret, who saw be- 
fore her the great bony 
figure of her "Aunt 
Jane," dressed in a 
short blue calico skirt, 
with a coarse woolen 
jacket, much like a 
man's vest, drawn over 
her shoulders. With 
her sleeves rolled far 
above her elbows, ex- 
posing two great bony 
arms, she stood, with a 
hand on each hip, surveying Margaret from head to foot. 

To "git right out" proved even less easy than to " git right in," as, at each 
effort she made, the hungry old horse, who was headed towards the barn, made a 
start for it, and each time down Margaret went upon the seat, while Reuben's 
"Whoa, thar, ye old fool !" echoed through the whole place and deafened her. 
She succeeded at last in landing in a confused heap upon the big stone doorstep, 
much to the disgust of her aunt, who remarked sotto voce, " I never did see so clumsy 
a creetur in my life afore." 

Margaret picked herself up and gazed about. Was this the home that she had 


heard talked about as she sat on her mother's lap as far back as she could remem- 
ber ? Above all, could this be the twin brother her mother had so loved and ideal- 
ized ? Was there not a terribly cruel mistake ? She wanted to scream out to the 
rocks and hills to rescue her. 

At this crisis in her feelings Uncle Reuben appeared. " Go right inter the 
house, Reubeny — why, 'taint Reubeny, nuther — looks just like her, though, a 
standin' thar, a-lookin' off at the sky and mountings, jes as she used ter. Mos" 
likely I shall call ye Reubeny mor'n haf the time." Jane Maria had disappeared 
into the house. She had "got some beans a-bilin'," she said, "and can't stan thar 
all day a-waitin' for that ar gal ter cum in; guess Reuben Wiswall'll git enough on 
her with her stuck-up ways ; she'll find she'll hafter go ter work ef she stays here. 
She ain't no better than Flory Ann, and she got so she did putty much all of the 
house work and let me weave. Guess I'll go ter weavin agin now." 

Margaret entered the house with its low ceilings and big beams running along 
them. She had never seen anything like this before, and felt that she was in dan- 
ger of bumping her head at each step. Trembling in every limb, weary, heartsick 
and homesick, she sank upon the first chair she came to, — a hard, wooden affair. 
" Guess the leetle gal is putty tired," said Reuben, as he passed on to where Jane 
Maria was attending the beans. " Guess she's putty stuck up," was the sharp 
rejoinder, and Reuben saw at once his wife had been " hit the wrong way." 

Margaret heard the remarks, and her spirits sank still lower. What manner 
of people had she come among, was her thought. Rising, she begged to be shown 
her room, and Uncle Reuben piloted her up the rickety stairs to the door of a little 
chamber under the eaves, which bore little resemblance to Margaret's pretty 
" blue room " at her old home. The roof slanted so that in only a small part of 
the room could she stand upright. A four-post bedstead, on which was a newly- 
filled straw tick, and above this a huge feather bed — the whole structure towering 
nearly to the ceiling, for Jane Maria prided herself on her "lively feathers," — a 
dilapidated " chest of drawers," a broken-down chair, and a tiny four-legged stand, 
— the very one around which Reubena and Reuben had sat years before, while 
struggling with the school lessons — made up the furniture of the room, the tem- 
perature of which was like that of an ice-house. 

Margaret had thought her first act when left alone would be to throw herself 
upon the bed from sheer exhaustion. But to climb this affair which rounded up 
like a mountain was a task she hardly knew how to undertake. She gazed in 
wonderment, and while she still gazed, her uncle Reuben's voice sounded at the 
foot of the stairs, bidding her " Cum right down, or you'll ketch cold up thar," 
reminding her to bathe her face and hands. Seeing no facilities for such a purpose, 
she stepped out and told her uncle of her desire. "Wal'; cum right down inter 
the kitchen," was the response. " I jest brought in a pail of water, and the wash- 
rag hangs right over the sink. The towel is on the roller; cum right along." 

Margaret descended and was shown to the " sink." She managed to perform 
her ablutions without the aid of the friendly " rag," but the towel she was obliged 
to use. It was " candle-light " by this time, and supper was announced. Margaret, 
despite her daze and disappointment, was hungry. Jane Maria had the knack of 
making good bread, and Margaret ate heartily of it, at the same time praising its 
qualities, which had the effect of softening her aunt's feelings towards-ner a little. 
As they rose from the table, Margaret was informed by her aunt, — " Ye may be a 
leetle tired, so ye needn't mind cl'arin' off the table, but to-morrow mornin' ye kin 
begin, so's to git your hand in, as I've got some rags ready and am a-goin' to 
weavin' afore long," which was all Greek to Margaret; and, as soon as she could, 


she bade the family good-night, and took the little sputtering tallow dip and went 
to her room. 

The storm had increased. The snow, mixed with hail, beat upon the roof over 
her head, and a deep ridge of it formed a line across the one little window. She 
was a stranger to storms of this kind, and felt chilled through and through, as well 
as frightened at the vehemence of the wind, which groaned and shrieked like a 
demon, shaking the very rafters in its wild fury. 

Another trouble soon confronted her. How was she to reach the top of this 
mountainous bed ! She stepped to the stairway and called, "Uncle Reuben !" but 
was informed that he had gone out to " bed down the critters," which poor Mar- 
garet thought was just what she wanted done for herself. Jane Maria mounted 
the stairs, and when she found that Margaret's chief difficulty lay in not knowing 
how to "get into bed," her contempt for that young lady's ignorance was some- 
thing not to be described. 

Margaret declared she had never before seen so high a bed; whereupon her aunt 
thought they must be a a pooty shiftless set in Californy if they didn't keep their 
feathers good and lively." Margaret sought to explain that they never used feather 
beds in her far western home, but it was very difficult for her aunt to understand 
any such situation. Margaret, trembling, asked if the wind often blew as it was 
then doing, and was told, " That ain't nuthin' to what it blows sometimes." With 
this cheering bit of news, Jane Maria drew down the bedclothes with a jerk, and, 
telling Margaret to "jump right in when ye git ready," went back down the stairs, 
where she met Reuben, who had just come in from the barn. To him she gave 
full vent to her feelings, declaring that 'poor ignorant creetur up-stairs ain't 
likely and won't never be no 'count." 

Margaret sought to "jump right in " by getting upon the rickety wooden 
chair, which creaked and shook under her weight as though about to give out at 
every joint and come down all at once, like the old " one-hoss shay." She succeeded 
in making a spring from this point, and came down with such force in the center of 
the "lively feathers," that she was completely lost to sight as they rolled up on 
each side of her. At first, Margaret thought she would surely smother before 
morning in that position, but after a little the softness and warmth began to have 
a soothing effect; tired out with her journey and hopeless regarding her future, 
poor Margaret fell asleep. 

Soon she dreamed that she was lost on a wild mountain and wandering for 
days with only berries for food. No sign of human life was visible, but one day 
while groping in a new direction she tripped and fell over something, which, upon 
investigation, proved to be a chain. Following it, she found the end attached to a 
stake which was driven into the ground; here she determined to stay, hoping that 
whoever had driven the stake had done so 'for a purpose which would call them 
there again. Ere long she was rewarded by seeing a couple of men coming 
towards her, and in another instant recognized her lover, Kenneth McDonald, who 
rushed forward with outstretched arms, into which she was about to throw herself, 
when she was awakened by a loud call of " Margrit! Margrit! git right up! " 

She was frightened. It was totally dark, apparently in the middle of the night, 
and she wondered what could have happened. She could hear voices below, and 
as soon as she could extricate herself from the "lively feathers" she ran out and 
anxiously asked what had happened. " Happened! " shouted Jane Maria, "break- 
fast is ready, and ye want to git down here lively, kos we's goin' to bootcher." 
Margaret could hardly keep her poor tired eyes open. She wondered if she would 
always be compelled to rise at this hour, and what "going to bootcher" meant. 


She lighted her candle, and, by the aid of the little cracked mirror, performed 
as much of her toilet as she could, descending to the " sink " to finish. Breakfast, 
which consisted of salt pork, potatoes, and rye coffee, was soon disposed of, and 
Margaret was told to "go to work and clear off the table and wash up the dishes." 
She knew very little about work of this kind, and almost the first thing she did, 
in lifting the teakettle from the stove to the sink, was to let the boiling hot water 
run out of the spout upon her foot and badly scald it. This was altogether too 
much for Jane Maria, and brought on one of her " fretting spells," when, as Reuben 
would say, you could see "blue streaks." Margaret thought her aunt had been 

taken insane, and would have fled 
from the room but for her injured 
foot. As it was, she sank into a 
chair by the window, while Jane 
- :J> f Maria went for "ile and sody " with 

which to dress the wound. 

While this was in progress, 

/ Margaret suddenly saw, on looking 

/ out of the window, two pigs run out 

from a little house attached to the 
barn, and closely following them 
was Uncle Reuben, armed with a 
,; / huge knife, which he plunged first 

into one pig and then into the other, 
the blood flowing with a sickening 
spurt from each wound, the poor 
animals squealing, bleeding, and 
1 / running until they dropped from 

exhaustion, and, with a few parting 

J* kicks, expired. Margaret mingled 

I her cries with those of the pigs, and 

/»-| covered her eyes to shut out the 

/ / 4 x u horrible sight; but the thought that 

/ I / her uncle was both a wicked and 

'N^ / , ; cruel man, she could not shut out. 

T. / ! * Aunt Jane took it that Marga- 

""" ret was screaming from pain, until 

she uncovered her face and asked in 
piteous tones why Uncle Reuben was so cruel to those poor creatures. It Was a 
very rare occasion on which Aunt Jane ever laughed, but now she did both loud 
and long, and she asked Margaret, " Hain't ye never seen no one bootcher, afore ?" 
And when Margaret disclaimed even knowing what it meant, the aunt proclaimed 
her "the ignorantest gal I ever seen." 

Margaret still insisted she did not know the meaning of the word. "Why, 
a killin' pigs, you ignorant creetur'," was the rejoinder. " Didn't your pa never 
kill his'n?" "We never kept any," said Margaret. 

"Never kept no pigs? What did your folks do for pork, I'd like ter know? 
Wall, I dunno' but Edward Brown might ha' gone off to Californy and put on airs 
and made folks think he didn't know nothing about killin' pigs, but I guess he's 
seen enuff on 'em killed, and I shouldn't wonder ef he'd killed 'em hisself, too, 
up here in old Satan's Kingdom." Margaret thought the place rightly 
named, but could not possibly imagine her father engaged in the occupation of 



Jane Maria finished bandaging the foot, over which she drew an old sock of 
Reuben's, and then told Margaret — " I guess you kin hobble around and finish up 
the dishes, and then go up stairs and make up yer bed." That bed! How poor 
Margaret struggled with it! Her aunt had told her it must be " shook up and 
turned over every day, to keep the feathers good and lively," and had essayed to 
instruct her in an object-lesson on this particular morning, after Margaret had 
expressed her ignorance in the matter. The aunt, first catching the feather bed 
at the top, threw it well over towards the foot; then, unbuttoning a. slot in the 
straw tick, she thrust in her hands, stirring and poking the straw about in a most 
vigorous manner. Throwing the feather bed back again, she grasped it at its side 
and shook and shook, and 
shook again ; then, drawing 
the whole structure forward 
to the very edge of the bed- 
stead, she threw it over with 
herculean strength, after which 
she punched and punched until 
each of the million feathers 
stood on end. Telling Marg- 
aret, — "I guess yu kin git the 
clo's' on," she hastened down 
stairs, calling back, "Ye put a 
kaliker on when ye cum down, 
or sumthin' that'll wash, so's 
to help me with the in'ards." 

What this new thing was, 
she now desired help about, 
Margaret could not imagine 
or even think much about, 
her entire efforts being given 
to getting the clothes on that 
bed. Great heavy comforta- 
bles utterly refused to be 
managed ; they slipped from 
the delicate fingers again and 
again until poor Margaret, 
worn out with trying, sank 
down in the chair and buried 

her face in her hands upon the little stand where her uncle found her on his way 
to the garret. He stalked up to her in his blood-besmeared garments and 
Margaret was actually afraid. She could not get over what she had seen that 
morning. "Why what is the matter with Reubeny ? " he said. 

The tone of voice, which was kindly, and her mother's name were too much 
for Margaret ; she broke into sobs which shook her whole frame. Reuben was 
distressed. "Poor leetle gal, poor leetle gal," said the usually undemonstrative 
man, as he stroked the golden hair, and bade her " churk up " ; and this so won 
her confidence that she told him of her struggles with the bed, whereupon he 
turned about and made it in a very short space of time. It resulted that some 
excuse to the attic was made each morning after that and the feathers were kept 
"good and lively" by Uncle Reuben's faithful hands. 

Margaret's "kalikers" consisted of pretty cambrics trimmed with ruffles and 


laces, hardly in harmony with the snow-flakes still flying in the air, but she had 
been instructed to put on something which would wash, so she donned one ; and if 
her aunt had been disgusted before, the climax was reached when she beheld Mar- 
garet in this attire. "Wall I declare ! ef ye aint a purty sight. Ef ye haint got 
nuthin better'n that to put on I ken git ye suthin." Rising she went to a closet 
and took therefrom on old " linsey woolsey " petticoat, tattered and torn, and a 
worn-out worsted jacket, which she bade Margaret put on. Margaret was dread- 
fully afraid of her aunt, but she could not make up her mind to put on these gar- 
ments. Going to the attic where her trunks had been carried, she searched them 
and succeeded in finding a plain wool dress and a white apron which she put on 
and again descended to the kitchen and begged to be allowed to wear them. 

"Yer needn't think ye 
ken be stuck up here," 
was her aunt's comment, 
" ef we've got ter git yer 
close ye wont hev so 
many fine fixins es yer 
seem to hev now." 

In all her life Mar- 
garet never forgot that 
first day at Satan's King- 
dom. It seemed as if the 
fates had conspired to 
make it one of torture. 
The only place where 
there was a fire was the 
kitchen where were car- 
*j / _ „,-"/ ried on the various pro- 

^-^~-4 lj^ J cesses pertaining to 

v„ _^s "bootcherin" — and 

they are legion — a reci- 
tal of which will be 
spared. Only those who 
have seen this function can understand a description of it ; this was Margaret's 
first experience and, fortunately, her only one. 

Late in the afternoon there occurred a phenomenon which happens at rare 
intervals in New England. The snow turned to rain, the sky darkened and a vivid 
flash of lightning shot in at the windows, followed by a crashing peal of thunder, 
so terrifying Margaret — who had never seen a thunderstorm — that she threw 
herself into her uncle's arms and begged to be taken home. Jane Maria looked 
on with sharp disapproval and told Margaret she was " altogether too big to set in 
lap," adding " ef yer don't hev thunder showers in Californy I'd like ter know what 
they do to clar up the air with." 

The days were filled with work, work, work. Later in the week candles were 
made. This process interested Margaret, who volunteered to do some of the "dip- 
ping," but her aunt said " you drop the taller all over everything, and I can't stand 
no such bunglin' work." Sunday came, but a severe storm prevented the only 
recreation in which these dwellers of Satan's Kingdom ever indulged, that of going 
to church ; and the day was spent by Margaret in the little back kitchen, with its 
one window which looked out upon the barn and pig-sty. 

" How long can I bear this ? " she said over and over again to herself, and she 

, % — * I 1 { 

\ ■• - f A fc ;:.^ 

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longed for some word from her lover. In spite of her efforts to prevent it the 
tears chased each other down her face. Poor Reuben would have been glad to 
comfort her had he known how and not been afraid of his wife, who only told 
Margaret "if ye wanter set thar an bawl all day ye ken." 

Thursday of that week came the time-honored festival of Thanksgiving, when, 
according to New England custom, Jane Maria cooked up " vittles " of certain 
sorts enough to last until the middle of March. The preparations began Tuesday 
night. A basket of apples was brought from the cellar, and Margaret was invited 
to join the " paring bee," which consisted of Aunt Jane, Uncle Reuben and herself, 
but the hapless girl cut her fingers, which bled so that she was unable to render 
much assistance, and, after a vigorous scolding for her carelessness, she was told 
she could go to bed, " kas yer aint no count here." Margaret gladly availed her- 
self of the privilege, although it was early evening, and she wept far into the night, 
while down stairs the paring, halving, and quartering went on until an enormous 
chopping bowl, the proportions of which would astonish the housewives of to-day, 
was filled to its brim with meat which had been " biled " during the day, and with 
the apples pared during the night in preparation of the "mince-meat," which was 
to make the pies that were to last till the "middle of March." 

Long before daybreak the next morning Margaret was wakened by the vigor- 
ous strokes of the chopping-knife, which announced the continuance of the active 
preparations for the occasion which, as it seemed to her, must awaken anything but 
sentiments of thanksgiving. Later, she was invited to lend a hand in the chopping 
while the pumpkin was prepared for more and other pies, all of which caused Mar- 
garet to wonder if their diet was to consist of pies until the middle of March. 
Jane Maria declared that Margaret's chopping " don't mount to no morn'n a baby's." 
But Margaret's arms, all unused to such labor, ached keenly, and by nightfall she 
was too tired to stand. 

She had yet to learn, however, that " Thanksgiving " preparations were only 
just begun. As the darkness came on Uncle Reuben came hurrying in after his 
lantern. A big boiler of water was put to heat on the stove, and soon Margaret 
heard outside the shrieks and yells of the poor victims who die for humanity on 
" Thanksgiving Day." Uncle Reuben's later appearance with the headless fowls, 
which he threw upon the table to await the scalding and picking process, was more 
than Margaret could stand, and in the midst of it all she fainted- and sank to 
the floor. She was promptly treated to a vigorous dash of cold water and packed 
off to bed by her irate aunt as soon as she " cum to." Margaret was on the point 
of giving up eating if it must be done at such a sacrifice of life as she had witnessed 
on two occasions. 

What a contrast this to the quiet and happy celebration of " Thanksgiving " 
by the colony of New Englanders living in Oakland, gotten together to keep alive 
the remembrances of youth and home, and to perpetuate the time-honored day, — 
•occasions when the abundance, variety, and freshness of Pacific coast fruits vied 
for prominence with the songs of New England. Margaret remembered one of 
these songs in particular. 

1 ' Gaily sings the merry boy, 

As the homestead farm he tills, 
Hurrah for old New England, 

With her cloud-capped granite hills." 

These verses had often closed the festivities, after which, with hearty hand- 
shake and tear-dimmed eyes, the little party had separated. 

Why had she been so deceived about this place, which she had all her life been 

33 2 


taught was so grand and glorious ? She tried to unravel the scheme which seemed 
to make her the victim of some mistake. She could not yet fully believe that her 
mother, beautiful, cultivated, and refined, could be the twin sister of Reuben Wis- 
wall. It must be remembered that Margaret's knowledge of New England was 
very limited, that even that limited knowledge had been filtered through a mother's 
remembrance, which " restored every rose, but secreted its thorn," and that Reuben 
Wiswall's family were in no way representative people, only a type. Reuben's 
parents had been all their life most excellent folk, but poor Reuben was an unfor- 
tunate who had made matters worse by marrying a girl "further up the mounting," 
belonging to what was known as " tribe," members of which are still scattered here 
and there in lonely mountainous districts. In their life and habits they resemble 
gypsies, wandering about the towns, selling baskets and herbs, sandwiching in a 
horse-trade now and then. In time the " cloud-clapped hills" told their own true 
story to Margaret. 

(To be continued.) 

. . .; ■-■ ' ■ . 




My life the moon doth symbolize, 
Only one side it doth disclose ; 

The other is a mystery. 
Sometimes this side, bereft of light, 
Is dark. Then, in a wild affright, 

My soul despairs to find its way. 
Anon, a gleam my step beguiles ; 
Or, broader grown, the path reveals. 
Again, the light a cloud conceals. 
In full-orbed radiance it smiles, 
And Hope, "a friend in need" erewhiles, 

Then bears me heartsome company. 
While walking in the " borrowed light 
From the great source," the way is bright. 



Tavern days and the stage coach began to wane about 1850. The completion 
of the Hartford, Providence & Fishkill railroad was one of the severest blows to 
the turnpike business. A boat was also put in service between Hartford and New 
London, which soon became a warm competitor for the stage. For several years, 
however, the coach was the favorite over the more modern means of travel. The 
driver of the coach had his instructions from the officials of the turnpike line to 
get to Hartford or New London, as the case might be, ahead of the boat, and not 
spare the horses even if it became necessary to force them, to the extent of what we 
would no doubt call at the present day "excessive driving." Remembering these 
orders it is said the driver of the coach upon reaching the crest of what is still 
known as Town Woods Hill, from which a view of the river could be obtained for 
several miles, would anxiously scan the winding stream to see if his competitor, the 
boat, could be sighted. 

Boats and railroads, however, finally triumphed. The through business which 
the coach enjoyed deserted it, and the route was finally abandoned by the turnpike 
company. The era of steam had begun in earnest, and tavern and turnpike com- 
pany was forced to bow before its onward march. 

There were several taverns in other sections of the town, about which 
interesting incidents might be related, but Welles tavern was selected as being 
the most widely known of any, and because of its connection with the turnpike 

One is led to wonder how a tavern could be supported in the sparsely settled 
portions of the town and on roads that were not main thoroughfares of travel. 



One of the sources of revenue for these taverns, and all others, was derived from 
parties of young people, who were accustomed to pay them frequent visits. 
Social amusements of a public nature were unknown or quite infrequent. 
Churches gave but little attention to the social side of a person's nature, 
and the amusements which were available to young people were very few. Taverns, 
however, were always keeping open house, and parties of young people would be 
formed for the purpose of visiting a certain tavern, preferably in a distant portion 
of this or in some neighboring town, where dancing and a social good time could 
be enjoyed. Previous warning was seldom given the tavern-keeper of the coming 
of the party, but he learned not to expect such notice, and parties came and went 


without restraint, the entire premises being practically at their disposal during 
their stay. Of course, the tavern-keeper received compensation for this species of 
wholesale monopoly which the advent of such a party created, and to many of 
them it was one of their principal means of revenue. 

Welles Tavern was happily located in another respect; it was two miles and 
about one rod from Camp Meeting Woods. These woods were situated on the road 
to East Glastonbury, and their location is well known to the older inhabitants of 
the town, so they are still easily identified. For many years these woods were a 
favorite resort for Methodist camp-meetings. It was a good thing for the taverns 
to have the camp-meeting locate in this town, and the taverns nearest the woods 
were the most fully patronized. 

Bidding for the camp-meeting among tavern-keepers was quite common, and 
the tavern or set of taverns in any town which had the facilities for the meeting, 
usually persuaded the prospectors for the camp to locate there if their bid was in 
excess of that of the taverns in some other rival towns. The taverns profited 



much more than they otherwise would, owing to a certain unwritten but carefully 
observed law governing such assemblies. This law was to the effect that no 
eatables or drinks of any kind could be purchased or sold within the radius of two 
miles of the camp-ground. As Welles Tavern was only a few feet over the limit, 
it was by far the nearest and most popular resort for the visitors on such occasions. 
Tables were placed by the proprietor of the hostelry on the opposite side of the 
street, upon the greensward, which was then much wider at that point than at 
present, and here the crowds from the camp-grounds congregated for their meals. 

On one occasion one of the proprietors of Welles Tavern succeeded in winning 
the meeting for this town by agreeing to pay the managers of the camp twenty- 
five dollars, and erect seats 
upon the grounds for use at 
the services free of expense to 
them. When the audience 
assembled for worship they 
observed that their seating 
contractor had visited a saw- 
mill in the eastern part of 
the town, and procured slabs 
from the sides of logs. These 
were placed upon sticks driven 
into the ground, and he had 
thus disposed of the seating 
problem as far as he was 
concerned. As little or no 
attempt was made to plane 
the boards, the assembled 
multitude was subjected to 
much discomfort, although it 
no doubt was the means of 
frequently keeping an other- 
wise restless audience more 
quiet and attentive, where 
the penalty for restlessness 
was so immediate. 

But tavern, stage-coach, 
and camp-meeting, as the 

terms were then known, exist now only in the memory of those who constitute the 
members of that rapidly diminishing generation who were permitted to live during 
the time of their existence; and while we cannot wish for a return of the days 
in which each was in operation in all its pride and glory, there is a certain 
amount of pleasure in recalling from elderly inhabitants and meagre records some 
reminiscences of what many please to call the "good old days." 

When mention is made of Glastonbury in the days of regimental training 
the writer does not wish to be considered ignorant of the fact that these days were 
not confined exclusively within the limits of this town, as of course is also true of 
stage coach and tavern days. But while it is true that each town in this state 
during the period when this method of keeping the state militia in fighting array 
was in vogue has many interesting incidents and reminiscences, Glastonbury has 
seemingly a larger number than numerous other towns where the military spirit 
did not so completely pervade the inhabitants. We can only allude briefly to 




these times and to the " Naubuc Guard/' a famous local military company, 
independent of the militia, or "milish" as it was commonly called. 

What a day it was when, in May and October of each year, the militia was or- 
dered out to train! It was the great gala day of the year for every one in town. 
Men who wielded agricultural implements during all the other working days of the 
year, could be found in the ranks, and handling the ancient flintlocks with usually 
more zeal than precision. Others who, possibly the day before, had swung the 
scythe in the meadow, were now officers of the regiment, resplendent in what 
.military equipage they could muster. 

The regiment usually formed in front of Welles tavern. Within the tavern, 
on training days, the officers of the company kept open house, in a room reserved 


for the exclusive use of themselves and whomsoever they chose to admit. It didn't 
cost such a large sum to entertain in those days as it does on most public occasions 
at the present time. About all that was expected of the host in this case was 
to keep on draught in his room a generous allowance of New England rum, and 
although gallons of this liquor were consumed on such occasions, it was not a 
particularly expensive method of entertainment for the host, and it won for him 
the coveted reputation of being a liberal entertainer. 

And what incidents are related regarding the manner in which the trainings 
were conducted! The scanty knowledge of officers and men concerning military 
tactics and the amusing situations resulting therefrom ! Some of the officers who 
were accustomed to give commands on the farm, except during two days of the 
year, were very prone to get their farm and military tactics confused. To illus- 
trate, — one captain of a local company who was accustomed to drive cattle during 
the majority of the days of the year, many times in giving his commands to his 



•citizen soldiers would use the vernacular of the cattlemen, which he found it diffi- 
cult to forget when he needed to give a hurried order to his men. If he wished 
them to turn to the right or left he would yell " Gee !" or " Haw!" as he would if 
speaking to his oxen, and shout forth a prolonged " Whoa !" when he desired to 
halt his company. He would invariably correct himself after he had used such an 
expression, by adding the proper order; so his combined command was about like 
this: "Whoa-o-o-o — Halt! I mean." Such mistakes, of course, pleased the 
members of his company immensely, and naturally tended to disorder. 

Another incident is told of a local captain who was so highly elated and 
flattered at being chosen by the company to serve in that position, and was so de- 
lighted to witness the men obey his orders, that the stern demeanor which the 
traditional captain should cultivate was to be found upon his countenance only dur- 
ing the moment he was giving the command; for just after he had given the order, 
he always indulged in a silly 
laugh, which at length became 
almost a habit with him. He 
gave his orders in this way: 
"Shoulder arms ! — Te, he, he!" 
"March !— ■ Te, he, he!" It is 
needless to add that such 
hilarity on the part of the 
captain was rather demoralizing 
to the men, and aided in mak- 
ing the regimental training 
what it finally became, — a 
•continual farce. 

The dawn of the 5o's also 
saw a decided wane in regi- 
mental interest. 

By long-established law 
personal notice was required 
to be given each member 
of the company or he could 

avoid training with the regiment. The training finally began to be an old story 
to the citizen-soldiers, and they would keep a sharp lookout for the notifying 
officer when he was expected, and hide when they saw him coming, so that 
diligent search on his part would not reveal their hiding-place. In this way 
they eluded the personal notice required and so avoided appearing for training 
at the appointed time and place. The officer who was serving the notice many 
times stopped only long enough to make simply a superficial search, and after 
enquiring of the secreter's family and ascertaining from them that the party 
enquired after was here a little while ago, but that his whereabouts now were 
unknown, he accepted this statement for what it was worth and passed on to the 
next member's house without searching, as he understood the situation at once, and 
decided not to trouble himself further about it. 

In closing, mention should be made of a purely local military company, and 
one whose fame was not confined within the limits of this town but extended 
throughout other sections of the State. This company was the Naubuc Guard. 
It was not a part of the state militia and was founded by Thaddeus Welles, one of 




the most influential men in town of his generation, and Colonel Guy Sampson, the 
latter being at one time a colonel in the state militia, and Thomas H. Seymour of 
Hartford, afterwards governor of the state. 

This company was present at all regimental trainings and on general training 
days when the several regiments assembled for drill, and was usually the " star 
company" on all such occasions. 

There wasn't so much fun serving in this company as in the "milish." Unlike 

that organization the Guards engaged in frequent drills. Mr. Seymour was deeply 

interested in this company, as he was in all military affairs, and many times walked 

to this place from Hartford and back again for the sole purpose of being present 

t o train the Naubuc Guards, and it was largely owing to his deep interest in the 


company that so high a degree of excellence in military tactics was attained 
by the company. 

The Guards made a fine appearance on training days. The militia were not 
equipped as a rule with anything elaborate in the matter of uniform, in fact there 
was a noticeable lack in this respect. But more attention was given to this sub- 
ject by the local company. Their uniform was a high cap in the front of which 
was placed a tall dark blue plume, with coats and trousers of dark blue trimmed 
with silver lace. As red was the prevailing color for trimmings among the militia 
these uniforms were the more striking for the lack of it. 

Upon their banner, resplendent with tasty trimmings, was inscribed the 
stirring words " Resistance to tyrants is obedience to God," and although the 
company as such was never engaged in mortal combat with tyrants they were 
to all appearance well equipped for warfare if the occasion required. 

The vast difference between the fine appearance which the Guard displayed 
on training days and the seedy outfits in the way of uniforms and careless execu- 
tion of commands by the " milish " was proverbial. 



The contrast in the manner in which the command of "Fire!" was executed 
by the two was another distinguishing feature. 

When this command was given the Guard would discharge their guns as one 


man, but the firing of the militia was as ragged as that of a company of school- 
boys, with pop-guns of various lengths. 

While the officers of the Naubuc Guard were as a rule free from the peculiar 
mistakes and oddities which characterized many of the officers of the militia, there 
was one captain of the Guard who was in the habit of giving an unusual order, 
or, more correctly 
stated, mingling with 
his command to his 
company a special 
command to his 
brother, whose name 
was Egbert. Egbert 
was accustomed to 
be slow in executing 
the commands, in 
fact he was so in- 
variably behind in 
this respect that his 
brother, the captain, 
in giving the orders, 
thought it necessary 
to address Egbert 

individually, and he finally adopted this method: "Now, then, Quick, to the 
word, Egbert ! March ! " So it was: "Egbert ! Right face ! " and the same with 
other commands. It is needless to say that such a course on the part of the 
vigilant captain gave Egbert an undesirable prominence and furnished much 
amusement at his expense. 





Many other incidents might be related of these interesting times but spac^ 
forbids, and this fragmentary article must be brought to a close. But when anyone 
is inclined to criticize the present system of militia training, as being a waste of 

time and expense and 
altogether of little 
value, he shoul d 
review the days of 
regimental training as 
they were known and 
conducted throughout 
the country until the 
dawn of the 5o's. 
The system in oper- 
ation to-day will not 
suffer by the com- 
parison, and the vast 
improvement in this 
important feature of 
our government will 
be more appreciated, 
even if it is still lack- 
ing in what are regard- 
ed by some as certain 
necessary adjuncts to proper military discipline. 

A brief reference should be made to several of the pictures which 
appear in this article. Foremost on this list is the picture of the old Tallcott 
homestead. Few houses in town are more familiar to residents and many living 
outside the town limits. 
It was erected in 1727 
by Benjamin Tallcott for 
his son Samuel, and it 
has been in the posses- 
sion of the direct lineal 
descendants of its build- 
er and first occupant 
ever since, Thomas H. 
L. Tallcott, who now 
owns and occupies the 
house, being the great- 
grandson of its builder. 
The rear ell which 
is noticed in the pic- 
ture, was the tailor's 
shop of Asa Tallcott, 

the grandfather of the present owner. The shop once stood on the south side of 
the house, slightly in front of and detached from it. In the patriotic days of 
1776 Asa Tallcott was pursuing his trade, and within this little shop the uniforms, 
saddles, and other equipments for a company of Connecticut cavalry were prepared. 
In 1778 the doors of this house were swung open to several Yale students 




when it was feared New Haven would be captured by the British, and here they 
pursued their studies in peace and safety. Several other houses in town were also 
occupied by the students at that time, as the number of students apportioned to 
the care of the citizens of the town required it. The house, standing upon the 
knoll on the west side of Main Street next south of the Smith sisters homestead, 
now owned and occupied by T. D. Dickinson, was another of the houses opened at 
the same time to Yale students and teachers. 

This interior of the Tallcott house is very interesting especially the "best 
chamber." This is located on the second floor, and is reached through a typical 
old style hallway and up a staircase having three turns in its short ascent, bounded 
on the outside by a stair rail that, notwithstanding its age, shows a taste in design 
which is striking. It is for that reason doubtless that its general features are 
being grafted into many modern dwellings by our architects of to-day. 

But the wall paper in the " best chamber " attracts our attention at once, and 
is the only thing we will notice in the room at this time. 

This paper, a picture of which is given, was imported from England, having 
been purchased in London about 1740. Wall paper was an extreme rarity at that 
time and very costly, for it could not be purchased in this country, and only a few 
persons in this or other places could boast of having even one room of his house 
fitted with so expensive and rare a luxury. The paper is remarkably well preserved, 
and the walls of few other houses in the country display a sample of wall paper 
that has been .undisturbed for a period of over 150 years. 

The picture entitled "An Old Landmark," will be recognized by many as the 
large oak tree nearly opposite the residence of J. H. Hale on Main Street. This 
tree is mentioned in the description of the bounds of the highway contained in the 
survey of Main Street made over two hundred years ago, and as the tree was un- 
doubtedly large and conspicuous at that time its great age is unquestioned. 

A picture of the parsonage of Rev. Timothy Stevens of whom brief mention 
was made in the former article, is also given. This house is considerably older 
than the Tallcott house, as Mr. Stevens died in 1726, and it was occupied by him 
several years before his death. This house stands slightly back from Main street 
on the east side of the road, and is now occupied by Albert Moseley. 

The tobacco pictures are very familiar scenes during the development and 
harvesting of this, the principal crop grown within the limits of the town, and as 
the pictures that are most interesting to us are, as a rule, reproductions of some- 
thing with which we are most familiar, these scenes in the tobacco field were added 
because of their general interest from the collection of photographs taken by A. B. 
Goodrich of this place. Several of the other pictures appearing under this article 
are also from Mr. Goodrich's collection. 


Frank B. Weeks. j ohn s. Jones. 

Max Adler.. . 

J. H. Vaill, Executive Secretary. Jsabel n . C hapi«ell 

Mary S. Northrop. 

Sara T. Kinney. 


Executive Secretary of the Atlanta Commission. 

One of the unexplained things about the Cotton States and International Ex- 
position of 1895 — unexplained at least to people generally — is the reason for its 
close following upon the heels of the World's Fair^at Chicago in 1893. It is not 
strange that there were misgivings on the part of those who had seen the Colum- 
bian Exposition, who felt that they had had a sufficiency of such sightseeing for 
the present, and who were sympathetically apprehensive lest it might prove a 
failure on account of its nearness, in point of time, to the marvelous affair that 
had so recently closed its gates. 

It will be remembered, however, that the great cotton states of Alabama, the 
Carolinas, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee were practically unrepresented at 
the Chicago Exposition, no legislative appropriations having been obtained where- 
by befitting participation would have been possible. The fact that these states 
had been deprived of the opportunity of exhibiting their products and resources 
at the World's Fair doubtless stimulated the desire to undertake an Exposition 
within their own territory, and to plan for it without delay, in the hope that it 
would result favorably as a business enterprise. At the outset the project did not 
meet with general approval among Atlanta's business men, but a few of her more 
enterprising citizens, under the effective leadership of Colonel Hemphill of the 
Atlanta Constitution, urged the undertaking with such enthusiastic persistence 
that they finally carried the day, their persistence entitling them to adopt as their 
watchword the emphatic declaration we will — a modification of Chicago's more 
singular motto " I will." 

Having fully decided to inaugurate the enterprise, formal invitations were 
issued to other states to participate with them. The invitation sent to Connecti- 
cut received the approval of Governor Coffin, and on the 9th of May, 1895, a 
Senate Joint Resolution was favorably reported as follows : 

Resolved by this Assembly : That a committee to consist of three men and three women be ap- 
pointed by the Governor to arrange for the proper representation of the iltate at the Cotton States and 
International Exposition to be held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 18 to December 31, 1895. 

Section 2. That a sum not exceeding seven thousand dollars be and hereby is appropriated to carry 
out the purposes of this resolution, to be expended by this committee subject to the approval of the 

It was creditable to the State of Connecticut to accept the invitation to par- 
ticipate in the Cotton States Exposition, thereby manifesting a friendly interest 
in the welfare of that great section which of late years has come to be known as 
the New South. It is a matter for regret, however, that the legislative committee 
which passed upon the resolution providing for the appropriation should have 
limited the amount to such extent as to make it impossible for the Commission 
appointed under it to secure for the State such advantage and status as it merited. 
If a state is moved to join hands in friendliness with a sister commonwealth the 


occasion affords scant room for close figuring as to cost. The interchange of 
interstate sentiment cannot be fittingly carried on under the same rules that gov- 
ern strictly commercial transactions, and if a state cannot afford such appropria- 
tion as will enable its representatives to do that which will reflect credit upon 
itself it would be advisable to decline participation. 

It is to be presumed, of course, that the appropriation of $7,000 seemed to the 
committee adequate to properly carry out the design of the resolution ; as a mat- 
ter of fact, however, the amount should have been not less than $10,000 to enable 
the Commission to provide a representation befitting the dignity of the state. 
Special reference is made here to the subject of "appropriation" in the hope that 
when similar occasions arise legislative committees may be inclined to obtain com- 
prehensive data as to the requirements of a commission of this character. Such 
information may readily be obtained from those who have had practical experience 
in such matters. The most noticeable lack on the part of Connecticut at Pied- 
mont Park was the absence of what every visitor from this state inquired for upon 
his entrance to the Exposition grounds — the Connecticut headquarters. A few 
hundred dollars would have enabled the Commission to provide quarters which 
would not only have afforded a suitable rendezvous for Connecticut visitors but 
would also have given to the state a more desirable status among her sister com- 
monwealths represented there. The Commission was conservatively disposed and 
refrained from providing this much desired feature lest the appropriation at its 
command might be turned into a deficit. 

By virtue of authority conferred upon him by the legislative resolution Gov- 
ernor Coffin made appointment of the Connecticut Atlanta Commission on the nth 
of June, which was constituted as follows: Frank B. Weeks of Middletown; Max 
Adler of New Haven; John S. Jones of Westport; Mrs. Sara T. Kinney of New 
Haven; Mrs. D. Ward Northrop of Middletown, and Mrs. Wm. Saltonstall Chappell 
of New London. The commissioners assembled at the State Capitol, June 15th, 
for organization, electing Mr. Weeks president of the Board, and Mrs. Kinney 
chairman of the department of women's work. There was lack of time in which to 
secure as comprehensive an exhibit as would otherwise have been possible — only 
three months to day of opening of the Exposition — and the limited appropriation 
precluded the possibility of collective exhibits, except of women's work and 
colonial relics, which were secured through the untiring efficiency of the lady 
members of the Commission. 

The efforts of the executive department of the Commission were mainly 
directed toward securing individual exhibits, and notwithstanding the fact that 
many of those who had exhibited at the World's Fair declined to undertake the 
task so soon again, Connecticut was well represented at Atlanta, as the following 
list of exhibitors shows : 

Russell Manufacturing Company, Middletown: power looms in operation in 
Machinery Hall, weaving suspender webbing of exquisite design and workmanship. 

Pratt & Whitney Company, Hartford: weighing machine and machine tools. 

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company: scales and frag- 
ments of exploded boilers. 

Thorne Typesetting Machine Company, Hartford: typesetting machine in 

F. J. Dugan, Norwalk: potter's wheel in operation. 

G. W. Parker, Norwalk: pottery, with wheel in operation. 
Pope Manufacturing Company, Hartford: Columbia bicycles. 


Winchester Repeating Arms Company, New Haven: arms and ammunition. 

Marlin Firearms Company, New Haven: repeating rifles and revolvers. 

Union Metallic Cartridge Company, Bridgeport: cartridges, wads, shells, 
primers, etc. 

Bridgeport Wood Finishing Company, New Milford: paints, stains, fillers, etc. 

Isaac E. Palmer, Middletown: hammocks, nettings, window screen cloth, 
crinoline linings, etc. 

Bridgeport Elastic Web Company, Bridgeport: elastic goring for shoes. 

Charles Parker Company, Meriden: lamps in great variety and oil heaters. 

Glasgo Lace Thread Company, Glasgo: laces and fancy art work. 

Landers, Frary & Clark, New Britain: table cutlery of exquisite design and 

Cape well Horse Nail Company, Hartford: horse-shoe nails. 

Cutaway Harrow Company, Higganum: harrows and cultivators. 

D. & H. Scovil, Higganum: planters' hoes. 

G. F. Heublein & Brother, Hartford: "The Club Cocktails." 

Dart Marking Machine Company, Hartford: marking machines. 

Williams Typewriter Company, Derby: typewriting machines. 

Yost Writing Machine Company, Bridgeport: typewriting machines. 

Charles H. Davis, Mystic: collection of oil paintings. 

Charles Noel Flagg, Hartford: exhibit in fine arts. 

New Haven City School District: educational exhibit. 

Trinity College, Hartford: educational exhibit. 

Wesleyan University, Middletown: educational exhibit. 

Yale University, New Haven: educational exhibit. 

Supplementing the foregoing list collective exhibits were made under the 
direction of the lady members of the Board — one of women's work of various 
character displayed mainly in the Connecticut Room of the Woman's Building, and 
another of relics in the colonial department. The separate exhibits of the latter 
class are "too numerous to mention," about two hundred all told, loaned by sixty 
individuals in all quarters of the State, and mainly collected through the instru- 
mentality of the various chapters of the Daughters of the American Revolution 
The largest contributions to the collection were made by Prof. Simeon E. Baldwin, 
Mrs. Sara T. Kinney, and Mrs. S. H. Street of New Haven; Mrs. Charles P. Croft 
of Simsbury; Henry Gallup of Ledyard; A. R. Crittenden, Miss Susan C. Clarke, 
and Mrs. W. W. Wilcox of Middletown; D. W. C. Pond and Peter Lux of Hartford; 
and Jonathan Trumbull of Norwich. A few specimens will suffice to show the 
character and variety of the colonial exhibits : 

Army Order Book of Colonel Bazaleel Beebe of Litchfield, 1 776-1780. 

Silver Tankard belonging to Admiral Ezek Hopkins, first admiral of the 
American navy. 

Lantern belonging to Jonathan Brooks of New London (died, 1845), wno was 
living there when Benedict Arnold burned the town. 

Cannon ball fired at the time of the landing of the British troops under Gen- 
eral Tryon at Westport, April, 1777, when the towns of Danbury and Ridgefield 
were burned. 

Roster of H. R. Majesty's 55th Regiment, captured in 1776 on Staten Island, 
by Capt. Nath. Fitz Randolph of New Jersey. 

Ancient pitch-pipe, made in England 200 years ago. 





Old snuff box with copy on cover of clay medallion of Benjamin Franklin, 
first of the kind, made in 1779, when Franklin was in France as American 

Pair of pistols which belonged to Governor Trumbull. 

Four hock glasses which belonged to the grandfather of Gov. Thos. II. Sey- 
mour, and were used at entertainments given by colonial officers. 

Map of United States boundaries, laid down according to Treaty of Peace of 
1783; published in London in 1783. 

Musket of a member of the 44th Royal Infantry, left in a house where they 
were quartered when Boston was evacuated by the British. 

Scarf pin once owned by Gurdon Saltonstall, governor of Connecticut from 
1708 to 1725. 

The only collective exhibit, other than those heretofore named, was in the de- 
partment of Liberal Arts — a highly meritorious educational exhibit from the pub- 

Miss Annie H. Chappell. Miss Clara L. Xorthrop. 


lie schools of the city of New Haven, showing details of their work in all grades 
from kindergarten to high school, and including many attractive specimens of 
work produced by pupils of the Boardman Training School. Surrounding this ex- 
hibit were many fine photographs furnished by Trinity College and Wesleyan and 
Yale LTniversities. The pavilion in which this exhibit was placed was tastefully 
decorated with the "colors" of the different institutions, the collection forming 
one of the most attractive displays in the educational department. The New 
Haven school exhibit was so fully illustrative of graded school work that it was 
solicited for the permanent exhibit of the pedagogical department of the Philadel- 
phia Museums, to whose representative it was transfered at close of the Exposition. 
The Connecticut room in the Woman's Building, to which reference has before 
been made, was daintily furnished by the lady members of the Commission, and 
proved to be not only attractive as an exhibit but a convenient and inviting ren- 
dezvous for Connecticut visitors. It was richly carpeted with Axminster through 
the generosity of the Hartford Carpet Company ; the exquisite silk tapestry which 
embellished its walls was the gift of the Cheney Silk Company of South Manches- 
ter, and the beautiful tall clock, which, in its rich mahogany case, harmonized well 
with chairs, writing. desk,"and show-cases, was loaned by the New Haven Clock 


Company. The show-cases were well filled with specimens of the handiwork of 
Connecticut women, books by Connecticut women authors, and upon its walls 
were displayed several oil paintings and water colors of more than ordinary merit, 
all the work of Connecticut women artists. Besides these there were fine speci- 
mens of wood carving, and a fine collection of photographs by Mrs. Marie H. 
Kendall of Norfolk, who has the reputation of being one of the most accomplished 
amateur photographists in this country. The Connecticut room was made furthur 
attractive by the personal embellishment given it by the presence, at different 
stages of the Exposition, of its accomplished custodians — Misses Anne Hunting- 

ton Chappell and 
Clara Louise North- 
rop, who received 
visitors with gracious 

The observance 
of Connecticut Day 
(October 21), was of 
such character as to 
win from all partici- 
pants — Atlantians and 
Connecticut people 
alike, and especially 
from Exposition 
officials — the highest 
compliments. The 
state was officially 
represented on the 
occasion by Governor 
Coffin and staff, with 
the two companies of 
Governor's Foot 
Guard acting as escort. 
During the entire Ex- 
position no military 
organization visiting 
Atlanta made so 
marked an impression 
as did this famous 
Connecticut battalion. 
The address of welcome by Governor Atkinson, on behalf of the State of 
Georgia, was fittingly responded to by Governor Coffin, during whose peroration 
a dramatic scene occurred the equal of which has seldom been witnessed. 
Extending his hand to Georgia's Governor, in token of the fraternal regard 
held by the people of Connecticut for those of the Empire State of the 
South, it was warmly grasped by Governor Atkinson, the two standing there 
with hands still clasped, while Governor Coffin bestowed upon him and his State im- 
passioned sentiments of brotherly esteem and good cheer. The effect was thrilling, 
and the audience responded with enthusiastic demonstration over the touching 
incident. To cap the climax the two Connecticut bands, Pope's and Reeves', 




followed the episode with suggestive and appropriate selections — Yankee Doodle, 
and Dixie,— which served as fresh fuel upon the flames of patriotic enthusiasm Gov. 
Coffin's expressions had enkindled. The closing oration of the day was delivered 
by President Bradford Paul Raymond of Wesleyan University, Middletown, upon 
"The Man and the Machine," — a broad and masterly presentation of a sugges- 
tive subject, not surpassed in its comprehensiveness by any other address deliv- 
ered upon the audi- 
torium platform dur- 
ing the continuance 
of the Exposition 

Had the Exposi- 
tion offered a prize 
for the best exhibition 
of promptness in 
carrying out a day's 
programme of parade 
and oratorical per- 
formance it must have 
been awarded to Con- 
necticut. To Presi- 
dent Weeks of the 
Connecticut Commis- 
sion, who acted as 
master of ceremonies 
on Connecticut Day, 
12 o'clock has a posi- 
tive meaning. He 
planned to have the 
parade start from the 
city at a specified 
hour; when the 
appointed hour came 
the procession moved 
forward. He an- 
nounced that the 
opening exercises at 
the Auditorium would 
begin at 12 o'clock, 
and the promptness 

with which the assemblage was called to order and the various features of the 
programme properly expedited indicated that the master of ceremonies was 
master of them — not mastered by them. Nevertheless, there was no undue haste 
or " rushing" of details; the preliminaries had all been carefully attended to and 
about all that remained was for the controlling hand to " touch the button " at the 
right moment. Exposition officials assert that Connecticut was the only State that 
carried out its programme, from start to finish, according to scheduled time. 

Two pleasant features remained for the closing observances of Connecticut 
Day. The first was a superb luncheon in compliment to Governor Coffin and staff, 


OO l 


the officers of the Foot Guards, and the Connecticut Commission, at the grounds of 
the Piedmont club. The host was Mr. David Woodward of Atlanta, formerly a citi- 
zen of Connecticut (Watertown), but of later years prominently identified with 
Atlanta's business interests, and a member of the board of directors of the Exposi- 
tion. The social functions of the day closed with a reception at the Connecticut 
Room of the Woman's Building by Governor and Mrs. Coffin, who were assisted by 
the lady members of the Commission. 

Connecticut Day was located in the Exposition calendar on the 21st of October, 
that Connecticut visitors to Atlanta at that time might also witness the observance 
of " President's Day," October 23d, 
but it was not imagined that our 
own state would assist to the extent 
of making Mr. Cleveland's day con- 
spicuously brilliant in the line of 
military display. The Exposition 
officials had observed the attractive 
uniforms of the Foot Guards, their 
fine marching and their splendid 


general appearance, and they were 
given the post of honor in the pro- 
cession which accompanied the 
presidential party from the city to 
the Exposition grounds. 

Connecticut was entitled to a 
second "day," on November 21st, 
when the famous Putnam Phalanx 
visited the Exposition, a